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library reference guides: Citing sources

 

When citing a source, try to follow the standard for your field as closely as possible. Currently, the two most widely used sources are the American Psychological Association's APA Handbook and the Modern Language Association's MLA Handbook. These are available in the library (see below).

Whichever style you use, a standard citation will generally contain the following:

  • author (if applicable)
  • title
  • name of publication
  • publication information
  • pages or indication of length
And, for electronic resources:
  • author (if applicable)
  • title of database
  • date of publication or latest update
  • date of access / download date
  • URL [in brackets]

HIGHLY RECOMMENDED:

For a quick and comparative look at formats from APA, MLA, Chicago Style, and Turabian, go to Duke University's excellent Citing Sources Guide.

In addition, we have added local summaries of MLA and APA Style for Print and Electronic Documents:

NOTE: All of the following examples are from actual USC Beaufort faculty publications and, in most cases, represent a portion of each faculty member's total publication output. Only one publication per faculty member is listed.

CITING BOOKS; ONE AUTHOR:
    MLA Style:
      Eby, Carl. Hemingway's Fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the Mirror of Manhood. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.
    APA Style:
      Eby, C. P. (1999). Hemingway's fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the mirror of manhood.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
CITING BOOKS; TWO AUTHORS:
    MLA Style:
      Folsom, W. Davis and Rick Boulware. Encyclopedia of American Business. 1st. ed. New York: Facts on File, 2004.
    APA Style:
      Folsom, W. D. & Boulware, R. (2004). Encyclopedia of American Business. 1st. ed. New York: Facts on File.
CITING ARTICLES IN PRINT; ONE AUTHOR:
    MLA Style:
      Sproul, Gordon. "Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type." Journal of Chemical Education, 78.3 (2001): 387-390.
      and
      Villena-Alvarez, Juanita., "Giving Basic French Students the Business: The Case for Teaching Business French at the Beginning Level." Journal of Language for International Business. 11.1 (2000): 1-16.
    ALA Style:
      Sproul, G. (2001). Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type. Journal of Chemical Education, 78, 387-390.
      and
      Villena-Alvarez, J., (2000). Giving Basic French Students the Business: The Case for Teaching Business French at the Beginning Level. Journal of Language for International Business. 11(1),  1-16.
CITING ARTICLES IN PRINT; TWO AUTHORS:
    MLA Style:
      Cross, Randall E. and Mary Carla Curran. "Effects of Feeding Pit Formation by Rays on an Intertidal Meiobenthic Community. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 51 (2000): 293-298.
    APA Style:
      Cross, R. E. and Curran, M. C. (2000). Effects of Feeding Pit Formation by Rays on an Intertidal Meiobenthic Community. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 51, 293-298.
CITING ARTICLES IN ELECTRONIC SCHOLARLY JOURNALS:
    MLA Style:
      Mulkey, Lynn. "Getting Underprivileged Children Interested in Science: Positive Effects of a New York City Experiment." Sociology and Social Research: An International Journal, 72.1 (1987): 43- . Expanded Academic ASAP. InfoTrac. USC Beaufort Lib., SC. 07 Oct. 2003 [http://www.galegroup.com]
    APA Style:
      Mulkey, L. M. (1987). Getting underprivileged children interested in science: positive effects of a New York City experiment. Sociology and Social Research: an International Journal, 72, 43-48. Retrieved October 7, 2003, from Expanded Academic ASAP database.
CITING ARTICLES IN ELECTRONIC MAGAZINES:
    MLA Style:
      Tombe, Sheila. "Velázquez pinta en color por primera vez." 2001 Winner. Gival Press Tri-Language Poem Contest. Prodigy Communications, 2002: n.p. [http://commerce.prodigybiz.com/customer/g/givalpress/3LangPoemWinners.html]
    APA Sty;e:
      Tombe, S. (2002). Velázquez pinta en color por primera vez. 2001 Winner. Gival Press Tri-Language Poem Contest. Prodigy Communications, n.p. Retrieved February 16, 2004, from the Gival Press home page.
CITING A WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY:
    MLA Style:
      Bruckner, J. V. and Warren, Alan. "Toxic Effects of Solvents and Vapors." Casarette & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. Ed. C.D. Klaassen and J.B. Watkins. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.   313-379.
      and
      Cooper, Pamela. "Story as Instructional Strategy: Honoring Diversity." Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the 21st Century: A Communication Perspective. Ed, J. Trent.  Washington, D.C.: National Communication Association, 1998.  181-187.
    APA Style:
      Bruckner, J. V. and Warren, A. (2003). Toxic Effects of Solvents and Vapors. In: C.D. Klaassen and J.B. Watkins (Eds.) Casarette & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. (Chapter 24). New York: McGraw-Hill.
      and
      Cooper, P. (1998). Story as Instructional Strategy: Honoring Diversity. In: J. Trent (Ed.) Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the 21st Century: A Communication Perspective. (Chapter 7). Washington, D.C.: NCA.
CITING ENTRIES IN ENCYCLOPEDIAS:
    MLA Style:
      Staton, Joseph L. "Homology in Character Evolution." Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. London: Macmillan/Nature Publishing Group, 2000.
    APA Style:
      Staton, J. L. (2000). Homology in Character Evolution. In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. London: Macmillan/Nature Publishing Group.
CITING EXHIBITIONS:
    MLA Style:
      Burk, Efram. "Catching the Falling Man: Richard Lethem's Arc of Gravity." Exhibition catalog, Richard Lethem: Important Works from the 80's and 90's. Henniker, New Hampshire: New England College Gallery, 2000.
    APA Style:
      Burk, E. (2000). Catching the Falling Man: Richard Lethem's Arc of Gravity. Exhibition catalog, Richard Lethem: Important Works from the 80's and 90's. Henniker, New Hampshire: New England College Gallery.
CITING REVIEWS:
    MLA Style:
      Chamberlain, Ellen. Rev. of Cybrarians' Manual 2, rev.ed., by Pat Ensor. Journal of Academic Librarianship 26 (2000): 288.
    APA Style:
      Chamberlain, E. (2000). [Review of the book Cybrarians' Manual 2, rev. ed.] Journal of Academic Librarianship, 26(4), 288.
CITING PUBLISHED PRESENTATIONS OF PROCEEDINGS, PAPERS, AND REPORTS; ONE AUTHOR:
    MLA Style:
      Calvert, Charles L., III. "Student Recruitment and Retention: Challenges, Causes and Solutions." Frontiers in Southeast CHRIE Hospitality and Tourism Research. Charleston, SC, 2001. 100.
      and
      Eggen, Belinda. "Administrative Accountability and the Novice Teacher." American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. New York, 2002. (ERIC Document No. ED464050).
    APA Style:
      Calvert, C. L., III. (2001). Student Recruitment and Retention: Challenges, Causes and Solutions. In Frontiers in Southeast CHRIE Hospitality and Tourism Research. Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 100, Charleston, SC.
      and
      Eggen, B. (2002). Administrative Accountability and the Novice Teacher. New York, NY: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED464050).
CITING UNPUBLISHED PRESENTATIONS OF PROCEEDINGS, PAPERS, AND REPORTS; TWO AUTHORS:
    MLA Style:
      Harshbarger, Ronald J. and Jane T. Upshaw. "The Use of Mathematical Modeling in an Interdisciplinary Setting." Proc. of the Eleventh Annual International Conference on Technology in Collegiate Mathematics. New Orleans, Louisiana. November 21, 1998.
    APA Style:
      Harshbarger, R. J. and Upshaw, J. T. (1998, Nov.). The Use of Mathematical Modeling in an Interdisciplinary Setting. Paper presented at the Eleventh Annual International Conference on Technology in Collegiate Mathematics, New Orleans, Louisiana.


NOTE: For information on how to cite sources for which no examples are given, consult the print versions of the appropriate manuals listed below.

Print Resources in the USCB Libraries:

  • APA: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2001.
    (BF 76.7 .P82 1994) on reserve behind circulation desk
  • Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
    (Ref Z 253 .U69 2003)
  • Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers, a Complete Guide. 10th ed. New York: Addison-Wesley, 2002.
    (LB 2369 .L4 2002) on reserve behind circulation desk in Beaufort
  • Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Edited by Kate L. Turabian; 6th ed. revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
    (Ref LB 2369 .T8 1996) on reserve behind circulation desk
  • MLA Handbook. 6th ed. Edited by Joseph Gibaldi, et al. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2003
    (Ref LB 2369 .G53 1999) on reserve behind circulation desk
  • Walker, Janice R. and Todd Taylor. Columbia Guide to Online Style. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
    (Ref PN 171 .F56 W35 1998) on reserve behind circulation desk in Beaufort
  • Writer's Reference. Edited by Diana Hacker. 5th ed. Bedford / St. Martin's, 2003.
    (Ref BF 637.S8 C68 2003) on reserve behind circulation desk in Beaufort

Online Resources:

Last modified Thursday October 09, 2014

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