Undergraduate Index 
Fred Myhrer, Chair
 Professors

 Yakir Aharonov, Ph.D. , Bristol University, 1960
 University of South Carolina Endowed Professor of Physics
 Jeeva S. Anandan, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh, 1978
ChiKwan Au, Ph.D., Columbia University, 1972
Frank T. Avignone III, Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology, 1965
 Distinguished Professor and Carolina Professor of Physics and Astronomy
 Gary S. Blanpied, Ph.D., University of Texas, 1977
Gerard M. Crawley, Ph.D., Princeton University, 1965
 Dean, College of Science and Mathematics
 Richard J. Creswick, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1981
Timir Datta, Ph.D., Tulane University, 1979
Chaden Djalali, Ph.D., University of Paris, 1984
 Graduate Director
 Horacio A. Farach, Ph.D., University of Buenos Aires, 1962
Edwin R. Jones Jr., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1965
 Undergraduate Director
 James M. Knight, Ph.D., University of Maryland, 1960
Kuniharu Kubodera, Ph.D., University of Tokyo, 1970
Fred Myhrer, Ph.D., University of Rochester, 1973
 Chair
 John M. Palms, Ph. D., University of New Mexico, 1966
 President, University of South Carolina
 Barry M. Preedom, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1967
 Carolina Distinguished Professor
 Milind V. Purohit, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1983
Carl Rosenfeld, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
John L. Safko, Ph.D., University of North Carolina, 1965

 Associate Professors

 Joseph E. Johnson III, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1968
Milind N. Kunchur, Ph.D., Rutgers University, 1988
Pawel O. Mazur, Ph.D., Jagellonian University, 1982
Sanjib R. Mishra, Ph.D., Columbia University, 1986
C. Steven Whisnant, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1982
Jeffrey R. Wilson, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1985

 Assistant Professors

 Varsha P. Kulkarni, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1996
Christina K. Lacey, Ph.D., University of New Mexico, 1997
David J. Tedeschi, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic, 1993

 Affiliated Faculty

 Boris Ivlev, Ph.D., Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 1973
 Visiting Professor
 Oscar Lopez, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1992
Shmuel Nussinov, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1966
 Visiting Professor
 Toru Sato, Ph.D., Osaka University, 1980
 Visiting Associate Professor

 Faculty Emeriti

 Colgate W. Darden III, Ph. D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1959
Ronald Dovaston Edge, Ph.D., Cambridge University, 1956
Charles P. Poole Jr., Ph.D., University of Maryland, 1958
Overview
 The undergraduate program in physics is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of both experimental and theoretical physics. All of the majors provide a strong basis for graduate study in physics. The applied major is designed for students seeking employment by industrial or governmental laboratories upon completing their B.S. By a suitable choice of electives students will also be prepared for graduate study in the other sciences, mathematics, medicine, or engineering or to enter the University’s special teacher education program that leads to a master’s degree and teacher certification.
Degree Requirements
Bachelor of Science with a Major in Physics
1. General Education Requirements (4354 hours)
 The following courses fulfill some of the general education requirements and some cognates and must be completed for a major in physics: PHYS 205, 211L, 212L, 301, 302, 303, 308; MATH 141, 142, 241, and 242; and two math courses 500 level and above, selected with advisor; CHEM 111 and 112. A grade of C or higher is required in all physics, mathematics, and engineering courses.

 For an outline of other general education requirements, see "College of Science and Mathematics."
2. Major Requirements
 General Major (2527 hours)
 Courses in physics, to include the following: PHYS 309, 501, 502, 503, 504, and 506 (19 hours)
Two courses in experimental physics (e.g., 509, 510, 511, 514, 529, 529L, 531, or 532) (68 hours)

 Intensive Major (36 hours)
 An intensive major must fulfill the same requirements as a general major plus additional physics courses numbered 500 or above to total 36 hours.

 Applied Major (Engineering Physics)
 Computer Option (4345 hours)
 PHYS 309, 311, 502, 503, 504, 506, and two courses chosen from PHYS 501, 509, 511, 512, 514.
ELCT 201, CSCE 211, 212, 240, 513
ECON 421 (may be used for group IV)

 Electrical Option (4345 hours)
 PHYS 309, 311, 502, 503, 504, 506, and two courses chosen from PHYS 501, 509, 511, 512, 514
ELCT 201, 221, 222, 371, 401
ECON 421 (may be used for group IV)

 Mechanical Option (4648 hours)
 PHYS 309, 311, 502, 503, 504, and three courses chosen from PHYS 501, 506, 509, 511, 512, 514
EMCH 260, 290, 360
EMCH 327, 507, 508
ECON 421 (may be used for group IV)
3. Cognates
 The required mathematics courses satisfy the cognate requirement.
4. Electives, see "College of Science and Mathematics"
Course Descriptions
Astronomy (ASTR)
 111–Descriptive Astronomy I. (3) The universe: physical processes and methods of study. Lectures, demonstrations, and laboratory experience. Designed primarily for the nonscience major. Offered as a selfpaced, masteryoriented course at the Columbia campus.
 111A–Descriptive Astronomy IA. (1) (Prereq or coreq: ASTR 111) Topics from ASTR 111 studied in greater depth.
 112–Descriptive Astronomy II. (3) (Prereq or coreq: ASTR 111) Selected areas from ASTR 111 studied in greater depth. Includes laboratory experience.
 112A–Descriptive Astronomy IIA. (1) (Prereq or coreq: ASTR 111A) A continuation of ASTR 111A.
 311–Descriptive Astronomy III. (3) (Prereq: ASTR 112) Offered in a selfpaced, masteryoriented manner.
 320–Introduction to Radio Astronomy. (3) (Prereq: ASTR 112 and MATH 115 or equivalent; PHYS 202 or PHYS 212) Nature of the sun, planets; galactic and extragalactic sources at radio wavelengths; quasars; techniques, detectors, and telescopes.
 340–Introduction to Relativistic Astrophysics. {=PHYS 340} (3) (Prereq: ASTR 112 and MATH 115 or equivalent; or PHYS 202, PHYS 212, or consent of instructor) Final states of stellar evolution; white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes. Cosmology.
 522–Topics in Astronomy. (13) Readings and research on selected topics in physics. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of classes by suffix and title.
 533–Advanced Observational Astronomy I. (13) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Development of a combination of observational techniques and facility at reduction of data. A maximum of eight hours per week of observation, data reduction, and consultation. Offered each semester by arrangement with the department.
 534–Advanced Observational Astronomy II. (13) A continuation of ASTR 533. Up to eight hours per week of observation, data reduction, and consultation.
 599–Topics in Astronomy. (13) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Readings and research on selected topics in astronomy. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of classes by suffix and title.
Physics (PHYS)
 101–Introduction to Physical Science I. (3) An introduction to the concepts, ideas, and methods of physical science. Particular emphasis is given to the principles of classical physics and chemistry.
 101L–Physical Science Laboratory I. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 101) Experiments, exercises, and demonstrations to accompany PHYS 101.
 102–Introduction to Physical Science II. (3) (Prereq: PHYS 101) A continuation of PHYS 101 with emphasis on ideas and applications of modern science. Also includes topics from astronomy, cosmology, and earth science.
 102L–Physical Science Laboratory II. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 102) Experiments, exercises, and demonstrations to accompany PHYS 102.
 151–Physics in the Arts. (3) The physics of sound, color, illumination; musical instruments and photographic processes. Credit may not be received for both PHYS 151 and 153 or both PHYS 151 and 155.
 151L–Physics in the Arts Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 151) Laboratory work on wave motion, including acoustic, optical, photographic, and electronic measurements. Credit may not be received for both PHYS 151L and 153L or both PHYS 151L and 155L.
 153–Physics in the Visual Arts. (3) Principals of optics: video, and photography, eye and vision, color, polarization, lasers, and holography. Credit may not be received for both PHYS 153 and 151.
 153L–Physics in the Visual Arts Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 153) Laboratory work in geometrical and wave optics. Credit may not be received for both PHYS 153L and 151L.
 155–Musical Acoustics. (3) The principles of musical and architectural acoustics, waves and vibrations, digital techniques for generating and recording sound, perception and measure of sound (psychoacoustics). Credit may not be received for both PHYS 155 and 151.
 155L–Acoustics Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 155) Laboratory work in musical and architectural acoustics. Credit may not be received for both PHYS 155L and 151L.
 201–General Physics I. (3) (Prereq: MATH 115, or MATH 122, or equivalent) First part of an introductory course sequence. Topics include mechanics, wave motion, sound, and heat. No previous background in physics is assumed.
 201L–General Physics Laboratory I. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 201)
 202–General Physics II. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in PHYS 201) Continuation of PHYS 201; includes electromagnetism, relativity, quantum physics, atomic and nuclear physics.
 202L–General Physics Laboratory II. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 202).
 203–Physics for Medical Sciences. (1) (Prereq/coreq: PHYS 202) Elasticity, fluid mechanics, wave motion, electromagnetic radiation, and optical systems. Emphasis on problem solving. Primarily intended for premed students. One lecture and one recitation hour per week.
 205–Introduction to Physics. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in MATH 115 or equivalent; coreq: MATH 141) An introduction to the ideas and methods of physics. Emphasis on problem solving with examples from classical and modern physics.
 211–Essentials of Physics I. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in MATH 141; coreq: PHYS 211L) Classical mechanics and wave motion. Calculuslevel course for students of science and engineering.
 211L–Essentials of Physics I Lab. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 211 or PHYS 301)
 212–Essentials of Physics II. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in PHYS 211 and MATH 142; coreq: PHYS 212L) Classical electromagnetism and optics.
 212L–Essentials of Physics II Lab. (1) (Prereq or coreq: PHYS 212 or PHYS 302)
 301–Intermediate Classical Physics I. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in PHYS 205 or 202 and in MATH 141) Classical mechanics, thermodynamics, and wave motion. A rigorous calculus treatment designed for science students. Four hours of lecture each week.
 302–Intermediate Classical Physics II. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in PHYS 301 and in MATH 142) Electromagnetic fields and waves, geometrical and physical optics.
 303–Intermediate Modern Physics. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in PHYS 302 or PHYS 212 and in MATH 241) Relativity and modern physics. The experimental background to quantum physics.
 308–Classic Experiments in Physics I. (2) (Prereq: PHYS 202 or 212 or 302 or consent of instructor) A laboratory course in the performance and analysis of experiments which have contributed to an understanding of basic concepts. One lecture/recitation and one threehour laboratory period each week.
 309–Classic Experiments in Physics II. (2) (Prereq: PHYS 202 or 212 or 302 or consent of instructor) Further experiments which have contributed to an understanding of basic concepts. May be taken without completion of 308. One lecture/recitation and one threehour laboratory each week.
 311–Introduction to Applied Numerical Methods. {=EMCH 201} (3) (Prereq: MATH 142; coreq: EMCH 200, MATH 241) Introduction and application of numerical methods to the solution of physical and engineering problems. Techniques include interactive solution techniques, methods of solving systems of equations, and numerical integration and differentiation.
 340–Introduction to Relativistic Astrophysics. {=ASTR 340} (3) (Prereq: ASTR 112 and MATH 115 or equivalent; or PHYS 202, PHYS 212, or consent of instructor) Final states of stellar evolution; white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes. Cosmology.
 351–Introductory Biophysics. (3) (Prereq: PHYS 201 and 202 or 211 and 212) The applications of physical principles to the understanding of biological phenomena. Topics include: biomechanics, biophysics of the sense organs, electrical properties of neurons and muscles, respiration, viscometry, transport properties of fluids, metabolism, energy consumption, radiation effects, and biophysical instrumentation and techniques.
 399–Independent Study. (36) Contract approved by instructor, advisor, and department chair is required for undergraduate students.

 Note: The normal prerequisites for all courses listed below are physics through PHYS 302 and mathematics through calculus. Students who have completed PHYS 212 may be admitted with the consent of the instructor. Further prerequisites for individual courses are indicated where applicable.

 441–Topics in Modern Physics. (13) A presentation of recent developments in pure and applied physics. The exact choice of material will be variable, but may include such topics as nuclear structure, low temperature phenomena, and radioastronomy. The emphasis will be on descriptive rather than analytical treatments.
 498–Senior Thesis. (3) An individual investigation in the library or laboratory or both under supervision of the major professor. The preparation of a scientific report is an integral part of the work.
 501–Modern Physics. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in PHYS 303) Principles of special relativity, origin, and development of quantum theory, and elements of nuclear and particle physics.
 502–Quantum Physics. (3) (Prereq: a grade of C or better in PHYS 303) A selfcontained treatment of quantum theory and its applications, beginning with the Schrödinger equation.
 503–Mechanics. (4) A general course in classical mechanics covering the motion of particles, systems of particles, and rigid bodies; thorough discussion and extensive application of Lagrange’s equations; introduction to Hamiltonian formulation. Four class meetings per week.
 504–Electromagnetic Theory. (4) Field theory of electric and magnetic phenomena; deduction of Maxwell’s equations and their application to problems in radiation and electrodynamics. Four class meetings per week.
 506–Thermal Physics. (3) (Prereq: PHYS 302) Principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, kinetic theory, and introductory statistical mechanics.
 509–Solid State Electronics. (4) Topics include: basic electrical circuits; electronic processes in solids; operation and application of individual solid state devices and integrated circuits. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
 510–Digital Electronics. (3) (Prereq: PHYS 509) Basic operation of digital integrated circuits including microprocessors. Laboratory application of microcomputers to physical measurements.
 511–Nuclear Physics. (4) (Prereq: PHYS 502) An elementary treatment of nuclear structure, radioactivity, and nuclear reactions. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
 512–Solid State Physics. (3) (Prereq: PHYS 502) Crystal structure; lattice dynamics; thermal, dielectric, and magnetic properties of solids. Free electron model for metals. Band structure of solids, semiconductor physics.
 514–Optics, Theory and Applications. (4) Geometrical and physical optics; the wave nature of light, lenses and optical instruments, interferometers, gratings, thin films, polarization, coherence, spatial filters, and holography. Three lectures and one threehour laboratory per week.
 515–Mathematical Physics I. (3) (Prereq: MATH 242) Analytical function theory including complex analysis, theory of residues, and saddlepoint method; Hilbert space, Fourier series; elements of distribution theory; vector and tensor analysis with tensor notation.
 516–Mathematical Physics II. (3) (Prereq; PHYS 515) Group theory, linear secondorder differential equations and the properties of the transcendental functions; orthogonal expansions; integral equations; Fourier transformations.
 517–Computational Physics. (3) (Prereq: Physics through 302 and math through calculus) Application of numerical methods to a wide variety of problems in modern physics including classical mechanics and chaos theory, Monte Carlo simulation of random processes, quantum mechanics and electrodynamics.
 522–Topics in Physics. (13) Readings and research on selected topics in physics. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of classes by suffix and title.
 529–Instrumentation for Nuclear Research. (3) (Prereq: PHYS 501) A review of the techniques used in radiation chemistry, solid state physics, and nuclear engineering. Topics covered will include detection of radiation, counters, counting circuits, and use of computers in experiments.
 529L–Instrumentation for Nuclear Research Laboratory. (1) (Coreq: PHYS 529) Laboratory work in the use of detection devices and computers in nuclear physics.
 531–Advanced Physics Laboratory I. (13) A laboratory program designed to develop a combination of experimental technique and application of the principles acquired in formal course work. A maximum of eight hours per week of laboratory and consultation.
 532–Advanced Physics Laboratory II. (13) A continuation of Physics 531. Up to eight hours per week of laboratory and consultation.
 599–Topics in Physics. (13) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Readings and research on selected topics in physics. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of classes by suffix and title.
College of Science and Mathematics
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