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David J. Cowen, Chair of the Department

David J. Cowen, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1971
Carolina Distinguished Professor
Susan L. Cutter, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1976
Carolina Distinguished Professor
Patricia P. Gilmartin, Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1980
William L. Graf, Ph.D, University of Wisconsin, 1974
Educational Foundation Professor
Robert L. Janiskee, Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1974
John R. Jensen, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, 1976
Carolina Distinguished Professor
Charles F. Kovacik, Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1970
Robert E. Lloyd, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 1974
Lisle S. Mitchell, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1967
Theodore R. Steinke, Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1979
John J. Winberry, Ph.D., Louisiana State University, 1971

Associate Professors
Gregory J. Carbone, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1990
Michael E. Hodgson, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1987
John F. Jakubs, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1974
L. Allan James, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988

Assistant Professors
Carl T. Dahlman, Ph.D., University of Kentucky, 2001
Kirstin Dow, Ph.D., Clark University, 1996
Blake Gumprecht, Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 2000
Cary Mock, Ph.D., University of Oregon, 1994
Helen Power, Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1999

Teaching Associates
Robert Cole, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1975
Lewis Lapine, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1989
John C. Purvis, M.S., University of South Carolina, 1969

Distinguished Professors Emeriti
Paul E. Lovingood Jr., Ph.D., University of North Carolina, 1962
Julian V. Minghi, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1962
William R. Stanley, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1966

Professor Emeritus
Allen D. Bushong, Ph.D., University of Florida, 1961


Degree Requirements

1. General Education Requirements (53-65 hours)

For a general outline, see "College of Liberal Arts." Students should see department guidelines for distinction between the B.A. and B.S. degrees.

2. Major Requirements (32-35 hours)

All majors must complete at least 32 hours of geography courses, including the core requirements of 9 hours:
GEOG 200 ( 3 hours)
GEOG 210 (3 hours)
GEOG 495 (3 hours)
GEOG 103, 121, or 141 may be used to meet the college social science requirement.

All majors must complete a minimum of 23 additional hours in one of the following tracks, with at least two courses at the 500 level (excluding GEOG 595). A minimum grade of C is required for all courses used to fulfill major requirements.

Physical/Environmental Geography

GEOG 201, 202, and 343 (11 hours); and at least three additional courses selected from GEOG 309, 346, 347, 348, 370, 371, 430, 516, 530, 545, 546, 547, 548, 566, 567, 568, 569, 571, 573 (9-12 hours); and at least one other course from geographic techniques (3 hours).

Human/Economic Geography

GEOG 211 or 212 (3 hours); a course in regional geography (3 hours); at least five additional courses selected from GEOG 312, 314, 324, 333, 337, 344, 370, 377, 378, 420, 509, 511, 512, 544, 595 (15 hours); and at least one other course from geographic techniques (3 hours).

Geographic Techniques

GEOG 341, 345, 363, 531 (12 hours); and at least three additional courses selected from GEOG 541, 551, 562, 563, 564 (9 hours); and one other geography course above GEOG 210 (3-4 hours).

General Geography

A course in regional geography (3 hours); a course from the geographic techniques (3 hours); and six other courses at the 200 level and above (18-23 hours).

3. Cognate or Minor

See "College of Liberal Arts" (12-24 hours)

4. Electives

See "College of Liberal Arts" (0-24 hours)


The Geography Department offers minors in the following areas:

Environmental Geography
General Geography
Geographic Information Science
Meteorology and Climatology
Physical Geography
Regional Geography

Course Descriptions (GEOG)

GEOG 103, 121, and 141 are recommended for general degree requirements in social science.

Return to Liberal Arts

  • 103 -- Introduction to Geography. (3) A survey of the principles and methods of geographic inquiry. Not required for the geography major.
  • 121 -- World Regional Geography. (3) Introduction to the physical and human geography of the world with a focus on selected regions.
  • 141 -- The Earth from Above. (3) Use of maps, aerial photographs, and images from satellites as representations of the earth's surface.
  • 200 -- Introduction to Physical Geography. (3) Basic concepts of landform geography, climatology and meteorology, and biogeography.
  • 201 -- Landform Geography. (4) Hydrology, soil science, and interpretation of physical features formed by water, wind, and ice, with emphasis on environmental change. Three hours of lecture and one two-hour laboratory per week.
  • 202 -- Weather and Climate. (4) Processes that influence weather and climate patterns on the earth. Three lectures and one two-hour laboratory per week.
  • 210 -- Introduction to Human Geography. (3) Basic principles of human geography.
  • 211 -- Cultural Geography. (3) The temporal-spatial relationship between humans and the natural environment with emphasis on the role through time of human activity in changing the face of the earth.
  • 212 -- Economic Geography. (3) Spatial interrelation and linking of economic activities and how location affects the nature of economic systems.
  • 221 -- Geography of South Carolina. (3) An intensive regional analysis of South Carolina. Selected phenomena such as urbanization, industrialization, land use, the physical environment, and their interrelationships.
  • 223 -- Geography of Latin America. {=LASP 331} (3) Physical and human geography of Latin America.
  • 224 -- Geography of North America. (3) Physical and human geography of North America with emphasis on the United States.
  • 225 -- Geography of Europe. (3) Physical and human geography of Europe.
  • 226 -- Geography of the Middle East. (3) A regional geographic approach to the environmental, social, economic, and political aspects of the Middle East (Southwest Asia and north Africa) with emphasis on contemporary problems.
  • 228 -- Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa. (3) A regional approach to the physical, social, economic, and political aspects of Sub-Saharan Africa with emphasis on contemporary problems.
  • 309 -- Use and Misuse of the Earth's Resources. {=GEOL 209} (3) Integration of the geological, spatial, and hydro-environmental issues arising from extraction, use, and disposal of selected mineral, energy, and water resources.
  • 310 -- Selected Topics in Systematic Geography. (3) Spatial analysis of selected geographical phenomena. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of courses by suffix and title.
  • 312 -- Geography of World Problems. (3) Geographic perspectives on problems in international relations. Political geographic analysis of contemporary world problems.
  • 314 -- Geography of Transportation. (3) Geographical analysis of transportation and spatial organization; traffic demand, network configuration, and allocation of transport facilities.
  • 324 -- Landscapes of the United States. (3) Geographic change through time in the United States, with emphasis on evolution of the American landscape. Physical environment as modified by human intervention over time within a regional framework.
  • 333 -- Geography of Popular Music. (3) Concepts of regional identity, spatial diffusion, culture change, regional economic growth and change as illustrated by U.S. popular music and the contemporary music industry.
  • 337 -- Maps in Human Affairs. (3) Evolution of maps and their uses in different cultures, with particular attention to the mapping process in America.
  • 341 -- Cartography. (3) Introduction to the theory and principles of map construction including discussions of equipment and materials, lettering and symbolization, scale and generalization, data manipulation and representation. Presentation of geographic information on maps.
  • 343 -- Human Impact on the Environment. (3) A spatial consideration of the processes, effects, and trends in environmental change resulting from human activity. The problems of resource management and the implications for future habitation of the earth are emphasized.
  • 344 -- Urban Geography. (3) Analysis of the spatial properties of urban areas. Emphasis will be placed on factors of urban growth, location, spacing, and size of urban settlements; the factors supporting urban development; and the internal structure of cities.
  • 345 -- Interpretation of Aerial Photographs. (3) Theory and use of basic photo interpretation instruments and methods. Practice in acquiring and interpreting data from aerial photography for use in the physical and social sciences.
  • 346 -- Climate and Society. (3) Major theories and methodologies for studying the relationship between climate and society.
  • 347 -- Water as a Resource. (3) Introduction to spatial and institutional aspects of water availability, demand, and quality. Water storage/conveyance strategies and facilities. Real and perceived flood, drought hazards.
  • 348 -- Biogeography. (3) Spatial distributions of plants and animals as they relate to historical biogeographic patterns and human impact on the biosphere.
  • 349 -- Cartographic Animation. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 341 or GEOG 363 or consent of instructor) Introduction to theories and principles of cartographic animation.
  • 363 -- Geographic Information Systems. (3) Introduction to principles and methods of geographic information systems including discussion of computers, spatial data, analysis, and display. Includes discussion of applications and hands-on experience.
  • 370 -- America's National Parks. (3) Resource, managerial, and recreational-use components of the national park system; contemporary issues, problems, and managerial alternatives.
  • 371 -- Air Pollution Climatology. (3) Fundamentals, processes, and issues associated with air pollution. Emphasis is on the role of the atmosphere, how air pollution affects surface climate, and how climate and meteorology influence air quality.
  • 377 -- Geography of Recreation and Sport. (3) Supply, demand, and consumption patterns associated with recreation and sport; characteristic resources, participants, activities, and recreational policy makers and administrators.
  • 378 -- World Tourism Geography. (3) Geographic analysis of tourism in America and selected world regions; demand, supply, transportation, and cultural/environmental impact of tourism and travel.
  • 399 -- Independent Study. (3-6) Contract approved by instructor, advisor, and department chair is required for undergraduate students.
  • 420 -- Selected Topics in Regional Geography. (3) Geographical investigations of world areas using the regional method of analysis. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of courses by suffix and title.
  • 430 -- The Geography of Disasters. (3) The study of disasters, their triggering mechanisms (natural, human, technological), their spatial distributions from local to global scales, and associated human responses.
  • 495 -- Seminar in Geography. (3) Research methods and projects; restricted to students with at least 15 hours of credit in geography.
  • 498 -- Undergraduate Research. (3) Research on a significant geography problem in the local environment. Emphasis will be on the development of relatively individualized experiences in scientific investigation.
  • 499 -- Undergraduate Research. (3) Research on a significant geography problem in the local environment. Emphasis will be on the development of relatively individualized experiences in scientific investigation.
  • 500 -- Source Materials in Geography. (3) A critical evaluation of the literature of geography (including cartography) and related literature in other disciplines. The growth and structure of geographic literature and the flow patterns of geographic information are also examined.
  • 509 -- Industrial Location. (3) Theories of industrial location and their application to geographic problems. Explanations of locational patterns of extractive, manufacturing, and service industries.
  • 510 -- Systematic Geography. (3) Spatial analysis of selected geographical phenomena.
  • 511 -- Planning and Locational Analysis. (3) Scientific approaches to locational problems in urban and regional planning, including regional growth and decline, land use control, public facility location and provision, and locational efficiency.
  • 512 -- Advanced Cultural Geography. (3) Concepts of cultural geography with emphasis on the composition, formation, and interpretation of the cultural landscape.
  • 514 -- Geography of Ports and Shipping. (3) The internal morphology and functional organization of ports, as well as port classification, unique relationship to changing hinterlands and forelands, and future prospects in the light of new types of ships and cargo handling. Shipping routes and significance of world shipbuilding patterns as they relate to port activity. A one-day field trip to Charleston, Savannah, or Wilmington is required of all students.
  • 515 -- Seminar in Political and Military Geography. (3) In-depth study of aspects of geography related to (a) the political expression of national states and (b) the planning, evolution, and outcome of selected military campaigns and battles.
  • 516 -- Coastal Zone Management. (3) Analysis of the competing demands for limited resources in the coastal zone with emphasis on the role of management in the resolution of conflicts over resource use.
  • 520 -- Advanced Study in Regional Geography. (3) Intensive work on chorographic size areas of the earth.
  • 521 -- Landscapes of South Carolina. (3) An examination of the factors responsible for creating the contemporary South Carolina cultural landscape.
  • 530 -- Environmental Hazards. (3) Human and environmental contributions to the generation and management of hazards originating from extreme natural events to technological failures. Contemporary public policy issues at the national and international level.
  • 531 -- Quantitative Methods in Geographic Research. (3) A survey of basic quantitative approaches for handling and interpreting geographically related data; univariate and bivariate procedures applicable to a variety of problems.
  • 541 -- Advanced Cartography. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 341 or consent of instructor} Planning, compiling, constructing, and evaluating thematic maps. Theory and practice in scribing, separation and screening, color proofing, and map reproduction. Discussions of the process of map communication and the ways the cartographer can improve that communication.
  • 542 -- Field Methods in Geographic Inquiry. (3) The sources and quality of data, sampling procedures, questionnaires, and mapping techniques used by geographers in fieldwork; collecting information through field study. Open to all students; no specific preparation required. One lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
  • 543 -- Computer Mapping. (3) Automated techniques to portray data spatially. Analysis of grid, polygon, and single point techniques for thematic mapping. Study of statistical plots and graphs. Spatial and non-spatial data displays.
  • 544 -- Geography of the City. (3) The influence of political boundaries, historical forces, settlement patterns, and transportation processes on urban life.
  • 545 -- Synoptic Meteorology. (4) (Prereq: GEOG 202 or equivalent} Analysis of synoptic-scale circulation using weather maps, soundings, cross sections, thermodynamic diagrams, numerical models, and imagery.
  • 546 -- Applied Climatology. (4) Weather and climate in the earth/atmosphere boundary layer with applications in South Carolina. Three hours lecture and one two-hour laboratory per week.
  • 547 -- Fluvial Geomorphology. (3) Introduction to landforms and processes associated with flowing water at the earth's surface. Hydrology, sedimentology, and theories of channel formation and drainage basin evolution.
  • 548 -- Landscape Ecology. (3) Analysis of the relationship between landscape structure and function. Emphasis on how ecological processes create landscape-level patterns that control the flow of matter and energy across the landscape.
  • 551 -- Principles of Remote Sensing. (3) Introduction to remote sensing. A variety of imaging systems including black and white, color, and high altitude color infrared photographs, LANDSAT, thermal infrared, and active microwave. Use of remote sensing for studying the extra-terrestrial environment and earth weather systems.
  • 554 -- Spatial Programming. (3) Computer programming of spatial problems; spatial statistical analysis, interactive graphics, and computer maps.
  • 555 -- Analytical Cartography. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 554 or equivalent} Theory and application of mathematical and analytical methods to solve cartographic problems. Design of computer algorithms for the analysis and display of spatial data.
  • 560 -- Source Materials for Geographic Instruction. {=EDSE 505} (3) Introduction to selected materials available for all levels of instruction in geography. Emphasis on the substantive nature of the materials.
  • 561 -- Geographic Concepts for Teachers. (3) Basic concepts and content related to physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of place, human-environment interaction, migration, regions, and the national geography standards. Cannot be used in M.A., M.S., or Ph.D. programs in geography.
  • 562 -- Satellite Mapping and the Global Positioning System. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 345 or 363 or 551 or consent of instructor} Technology and use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS). GPS space segment, receiver technologies, range observables, and positioning accuracy. Applications to large/medium scale mapping, remote sensing, and aerial photography.
  • 563 -- Advanced Geographic Information Systems. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 363 or equivalent} Theory and application of geographic information systems including discussions of automated input, storage, analysis, integration, and display of spatial data. Use of an operational geographic information system.
  • 564 -- GIS-Based Modeling. (3) Geographical information systems for modeling physical/human processes in space and time using raster and vector data. Cartographic modeling concepts, embedded models, and GIS-model coupling.
  • 566 -- Social Aspects of Environmental Planning and Management. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 343 or consent of instructor} Geographical approach to environmental problems.
  • 567 -- Long-Term Environmental Change. {=GEOL 567} (3) (Prereq: A 200-level course in physical geography or geology or equivalent) Climatic changes of the past and their impact on the physical landscape, with an emphasis on the Quaternary period.
  • 568 -- Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 343 or consent of instructor} Consequences of increasing anthropogenic changes on environmental systems including the sources of change, regional impacts, and social and policy responses.
  • 569 -- Environment and Development. {=ANTH 569} (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor} Examination of development theory and environmental implications of social and economic change. Study of general theoretical perspectives will be balanced with case study materials.
  • 570 -- Geography of Public Land and Water Policy. (3) Geography of public land, water, and related public trust resources (wildlife, timber, minerals, fuels, recreation, wetlands, coastal zones, wilderness); historical geography of policy; spatial aspects of current research and management.
  • 571 -- Microclimatology. (4) (Prereq: GEOG 202 or consent of instructor} Field techniques and processes in the atmospheric boundary layer including radiation, soil heat fluxes, turbulence, momentum, latent and sensible heat fluxes, moisture, and evaporation.
  • 573 -- Climatic Change and Variability. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 202 or equivalent} Observations and theories of climatic change and variability as they occur at different space and time scales. Projections of future climates. Techniques used in climatic change research and impact analysis.
  • 595 -- Internship in Geography. (3-6) (Prereq: contract approved by departmental internship program director} Internships in various government agencies and industry under joint supervision of agency personnel and the internship program director. Maximum credit six units; three credits applicable to a master's degree. Pass-Fail.