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Geological Sciences

James N. Kellogg, Chair

Arthur D. Cohen, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 1968
James N. Kellogg, Ph.D., Princeton University, 1981
Christopher G. St. C. Kendall, Ph.D., Imperial College, London, 1966
Björn Kjerfve, Ph.D., Louisiana State University, 1973
Thomas J. Owens, Ph.D., University of Utah, 1984
Pradeep Talwani, Ph.D., Stanford University, 1973
Robert C. Thunell, Ph.D., University of Rhode Island, 1978, Carolina Distinguished Professor, Director of Graduate Studies
Douglas F. Williams, Ph.D., University of Rhode Island, 1976

Associate Professors
Miguel A. Goñi, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1993
James H. Knapp, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989, Director of Undergraduate Studies
Venkataraman Lakshmi, Ph.D., Princeton University, 1995
Evangelos K. Paleologos, Ph.D., University of Arizona, 1994

Assistant Professors
David Barbeau, Ph.D., University of Arizona, 2003
Claudia Benitez-Nelson, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1998
Camelia C. Knapp, Ph.D., Cornell University, 2000
Matthew J. Kohn, Ph.D., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1991
Raymond Torres, Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1997
Richard Styles, Ph.D., Rutgers University, 1998
George Voulgaris, Ph.D., University of Southampton, 1992
Alicia Wilson, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1999
Gene M. Yogodzinski, Ph.D., Cornell University, 1993

Research Professors
Gwendelyn Geidel, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1982
Willard S. Moore, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1964

Research Associate Professor
Philip M. Astwood, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1975

Research Assistant Professors
Eugene Karabanov, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1997
Scott M. White, Ph.D., University of California-Santa Barbara, 2001


The Department of Geological Sciences offers programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in geology, as well as a professional master's degree. The Master of Arts in Teaching in Science (Earth Science Option) and the Interdisciplinary Master of Arts in Science (Earth Science Option) are offered in cooperation with the College of Education. Areas of faculty research are: Environmental Geoscience–geologic aspects of environmental sciences, including hydrology, hydrogeology, aqueous geochemistry and contaminant transport will play a crucial role in environmental hazard assessment and mitigation; Evolution of Orogenic Systems–an understanding of the physical and chemical processes controlling the formation and evolution of the planet Earth is critical to many issues of fundamental and societal importance, including identification and mitigation of geologic hazards and the maintenance of a sufficient supply of natural resources; and Global Climate Change–understanding of, minimization of, and adjustment to geological, geochemical, and geophysical influences on global climate change is of critical concern for the coming decades. Available fields of research include environmental geosciences, geochemistry, geophysics, global climate change, hydrocarbon exploration, hydrogeology, oceanography, paleoceanography, paleoclimatology, petrology, satellite geodesy, sedimentology, seismology, structural geology, and tectonics.


Admission to the program of graduate study in geological sciences is obtained by application to The Graduate School. Requirements are satisfactory scores on the GRE (normally a combined score of at least 1000 on the verbal and quantitative sections), undergraduate GPA of 3.00 or higher, and recommendations from qualified referees. Applicants whose native language is not English are also required to submit a satisfactory score on the TOEFL or the University of Cambridge's IELTS Academic Course Type 2 exam. The minimum acceptable score on the TOEFL is 230 (computer-based) or 570 (paper-based). The minimum acceptable overall band score on the IELTS Academic Course Type 2 exam is 6.5. The Department of Geological Sciences does not have a specific set of required undergraduate courses but bases its admission mainly on demonstrated ability to do academic work and interest in the field of geology and related sciences. Questions concerning admission should be submitted to the director of graduate studies in geological sciences.

Degree Requirements

Degree requirements generally follow those of The Graduate School. The M.S. degree requires the satisfactory completion of 30 semester hours of graduate credit, a thesis proposal presentation, a written thesis, and a thesis defense. The Ph.D. degree requires the satisfactory completion of a minimum of 30 semester hours of course work beyond the master's degree, to include 12 hours of GEOL 899 and additional course work as determined by the advisory committee depending on the student's background and specific needs. Qualifying and comprehensive exams must be successfully completed. The oral portion of the comprehensive exam consists, in part, of the defense of a paper written by the student which has been submitted for publication in an approved peer-reviewed journal. All Ph.D. candidates are required to publish a paper in a refereed scientific journal. A written dissertation is required which must be successfully defended. Additional details are available from the director of graduate studies in geological sciences.

Course Descriptions (GEOL)

  • 500 -- Field Geology. (6) (Prereq: GEOL 201, 202, senior standing in geology or geophysics, and the consent of instructor) Geological field techniques including the use of field instruments and the preparation of geologic maps. Written and oral reports required.
  • 501 -- Principles of Geomorphology. {=MSCI 501} (3) (Prereq: GEOL 101 and 102) The process of earth denudation with emphasis on chemistry of weathering, stream and erosion hydraulics, quantitative analysis of land form evolution.
  • 503 -- Regional Stratigraphy and Biostratigraphy of North America. (3) (Prereq: senior standing) Sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, and tectonic history of North America, approached from paleogeographic considerations with emphasis on the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Continental Margin. Three hours lecture and three hours recitation per week. Required field trips.
  • 508 -- Palynology. (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Fundamentals of pollen analysis including morphology of modern and fossil forms, use of pollen and spores for correlation, dating, establishing phylogenetic trends, and reconstruction of ancient environments. Two lectures plus one two-hour lab per week.
  • 510 -- Organic Sedimentation and Coal Genesis. (3) Theories of origin of coal deposits and coal-forming ingredients. Basic concepts of coal composition and classification. Practical applications of coal petrographic techniques. Two lectures plus one two-hour lab. Two optional field trips.
  • 511 -- Advanced Paleontology. {=MSCI 511} (3) (Prereq: GEOL 305) Systematic, ecologic, biogeographic, and evolutionary aspects of paleontology; lectures, practical exercises, field trips.
  • 515 -- Marine Micropaleontology. {=MSCI 515} (4) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Marine microfossils; distribution, ecology, paleoecology, and biostratigraphy; use of microfossils in marine sediments to study oceanographic history. Three lectures and two laboratory hours per week.
  • 516 -- Sedimentology. (4) (Prereq: GEOL 325, 522 or the consent of instructor) Modern concepts of sediment composition, sedimentary facies, depositional environments, and stratigraphy. Includes laboratory.
  • 518 -- Surface to Subsurface Stratigraphy. (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Surface to subsurface stratigraphic interpretation and techniques; litho- and biostratigraphy; geophysical log interpretation and subsurface presentation.
  • 520 -- Isotope Geology and Geochronology. (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Dating techniques for Pleistocene deposits, sediments, archaeological materials, igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • 521 -- Introduction to Geochemistry. {=MSCI 521} (3) Investigation of low temperature chemical reactions controlling the geochemistry of the earth's surface. Emphasis on CO2, carbonates, oxidation-reduction, thermodynamics, isotopes, biogeochemistry.
  • 524 -- Environmental Radioisotope Geochemistry. {=MSCI 524} (3) (Prereq: CHEM 111, CHEM 112, MATH 141) Introduction to radioactivity and the use of radionuclides to study environmental processes, including age-dating and biogeochemical cycling in aquatic systems. Two lectures per week.
  • 526 -- Igneous Petrology. (4) (Prereq: GEOL 202) Petrography and petrogenesis of igneous rocks; evolution of contrasting petrotectonic terranes. Three lectures and three laboratory hours per week.
  • 527 -- Metamorphic Petrology. (4) (Prereq: GEOL 202) Petrography and petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks in orogenic belts. Three lectures and three laboratory hours per week.
  • 531 -- Plate Tectonics. (3) Geological and geophysical evidence for plate tectonics, detailed development of the plate tectonics model, and present areas of research, including measurements of plate motion using satellite geodesy. Three lecture-discussion hours per week.
  • 536 -- Geophysics. (4) (Prereq: PHYS 211, 212; MATH 141, 142, or equivalent) Introduction to geophysical exploration methods.
  • 537 -- Field Methods in Geophysics. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 536) Application of two or more geophysical field methods to a current geological problem. Independent study contract required.
  • 540 -- Earth Science for Teachers I. {=EDSE 548} (3) Survey of topics related to the origin, internal structure, and internal processes of the earth, including plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building. Required field trips, two lectures, and three lab hours per week. Cannot be used in M.S. or Ph.D. programs in geology.
  • 541 -- Earth Science for Teachers II. {=EDSE 549} (3) (Prereq: EDSE 548/GEOL 540) Surface processes acting on the earth; introduction to weather and climate, weathering, erosion, and sedimentary processes; landform evolution; ocean currents and tides, near-shore geologic processes. Required field trips, two lecture and three lab hours per week. Cannot be used in M.S. or Ph.D. programs in geology.
  • 545 -- Geological Oceanography. {=MSCI 545} (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor required for undergraduates only) A comprehensive study of the origin and development of the major structural features of the ocean basins and the continental margins. Discussion of the techniques used in obtaining geologic data and the interpretation of sedimentary processes, vulcanism, and the stratigraphy of the ocean basins.
  • 546 -- Marine Geophysics. (3) Introduction to the nature and structure of the ocean floor as revealed by geophysical techniques. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory.
  • 547 -- Solid Earth Geophysics. (3) (Prereq: PHYS 202, MATH 142) Application of physical principles; gravity, geodesy, thermal processes, internal structure, and composition.
  • 548 -- Environmental Geophysics. (3) (Prereq: MATH 141 and PHYS 201 or 211) Practical geophysical techniques for exploring the shallow subsurface. Seismic, resistivity, well log, gravity, magnetic methods. Field exercises to collect and analyze data. Two lectures and three laboratory hours per week.
  • 550 -- Sedimentary Simulations and Sequence Stratigraphy. {=MSCI 550} (4) (Prereq: GEOL 325 or consent of the instructor) Problems of sequence stratigraphy resolved with graphic computer simulations. Sedimentary fill of basins by carbonates and/or clastics tracked as a function of rate of sediment accumulation, tectonic behavior, and sea level. Includes laboratory.
  • 553 -- Marine Sediments. {=MSCI 553} (3) (Prereq: GEOL 516 or consent of instructor) Marine sedimentary environments; physical/biological factors which control the formation and distribution of modern marine sediments.
  • 554 -- Applied Seismology. (3) Theory of subsurface and surface seismic wave behavior.
  • 555 -- Elementary Seismology. (3) (Prereq: MATH 142, 241 or equivalent; PHYS 201, 202 or equivalent; or consent of instructor) Basic elements of seismology. Mathematical development of seismic wave equations; measurement, description, and interpretation of seismic data.
  • 556 -- Seismic Reflection Interpretation. (3) The interpretation of geologic structure using seismic sections. Recognition of apparent structure caused by velocity anomalies, multiples, and complex reflector geometry. Application to hydrocarbon exploration.
  • 557 -- Coastal Processes. {=MSCI 557} (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Physical and geological processes controlling the formation and evolution of beach, barrier, and nearshore environments, including discussion of coastal management issues. Field trip(s) to coastal environments.
  • 560 -- Earth Resource Management. (3) An approach to problems of resource management by lecture and seminar using case studies in mineral, energy, hydrogeological, and environmental science.
  • 561 -- Environmental Field Geology. (6) An introduction to field methods in sedimentology, structural geology, hydrogeology and geophysics with special reference to geological hazards and environmental problems.
  • 567 -- Long Term Environmental Change. {=GEOG 567} (3) (Prereq: A 200-level course in physical geography or geology or equivalent) Climatic changes of the past and their impact on the physical landscape, with an emphasis on the Quaternary period.
  • 568 -- Introduction to Micrometerology. {=MSCI 568} (3) (Prereq: PHYS 201 and MATH 141, or consent of instructor) Small-scale processes in the atmospheric boundary layers, including energy budget, radiation, soil heat transfer, humidity, viscous flows, turbulence, momentum and heat exchanges, evaporation, and marine atmospheric boundary layer.
  • 570 -- Environmental Hydrogeology. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 101 and CHEM 111 or their equivalents) Environmental considerations of the hydrologic cycle, occurrence and movement of ground water, aquifer analysis, and water well emplacement and construction. Water quality, pollution parameters, and the geochemistry of selected natural systems. The effects of environmental problems, waste disposal, and urban development upon the aqueous geochemical regime.
  • 571 -- Soil Hydrology. (4) (Prereq: PHYS 202 and MATH 142 or consent of instructor) Saturated and unsaturated water flow through soils, pore pressure development, runoff generation, and watershed response to rainfall. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
  • 575 -- Introduction to Groundwater Modeling. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 570 or ECIV 563; or concurrent enrollment in GEOL 570) Mathematical and numerical models describing groundwater flow and contaminant transport; with application of numerical models.
  • 581 -- Estuarine Oceanography. {=MSCI 581} (3) (Prereq: MSCI 312 or consent of instructor) Estuarine kinematics and dynamics; classification of estuaries; estuarine circulation and mixing. Scheduled field trips are required.
  • 582 -- Marine Hydrodynamics. {=MSCI 582} (3) (Prereq: differential equations, PHYS 201 or 211, or consent of instructor) Basic principles of fluid statics and dynamics. Conservation of mass, momentum, and energy; viscosity, vorticity, and boundary layers with examples from the marine environment. Applications to and analysis of ocean currents and waves. Scheduled field trips are required.
  • 583 -- Geology and Geochemistry of Salt Marshes. {=MSCI 583} (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Geological and geochemical processes in salt marshes. Methods of geological research in marshes, including instrumental techniques, sampling design, and data analysis. Two lectures per week plus four weekends of project-oriented fieldwork and/or equivalent lab work. Scheduled field trips are required.
  • 600 -- Senior Seminar in Geology and Geophysics. (2) (Prereq: senior standing) Advanced research topics in geology and geophysics; critical reading of literature, technical presentations, and written reports.
  • 650 -- Geochemical Applications of Electron Microprobe and X-ray Analysis. (4) (Prereq: junior standing; CHEM 111 or equivalent or consent of instructor) Theory and application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the electron microprobe to problems in geochemistry and materials analysis. Two lecture and six laboratory hours per week.
  • 699 -- Senior Thesis. (5) (Prereq: senior standing and contract approved by instructor) Senior capstone experience, research on problem of fundamental significance, supervised by faculty member; must include field study component, written final project report, and oral presentation at departmental seminar.
  • 700 -- Geology of South Carolina. (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Survey of the surficial, coastal, and bedrock geology of South Carolina, its regional physiographic and tectonic setting, and the natural resources of the state.
  • 702 -- Environmental Earth Science for Teachers. (4) (Prereq: introductory course in any of the earth sciences) The hydrologic cycle in geologic settings of this region, and the effects of urbanization and industrialization on groundwater, rivers, and coasts. The vulnerability of urban and industrial systems to natural geologic processes. Two lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Not available for graduate credit for students in M.S. or Ph.D. programs in geological sciences.
  • 703 -- Field Studies in Pleistocene and Holocene Geology for Teachers. (1) Two weekend field courses dealing with Pleistocene and Holocene coastal geology, plate tectonics, sea-level change, global circulation patterns, shoreline change since 1850, and nearshore processes.
  • 704 -- Field Studies for Teachers in Natural and Altered Barrier Island Systems. (1) Two weekend field courses dealing with barrier island and associated marsh environments, marsh productivity, the dune-beach-bar system, shoreline stabilization, and nearshore processes on natural and armored shorelines.
  • 711 -- Paleoclimatology. (3) Red beds, evaporites, paleontology, glacial deposits, dune sandstones, limestone, coal, sea level, paleomagnetism, etc. An attempt to assess climates of the past, centered on questions such as Gondwana, origin of Ice Ages, etc.
  • 713 -- Environmental Aspects of Paleontology. (3) (Prereq: consent of the instructor) Analysis of current thought and current research in paleoecology and taphonomy.
  • 715 -- Stable Isotope Geochemistry. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 521) Introduction to the analysis of stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur using mass spectrometry. Emphasis will be on the use of these isotopes in geological problems.
  • 716 -- Eustasy and Global Variations in Sequence Stratigraphy. {=MSCI 716} (3) Relationship of sequence stratigraphy to sea level variations, tectonics and sedimentation. Construction and analyses of paleogeographic maps, regional cross-sections, and chronostratigraphic charts.
  • 717 -- Organic Geochemistry. {=MSCI 711} (3) (Prereq: GEOL/MSCI 521) Sources, transport, and fate of organic matter in natural environments including soils, riverine, estuarine, coastal and open ocean sediments and waters.
  • 720 -- Crystal Chemistry and Mineral Structure. (3) (Prereq: consent of the instructor) Principles of atomic structure and chemical variation of minerals.
  • 722 -- Aqueous Geochemistry. (3) (Prereq: consent of the instructor) Construction of mineral stability and Eh-pH diagrams from thermodynamic data and application to problems in chemical oceanography, weathering, chemistry of natural waters, and ore deposition.
  • 726 -- Advanced Igneous Petrology. (4) (Prereq: GEOL 522) Advanced concepts in the origin and evolution of magmatic systems, effects of different tectononthermal regimes on magma genesis, magma dynamics, and phase equilibria in magmatic systems. Concepts illustrated by rock suites from classic locations. Three lectures and three laboratory hours each week.
  • 731 -- Advanced Structural Geology. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 331 and 536) A study of the deformation of the earth's crust including mechanics of folding, faulting, jointing, and cleavage formation. Consideration of current theories of orogenesis in relation to geophysical evidence for the structure of the earth's crust, mantle, and core.
  • 733 -- Rock Mechanics. (3) (Prereq: MATH 300, ENGR 223) Behavior of rocks and minerals up to 10kb, 8000°C. Role of internal pore pressure and time. Interplay of theory and empiricism.
  • 735 -- Regional Tectonics. (3) Integrated analysis (from both model and case history approaches) of the regional structural geology of selected classic areas and analysis of the interaction of tectonic and sedimentary processes in the production of the sedimentary sequences of selected geosynclines and basins. Weekend field trips.
  • 743 -- Decision Making in Environmental Resource Management. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 560 or permission of instructor) Environmental project planning and management. Types and magnitudes of environmental problems; environmental pathways; environmental data acquisition and analysis; protection versus restoration; risk assessment; site assessment.
  • 744 -- Decision Making in Energy Resource Management. (3) An integrative seminar for science managers. Consideration of the technical, managerial, and financial aspects of decision making in geologic enterprises, with emphasis on hydrocarbon exploration.
  • 745 -- Petroleum Geology. (3) An introduction to exploring for oil and natural gas; concentration on specific regions with energy resources.
  • 747 -- Advanced Coal Petrology. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 510 or consent of instructor) Field methods in coal petrology. Practical applications of coal petrographic techniques. One three-hour class per week plus weekend field trips.
  • 750 -- Basin Analysis Seminar. (3) Development of the stratigraphic systems; detailed analysis of the aims, working methods, and relations between litho-, bio-, and chronostratigraphy. Three lecture hours per week with occasional field trips.
  • 751 -- Carbonate Petrology. (3) Detailed analysis of the processes and products of carbonate sedimentation, diagenesis, and lithification, with special emphasis upon the role of organisms in forming carbonate sediments and sedimentary rocks. Three lecture hours per week with occasional field trips.
  • 752 -- Sandstone Petrology. (3) Sandstone properties as a response to geologic processes. Relationships between the porous microstructure of sandstones and fluid transport. Automated petrography using image analysis and pattern recognition procedures.
  • 754 -- Oceanographic Techniques. {=BIOL 754} (1) (Prereq: consent of the instructor) Shipboard experience with basic techniques used by geological, physical, chemical, and biological oceanographers.
  • 755 -- Environmental Measurements and Analysis. {=BIOL 755} (3) (Prereq: consent of the instructor) A field and laboratory course designed to acquaint students with basic techniques needed to measure and analyze various biotic and abiotic environmental parameters in estuarine and shallow water habitats. One lecture and six laboratory hours per week.
  • 758 -- Analysis of Geological Data. (3) Principles used in processing, smoothing, correlating and contouring geological data and simulating geologic processes.
  • 764 -- Seismic Reflection Interpretation. (3) The interpretation of regional stratigraphy and structure using seismic sections. Recognition of stratigraphic sequences, sedimentary facies, and extensional and compressional structures. Application to hydrocarbon exploration.
  • 765 -- Exploration Seismology. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 536 or equivalent) Seismic refraction and reflection methods including sources, instrumentation, data processing, velocity analysis, seismic modeling, and interpretation.
  • 766 -- Advanced Seismology. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 555 or equivalent) Advanced treatment of elastic wave propagation, ray theory, normal modes, and free oscillations; applications to determine earth structure, modeling of earthquakes.
  • 770 -- Ground Water Geology. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 570 or equivalent) The evaluation of aquifer characteristics by flow nets, Theis equation and graphic solution technique for water table and artesian conditions. Methodology of pumping tests and data collection. Prediction of aquifer response through time. Analog and computer analysis and interpretation of data.
  • 771 -- Topics in Hydrogeology. (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Selected topics germane to the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the hydrologic cycle.
  • 772 -- Geologic Theories. (3) (Prereq: graduate standing) Survey of the origin and development of geologic principles.
  • 773 -- Water Quality and Pollution. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 570 or equivalent) The nature of water; physical, chemical, and biological quality parameters. Techniques of quantitative analysis, methods of water quality control, and pollution abatement. Hydrogeochemical interactions and effects on water quality and waste disposal.
  • 774 -- Solute Transport in Geologic Media. (3) (Prereq: GEOL 570 or ECIV 563) Processes influencing conservative and reactive transport of solutes through porous media. Geochemistry of natural waters; transport processes for geologic and environmental/contaminant problems; mathematical equations; numerical methods; field techniques.
  • 775 -- Numerical Methods in Subsurface Hydrology. {=ECIV 761} (3) Formation of groundwater flow and solute transport problems: theory and practice, numerical methods, solution techniques.
  • 781 -- Physical Oceanography. {=MSCI 781} (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Geographic and hydrodynamic aspects of oceanography, with emphasis on estuaries. Physical properties of sea water and theories and methods involved in ocean currents, air-sea interaction, waves, and tides.
  • 782 -- Chemical Oceanography. {=MSCI 782} (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Chemical characteristics of sea water, distribution of properties, and chemical processes in the oceans, with emphasis on estuaries.
  • 783 -- Oceanographic Time Series Analysis. {=MSCI 783} (3) (Prereq: consent of the instructor) Techniques in the analysis of oceanographic data sequences, including filtering techniques, fast Fourier transforms, and empirical orthogonal functions.
  • 784 -- Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. {=MSCI 784} (3) (Prereq: MATH 241 or ENGR 360 or GEOL/MSCI 582 or GEOL/MSCI 781) Equations governing the large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean, rotational influence, shallow water equations, vorticity, quasigeostrophic dynamics, Rossby waves, energy and enstrophy, and geostrophic turbulence.
  • 785 -- Atmospheric Dynamics. {=MSCI 785} (3) (Prereq: GEOL/MSCI 781) Elementary applications of the basic equations, scale analysis, planetary boundary layer, atmospheric oscillations, synoptic and mesoscale systems, hydrodynamic instability, cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, energy cycle, momentum budget, and tropical motion systems.
  • 790 -- Directed Individual Studies in Geology. (1-6 to be designated at registration) Directed research topics to be individually assigned and supervised by graduate faculty.
  • 799 -- Thesis Preparation. (1-9)
  • 800 -- Seminar (General Geology). (1 per registration; maximum 3) Required of all graduate students. (Pass-fail grading)
  • 801 -- Seminar in Paleontology. (2)
  • 802 -- Seminar in Paleobotany. (2) Readings and discussions on current topics.
  • 803 -- Seminar in Paleoceanography. (2) (Prereq: consent of the instructor) Critical analysis of recent papers dealing with the reconstruction of marine paleoenvironments based on deep sea sediments. Emphasis will be placed on specific intervals of geologic time. Two discussion hours per week.
  • 804 -- Seminar in Stratigraphy. (2)
  • 805 -- Seminar in Earth and Ocean Science Education. (1) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Interactive community outreach and middle school geoscience education for graduate students interested in outreach at the K-12 level. Pass/fail grading.
  • 818 -- Seminar in Geophysics. (2) Seminar related to current topics in geophysics.
  • 819 -- Seminar in Tectonophysics. (2) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Readings and discussion on current tectonophysical problems.
  • 821 -- Seminar in Mineralogy. (2)
  • 824 -- Seminar in Geochemistry. (2)
  • 831 -- Seminar in Structural Geology. (2)
  • 832 -- Seminar in Structural Geology. (2)
  • 833 -- Seminar in Structural Geology. (2)
  • 834 -- Seminar in Structural Geology. (2)
  • 841 -- Seminar in Petrology. (2)
  • 842 -- Seminar in Petrology. (2)
  • 843 -- Seminar in Petrology. (2)
  • 844 -- Seminar in Petrology. (2)
  • 851 -- Seminar in Sedimentology. (2)
  • 854 -- Seminar in Geomorphology. (2)
  • 861 -- Seminar in Hydrogeology. (3)
  • 862 -- Seminar in Hydrogeology. (3)
  • 888 -- Data Presentation Workshop. (3) Preparation and presentation, oral and written, of geological data, discussed via examples from students' own work and from published material.
  • 899 -- Dissertation Preparation. (1-12)

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