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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA 2008-2009 undergraduate bulletin
undergraduate bulletin index

updated 8/15/2008


William L. Graf, Chair

David J. Cowen, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1971, Carolina Distinguished Professor
Susan L. Cutter, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1976, Carolina Distinguished Professor
William L. Graf, Ph.D, University of Wisconsin, 1974, Educational Foundation Professor
Michael E. Hodgson, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1987
John R. Jensen, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, 1976, Carolina Distinguished Professor

Associate Professors
Gregory J. Carbone, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1990
Kirstin Dow, Ph.D., Clark University, 1996
John F. Jakubs, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1974
L. Allan James, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1988
John A. Kupfer, Ph.D., University of Iowa, 1995
Cary Mock, Ph.D., University of Oregon, 1994

Assistant Professors
Edward R. Carr, Ph.D., Syracuse University, 2001, University of Kentucky, 2002
Melanie Feakins, D.Phil., Oxford University, 2001
Monica G. Fisher, Ph.D., Purdue University, 2002
Diansheng Guo, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 2003
Frank Hardisty, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 2003
Amy Mills, Ph.D., University of Texas, 2004

Christopher D. Upchurch, Ph.D., University of Utah, forthcoming

Teaching Associates
Lewis Lapine, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1989
John C. Purvis, M.S., University of South Carolina, 1969
James Scurry, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 2003

Distinguished Professors Emeriti
Patricia P. Gilmartin, Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1980
Robert L. Janiskee, Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1974
Charles F. Kovacik, Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1970
Robert E. Lloyd, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 1974
Paul E. Lovingood Jr., Ph.D., University of North Carolina, 1962
Julian V. Minghi, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1962
Lisle S. Mitchell, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1967
William R. Stanley, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1966
Theodore R. Steinke, Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1979
John J. Winberry, Ph.D., Louisiana State University, 1971

Professor Emeritus
Allen D. Bushong, Ph.D., University of Florida, 1961


The Department of Geography offers both the Bachelor of Arts degree and the Bachelor of Science degree, each with a major in geography. Both degrees offer options in physical/environmental geography, human/economic geography, geographic information sciences, and general geography.*

*Pending Commission on Higher Education approval.

Degree Requirements

1. General Education Requirements (53-65 hours)

For a general outline, see the "College of Arts and Sciences" section of the Undergraduate Studies Bulletin. Students should see department guidelines for distinction between the B.A. and B.S. degrees.

2. Major Requirements (32-38 hours)

All majors must complete at least 32 hours of geography courses, including the core requirements of 10 hours:
GEOG 201 or 202 (3 hours)
GEOG 210 (3 hours)
GEOG 495 (3 hours)

All majors must complete enough additional hours in one of the following tracks to bring them to the required 32-38 hour total, with at least two courses at the 500 level (excluding GEOG 595). GEOL 103, 104, 121, or 141 may be used to meet the college social science requirement, but not major requirements. A minimum grade of C is required for all courses used to fulfill major requirements.

Physical/Environmental Geography
GEOG 201, 202, and 343 (11 hours); and three additional courses selected from GEOG 346, 347, 348, 370, 371, 430, 516, 530, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570, 571, 573 (9-12 hours); and one from geographic information science at the 300 level or above (3 hours)

Human/Economic Geography
GEOG 311 or 313 (3 hours); a course in regional geography (3 hours); at least five additional courses selected from GEOG 312, 324, 333, 344, 370, 378, 420, 511, 512, 515, 544, and 581 (15 hours); and one course from geographic information science at the 300 level or above (3 hours)

Geographic Information Science (GISc)
GEOG 341, 345, 363, 531 (12 hours); three additional courses selected from GEOG 541, 551, 554, 562, 563, and 564 (9 hours); and one non-GISc course at the 300 level or above (3-4 hours)

General Geography
a course in regional geography (3 hours); a course from the geographic techniques (3 hours); and six other courses at the 200 level and above (18-23 hours)

3. Cognate or Minor

See the "College of Arts and Sciences" section of the Undergraduate Studies Bulletin.

4. Electives

See the "College of Arts and Sciences" section of the Undergraduate Studies Bulletin.


The Department of Geography offers a flexible general geography minor that requires 18 credit hours in geography courses. Students may not apply more than 3 credit hours from the 100 level and not more than 9 credit hours from the 200 level.

Besides the general geography minor, students may instead choose a specialized minor in the following areas: environmental geography, geographic information science, meteorology and climatology, physical geography, and regional geography. Please see a faculty advisor in the Department of Geography for more details on the requirements for specialized minors.

Course Descriptions (GEOG)

GEOG 103, 121, and 141 are recommended for general degree requirements in social science.

  • 103 -- Introduction to Geography. (3) A survey of the principles and methods of geographic inquiry. Not required for the geography major.
  • 104 -- Introduction to Physical Geography. (3) Basic concepts of landform geography, climatology and meteorology, and biogeography.
  • 121 -- Lands and People of the World. (3) Introduction to the physical and human geography of the world with a focus on selected regions.
  • 141 -- The Earth from Above. (3) Use of maps, aerial photographs, and images from satellites as representations of the earth's surface.
  • 201 -- Landform Geography. (4) Hydrology, soil science, and interpretation of physical features formed by water, wind, and ice, with emphasis on environmental change. Three hours of lecture and one two-hour laboratory per week.
  • 202 -- Weather and Climate. (4) Processes that influence weather and climate patterns on the earth. Three lectures and one two-hour laboratory per week.
  • 210 -- Peoples, Places, and Environments. (3) Basic principles of human geography.
  • 221 -- Geography of South Carolina. (3) An intensive regional analysis of South Carolina. Selected phenomena such as urbanization, industrialization, land use, the physical environment, and their interrelationships.
  • 223 -- Geography of Latin America. {=LASP 331} (3) Physical and human geography of Latin America.
  • 224 -- Geography of North America. (3) Physical and human geography of North America with emphasis on the United States.
  • 225 -- Geography of Europe. (3) Physical and human geography of Europe.
  • 226 -- Geography of the Middle East. (3) A regional geographic approach to the environmental, social, economic, and political aspects of the Middle East (Southwest Asia and north Africa) with emphasis on contemporary problems.
  • 228 -- Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa. (3) A regional approach to the physical, social, economic, and political aspects of Sub-Saharan Africa with emphasis on contemporary problems.
  • 310 -- Topics in Geography. (3) Spatial analysis of selected geographical phenomena. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of courses by suffix and title.
  • 311 -- Cultural Geography. (3) The temporal-spatial relationship between humans and the natural environment with emphasis on the role through time of human activity in changing the face of the earth.
  • 312 -- Geography and Global Geopolitics. (3) Geographic perspectives on problems in international relations. Political geographic analysis of contemporary world problems.
  • 313 -- Economic Geography. (3) Spatial interrelation and linking of economic activities and how location affects the nature of economic systems.
  • 324 -- Landscapes of the United States. (3) Geographic change through time in the United States, with emphasis on evolution of the American landscape. Physical environment as modified by human intervention over time within a regional framework.
  • 330 -- The Geography of Disasters. (3) The study of disasters, their triggering mechanisms (natural, human, technological), their spatial distributions from local to global scales, and associated human responses.
  • 333 -- Geography of Popular Music. (3) Concepts of regional identity, spatial diffusion, culture change, regional economic growth and change as illustrated by U.S. popular music and the contemporary music industry.
  • 341 -- Cartography. (3) Introduction to the theory and principles of map construction including discussions of equipment and materials, lettering and symbolization, scale and generalization, data manipulation and representation. Presentation of geographic information on maps.
  • 343 -- Human Impact on the Environment. (3) A spatial consideration of the processes, effects, and trends in environmental change resulting from human activity. The problems of resource management and the implications for future habitation of the earth are emphasized.
  • 344 -- City Spaces, Local Places. (3) Analysis of the spatial properties of urban areas. Emphasis will be placed on factors of urban growth, location, spacing, and size of urban settlements; the factors supporting urban development; and the internal structure of cities.
  • 345 -- Interpretation of Aerial Photographs. (3) Theory and use of basic photo interpretation instruments and methods. Practice in acquiring and interpreting data from aerial photography for use in the physical and social sciences.
  • 346 -- Climate and Society. (3) Major theories and methodologies for studying the relationship between climate and society.
  • 347 -- Water as a Resource. (3) Introduction to spatial and institutional aspects of water availability, demand, and quality. Water storage/conveyance strategies and facilities. Real and perceived flood, drought hazards.
  • 348 -- Biogeography. (3) Spatial distributions of plants and animals as they relate to historical biogeographic patterns and human impact on the biosphere.
  • 349 -- Cartographic Animation. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 341 or GEOG 363 or consent of instructor) Introduction to theories and principles of cartographic animation.
  • 363 -- Geographic Information Systems. (3) Introduction to principles and methods of geographic information systems including discussion of computers, spatial data, analysis, and display. Includes discussion of applications and hands-on experience.
  • 370 -- America's National Parks. (3) Resource, managerial, and recreational-use components of the national park system; contemporary issues, problems, and managerial alternatives.
  • 371 -- Air Pollution Climatology. (3) Fundamentals, processes, and issues associated with air pollution. Emphasis is on the role of the atmosphere, how air pollution affects surface climate, and how climate and meteorology influence air quality.
  • 378 -- World Tourism Geography. (3) Geographic analysis of tourism in America and selected world regions; demand, supply, transportation, and cultural/environmental impact of tourism and travel.
  • 399 -- Independent Study. (3-6) Contract approved by instructor, advisor, and department chair is required for undergraduate students.
  • 495 -- Seminar in Geography. (3) Research methods and projects; restricted to students with at least 15 hours of credit in geography.
  • 498 -- Undergraduate Research. (3) Research on a significant geography problem in the local environment. Emphasis will be on the development of relatively individualized experiences in scientific investigation.
  • 499 -- Undergraduate Research. (3) Research on a significant geography problem in the local environment. Emphasis will be on the development of relatively individualized experiences in scientific investigation.
  • 510 -- Special Topics in Geography. (3) Spatial analysis of selected geographical phenomena.
  • 511 -- Planning and Locational Analysis. (3) Scientific approaches to locational problems in urban and regional planning, including regional growth and decline, land use control, public facility location and provision, and locational efficiency.
  • 515 -- Political Geography. (3) Concepts of space and power and their relationship to polities, elections, geopolitics, identities, law, economics, populations, and civil society.
  • 516 -- Coastal Zone Management. (3) Analysis of the competing demands for limited resources in the coastal zone with emphasis on the role of management in the resolution of conflicts over resource use.
  • 521 -- Landscapes of South Carolina. (3) An examination of the factors responsible for creating the contemporary South Carolina cultural landscape.
  • 530 -- Environmental Hazards. (3) Human and environmental contributions to the generation and management of hazards originating from extreme natural events to technological failures. Contemporary public policy issues at the national and international level.
  • 531 -- Quantitative Methods in Geographic Research. (3) A survey of basic quantitative approaches for handling and interpreting geographically related data; univariate and bivariate procedures applicable to a variety of problems.
  • 541 -- Advanced Cartography. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 341 or consent of instructor) Planning, compiling, constructing, and evaluating thematic maps. Theory and practice in scribing, separation and screening, color proofing, and map reproduction. Discussions of the process of map communication and the ways the cartographer can improve that communication.
  • 544 -- Geography of the City. (3) The influence of political boundaries, historical forces, settlement patterns, and transportation processes on urban life.
  • 545 -- Synoptic Meteorology. (4) (Prereq: GEOG 202 or equivalent) Analysis of synoptic-scale circulation using weather maps, soundings, cross sections, thermodynamic diagrams, numerical models, and imagery.
  • 546 -- Applied Climatology. (4) Analysis of climate applications in natural and human-modified environments. Content may include water resources, solar energy, urban planning, air quality, agriculture, and tourism. Course work includes lab and field experimentation.
  • 547 -- Fluvial Geomorphology. (3) Introduction to landforms and processes associated with flowing water at the earth's surface. Hydrology, sedimentology, and theories of channel formation and drainage basin evolution.
  • 549 -- Water and Watersheds. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 347, GEOL 371, or ECIV 360) Spatial variation of hydrology, water quality, and water-related hazards, including runoff generation, soil erosion, sedimentation, and flood hazards. Emphasizes a watershed perspective using geographic data and methods.
  • 551 -- Principles of Remote Sensing. (3) Introduction to remote sensing. A variety of imaging systems including black and white, color, and high altitude color infrared photographs, LANDSAT, thermal infrared, and active microwave. Use of remote sensing for studying the extra-terrestrial environment and earth weather systems.
  • 554 -- Spatial Programming. (3) Computer programming of spatial problems; spatial statistical analysis, interactive graphics, and computer maps.
  • 560 -- Source Materials for Geographic Instruction. {=EDSE 505} (3) Introduction to selected materials available for all levels of instruction in geography. Emphasis on the substantive nature of the materials.
  • 561 -- Geographic Concepts for Teachers. (3) Basic concepts and content related to physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of place, human-environment interaction, migration, regions, and the national geography standards. Cannot be used in M.A., M.S., or Ph.D. programs in geography.
  • 562 -- Satellite Mapping and the Global Positioning System. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 345 or 363 or 551 or consent of instructor) Technology and use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS). GPS space segment, receiver technologies, range observables, and positioning accuracy. Applications to large/medium scale mapping, remote sensing, and aerial photography.
  • 563 -- Advanced Geographic Information Systems. (3) Theory and application of geographic information systems including discussions of automated input, storage, analysis, integration, and display of spatial data. Use of an operational geographic information system.
  • 564 -- GIS-Based Modeling. (3) Geographical information systems for modeling physical/human processes in space and time using raster and vector data. Cartographic modeling concepts, embedded models, and GIS-model coupling.
  • 566 -- Social Aspects of Environmental Planning and Management. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 343 or consent of instructor) Geographical approach to environmental problems.
  • 567 -- Long-Term Environmental Change. {=GEOL 567} (3) (Prereq: A 200-level course in physical geography or geology or equivalent) Climatic changes of the past and their impact on the physical landscape, with an emphasis on the Quaternary period.
  • 568 -- Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 343 or consent of instructor) Consequences of increasing anthropogenic changes on environmental systems including the sources of change, regional impacts, and social and policy responses.
  • 569 -- Environment and Development. {=ANTH 569} (3) (Prereq: consent of instructor) Examination of development theory and environmental implications of social and economic change. Study of general theoretical perspectives will be balanced with case study materials.
  • 570 -- Geography of Public Land and Water Policy. (3) Geography of public land, water, and related public trust resources (wildlife, timber, minerals, fuels, recreation, wetlands, coastal zones, wilderness); historical geography of policy; spatial aspects of current research and management.
  • 571 -- Microclimatology. (4) (Prereq: GEOG 202 or consent of instructor) Field techniques and processes in the atmospheric boundary layer including radiation, soil heat fluxes, turbulence, momentum, latent and sensible heat fluxes, moisture, and evaporation.
  • 573 -- Climatic Change and Variability. (3) (Prereq: GEOG 202 or equivalent) Observations and theories of climatic change and variability as they occur at different space and time scales. Projections of future climates. Techniques used in climatic change research and impact analysis.
  • 581 -- Globalization and Cultural Questions. {=ANTH 581} (3) This course examines cultural understandings of and responses to globalization, examining topics such as its history and theories, migration, economic integration and inequality, identity, social movements, and the environment.
  • 595 -- Internship in Geography. (3-6) (Prereq: contract approved by departmental internship program director) Internships in various government agencies and industry under joint supervision of agency personnel and the internship program director. Maximum credit six units; three credits applicable to a master's degree. Pass-Fail.

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