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Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice

Students in a classroom taking notes


Beyond learning criminological theory and research methods, the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice provides students the opportunity to conduct research that is vital to law enforcement, as well as practice effective intervention methods through adolescent mentoring. 

Faculty and Student Research 

Recent Publications

* Represents current or former graduate student.

  • Andersen, T. S. (2017). Social support and one-year outcomes for women participating in prison-based substance abuse treatment programming.Criminal Justice Studies. doi: 10.1080/1478601X.2017.1396218

  • Crittenden, C. A., Koons-Witt, B. A., & Kaminiski, R. J. (Forthcoming). Being assigned work in prison: Do gender and race matter? Feminist Criminology. doi: 10.1177/1557085116668990.

  • Hine, K. A., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. J., & Alpert, G. P. (Forthcoming). Too much or too little? Individual and situational predictors of police force relative to suspect resistance. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy. doi: 10.1080/10439463.2016.1232257

  • Hine, K. A., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. J., & Alpert, G. P. (Forthcoming). The understated ugly side of police-citizen encounters: situation, suspect, officer, decision-making, and force predictors of officer injuries. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy. doi: 10.1080/10439463.2016.1251430

  • *Leasure, P. & *Martin, T. (Forthcoming). Criminal records and housing: An experimental study. Journal of Experimental Criminology. doi: 10.1007/s11292-017-9289-z.

  • Metcalfe, C. & Chiricos, T. (Forthcoming). Race, plea, and charge reduction: An assessment of racial disparities in the plea process. Justice Quarterly. doi: 10.1080/07418825.2017.1304564.

  • Metcalfe, C. & *Hodge, O. (2017). Empowering the police to fight terrorism in Israel. Criminology & Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1177/1748895817739664

  • Navarro, J. C. & Tewksbury, R. (Forthcoming). Mythbusters: Examining rape myth acceptance among U.S. university students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice. doi: 10.1080/19496591.2017.1289094

  • Navarro, J. C. & Tewksbury, R. (Forthcoming). Deconstructing the associations of religiosity, Christian denominations, and non-religions to rape myth acceptance among University students. Deviant Behavior. doi: 10.1080/01639625.2016.1260386

  • Navarro, J. C. & Tewksbury, R. (Forthcoming). National comparisons of rape myth acceptance predictors between nonathletes and athletes from multi-institutional settings. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. doi: 10.1177/1079063217732790

  • *Ouellette, H. M., Applegate, B. K., & *Vuk, M. (Forthcoming). The public’s stance on prisoner reentry: Policy support and personal acceptance. American Journal of Criminal Justice. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s12103-016-9382-2

  • Owens, E., Weisburd, D., Amendola, K. L., & Alpert, G. P. (Forthcoming). Can you build a better cop? Experimental evidence on supervision, training, and policing in the community. Criminology & Public Policy.

  • Porter, L. E. & Alpert, G. P. (Forthcoming). Understanding police recruits' attitudes toward public interactions: An Australian example. Police Quarterly. doi: 10.1177/1098611117723567.

  • Sevigny, E.L. & *Zhang, G. (Forthcoming). Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools? Journal of School Violence. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/15388220.2016.1275657

  • Alpert, G. P., *McLean, K., & Wolfe, S. (2017). Consent decrees: An approach to police accountability and reform. Police Quarterly, 20, 239-249.

  • Applegate, B. K. (2017). Advancing justice through our students. Justice Quarterly, 34, 727-738.

  • Crittenden, C. A. & Koons-Witt, B. A. (2017). Gender and programming: A comparison of program availability and participation in U.S. prisons. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61, 611-644.

  • Ferdik, F. V. & Smith, H. P. (2017). Correctional officer safety and wellness literature. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from:

  • Iratzoqui, A. & Metcalfe, C. (2017). Set up for failure? Examining the influence of monetary sanctions on probation success. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28, 370-393.

  • *Leasure, P. (2017). Neutralizations in retail banking: A qualitative analysis. Deviant Behavior, 38, 448-460.

  • *McLean, K. (2017). Ethnic identity, procedural justice, and offending: Does procedural justice work the same for everyone? Crime & Delinquency, 63, 1314-1336.

  • Navarro, J. C. & Higgins, G. E. (2017). Familial identity theft. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 218-230.

  • Nix, J., Campbell, B. A., Byers, E. H., & Alpert, G. P. (2017). A bird's eye view of civilians killed by police in 2015: Further evidence of implicit bias. Criminology & Public Policy, 16, 309-340.

  • Sitren, A. H. & Smith, H. P. (2017). Teaching criminal justice online: Current status and important considerations. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 28, 352-367.

  • Wolfe, S. E., *Chrusciel, M. M., Rojek, J., Hansen, J. A., & Kaminski, R. J. (2017). Procedural justice, legitimacy, and school principals' evaluations of school resource officers: Support, perceived effectiveness, trust, and satisfaction. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28, 107-138.

  • Wolfe, S. E. & *McLean, K. (2017). Procedural injustice, risky lifestyles, and violent victimization. Crime & Delinquency, 63, 1383-1409.

  • Wolfe, S. E., *McLean, K., & Pratt, T. C. (2017). I learned it by watching you: Legal socialization and the intergenerational transmission of legitimacy attitudes. The British Journal of Criminology, 57, 1123-1143.

  • Alpert, G. P. (2016). Toward a national database of officer-involved shootings. Criminology & Public Policy, 15, 237-242.

  • Alpert, G., Lyman, M., & Baxter, K. (2016). Police pursuits. In W. Jennings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Bolin, R. M. & Applegate, B. K. (2016). Adultification in juvenile corrections: Examining the orientations of juvenile and adult probation and parole officers. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 321-339.

  • *Ferdik, F. V. & Smith, H. P. (2016). Maximum security correctional officers: An exploratory investigation into their social bases of power. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 498-521.

  • Hickman, M., Atherley, L., *Lowery, P., & Alpert, G. (2016). Reliability of the force factor method in police use-of-force research. Police Quarterly, 18, 368-396.

  • Isom, D. (2016). Microaggressions, injustices, and racial identity. An empirical assessment of the theory of African American offending. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 32, 27-59.

  • Isom, D. (2016). An air of justice? An integrated approach to understanding the link between police injustices and neighborhood rates of violence. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14, 371-392.

  • *Leasure, P. & Anderson, T. S. (2016). The effectiveness of certificates of relief as collateral consequence relief mechanisms: An experimental study. Yale Law & Policy Review Inter Alia, 35, 11-22.

  • *McLean, K. & Rojek, J. (2016). Traffic stops, race, and measurement. In B. M. Huebner (ed.), The Handbook of Measurement Issues in Criminology and Criminal Justice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • *McLean, K. & Wolfe, S. E. (2016). A sense of injustice loosens the moral bind of law: Specifying the links between procedural injustice, neutralizations, and offending. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43, 27-44.

  • Metcalfe, C. (2016). The role of courtroom workgroups in felony case dispositions: An analysis of workgroup familiarity and similarity. Law & Society Review50, 637-673.

  • Metcalfe, C., Wolfe, S. E., Gertz, E., & Gertz, M. (2016). They protect our homeland but neglect our community: Homeland security overemphasis, legitimacy, and public cooperation in Israel. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 53, 814-839.

  • Power, J., Gobeil, R., Beaudette, J. N., Ritchie, M. B., Brown, S. L., & Smith, H. P. (2016). Childhood abuse, nonsuicidal self-injury, and suicide attempts: An exploration of gender differences in incarcerated adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 46, 745-751.

  • Power, J. & Smith, H. P. (2016). Examining Nock and Prinstein's four-function model with offenders who self-injure. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7, 309-314.

  • Power, J., Smith, H. P., & Trestman, R. L. (2016). "What to do with the cutters?"-Best practices for offender self-injurious behaviors. Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society, 29, 57-76.

  • Prenzler, T., Cawthray, T., Porter, L. E., & Alpert, G. P. (2016). Reducing public complaints and use of force: The Portland Police Bureau experience. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 2, 260-273.

  • Rabe-Hemp, C. & Navarro, J. C. (2016). A history of police and masculinities, 1700-2010. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy, 26, 245-247.

  • Smith, H. (2016). Self-injurious behavior in prison: A case study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60, 228-243.

  • Wolfe, S. E., *Nix, J.Kaminski, R., & Rojek, J. (2016). Is the effect of procedural justice on police legitimacy invariant? Testing the generality of procedural justice and competing antecedents of legitimacy. Journal of Quantiative Criminology, 32, 253-282.


 South Carolina Law Enforcement Census

What is it?

The South Carolina Law Enforcement Census is an annual project conducted by researchers in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. The purpose of the Census is to provide law enforcement agencies in our state with empirical evidence concerning contemporary issues of importance to policing in South Carolina.

What is the overall goal of the census?

The overarching goal of the annual census is to produce a research report (that is posted online) that will prove useful to executives, their agencies, and, ultimately, the communities in South Carolina they serve.

What topics guide the research?

The issues examined in the census change annually. In the past, we have conducted research on issues surrounding terrorism, immigration, gang violence, school resource officers, officer-involved vehicle collisions, and body-worn cameras (see links to PDF reports below). We also periodically conduct a Census that explores issues such as personnel, budgets, salaries, equipment, and policies.

How can the community help?

A key component of the census is law enforcement executive participation in developing ideas for upcoming research projects. We encourage executives throughout the state to contact Scott Wolfe, Ph.D. ( or Bob Kaminski, Ph.D. ( if they have issues they would like to see explored in the census. Many of the topics we research each year developed because of this process.

 Census Research Staff

  • Robert Kaminski, Ph.D. - Associate Professor, Email:, Phone: 803.777.1560
  • Kyle McLean, M.A. - Doctoral Research Assistant
  • Meg Chrusciel, M.A. - Doctoral Research Assistant

 Yearly Census Reports