Skip to Content

Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice

  • Students in a classroom taking notes


Beyond learning criminological theory and research methods, the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice provides students the opportunity to conduct research that is vital to law enforcement, as well as practice effective intervention methods through adolescent mentoring. 

Faculty and Student Research 

Recent Publications

* Represents current or former graduate student.

  • Andersen, T. S., Isom Scott, D. A., Boehme, H. M.8, King, S.*, & Mikell, T.* (Forthcoming). What matters to formerly incarcerated men? Looking beyond recidivism as a measure of successful reintegration. The Prison Journal. doi: 10.1177/0032885520939295.

  • Andersen, T. S., Silcox, J., & Isom Scott, D. A. (Forthcoming). Constructing “bad girls”: Representations of violent girls in the Canadian and U.S. news media. Deviant Behavior. doi: 10.1080/01639625.2019.1676105

  • Boehme, H. M.*, Cann, D.,* & Isom, D. A. (Forthcoming). Citizens’ perceptions of over- and under-policing: A look at race, ethnicity, and community characteristics. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.1177/0011128720974309

  • Bolin, R. M.*, Applegate, B. K., & *Ouellette, H. M. (Forthcoming). Americans’ opinions on juvenile justice: Preferred aims, beliefs about juveniles, and blended sentencing. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.1177/0011128719890273

  • Cann, D.*, & Isom Scott, D. A. (Forthcoming). Sex offender residence restrictions and homelessness: A critical look at South Carolina. Criminal Justice Policy Review. doi: 10.1177/0887403419862334

  • Hayes, W., & Boyle, K. M. (Forthcoming). Identity and hooking up at a U.S. “party school”. Deviant Behavior.  doi: 10.1080/01639625.2020.1724377.

  • Kabiri, S., Shadmanfaat, S. M., Smith, H., & Cochran, J. K. (Forthcoming). Aggression in soccer fan’s: A test of Akers’ social learning theory. Deviant Behavior.  doi: 10.1080/01639625.2020.1763119

  • Isom Scott, D. A. (Forthcoming). Status, socialization, and identities: Central factors to understand disparities in crime. Sociology Compass. doi: 10.1111/soc4.12825

  • Isom Scott, D. A. & Andersen, T. S. (Forthcoming). “Whitelash?” Status threat, anger, and white America: A general strain theory approach. Journal of Crime and Justice. doi: 10.1080/0735648X.2019.1704835

  • Isom, D. A., Grosholz, J. M., Whiting, S., & Beck, T.* (Forthcoming). A gendered look at Latinx general strain theory. Feminist Criminology. doi: 10.1177/1557085120973077

  • Isom, D. A., Mikell, T. C.*, & Boehme, H. M.* (Forthcoming). White America, threat to the status quo, and affiliation with the alt-right: A qualitative approach. Sociological Spectrum. doi: 10.1080/02732173.2021.1885531.

  • Isom Scott, D. A., Whiting, S., & Grosholz, J. M. (Forthcoming). Examining and expanding Latinx general strain theory. Race and Justice.  doi: 10.1177/2153368720930409

  • Leasure, P.* & Andersen, T. S. (Forthcoming). Race, criminal records, and certificates of relief: An experimental pilot study. Deviant Behavior. doi: 10.1080/01639625.2019.1596539

  • Leasure, P.*, & Kaminski, R. J. (Forthcoming). The impact of a multiple conviction record on hiring outcomes. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.1177/0011128720973150

  • Lin, K., & Mancik, A. M. (Forthcoming). National culture on the cross‐national variation of homicide: An empirical application of the Inglehart–Welzel cultural map. Sociological Forum. doi: 10.1111/socf.12640

  • Mancik, A. M., Hawk, S. R., Jarvis, J. P., & Regoeczi, W. C. (Forthcoming). Evaluating fluctuations in homicide: crowdsourcing trends and assessing sentiments of change. Journal of Crime and Justice. doi: 10.1080/0735648X.2020.1842790

  • Martin, A., & Kaminski, R. J. (Forthcoming). On the relationship between social disorganization and police coercive action(s) in the New York City Police Department. Police Practice and Research - An International Journal. doi: 10.1080/15614263.2019.1668788

  • McCabe, J. E., Kaminski, R. J., & *Boehme, H. (2020). Racial  profiling and CT motor vehicle stops: An observational study in three towns. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal. doi: 10.1080/15614263.2020.1749620

  • McLean, K.*, Wolfe, S. E., Rojek, J., Alpert, G. P., & Smith, M. R. (Forthcoming). Police officers as warriors or guardians: Empirical reality or intriguing rhetoric? Justice Quarterly. doi: 10.1080/07418825.2018.1533031

  • Nemeth, J. M., Viveiros, N., Lynch, K. R., Andersen, T. S., & Fisher, B. (Forthcoming). Adolescent reproductive and sexual coercion: Measurement invariance in a population-based sample of male and female high school students. Journal of Family Violence. doi: 10.1007/s10896-019-00092-w

  • Rogers, S. A., & Rogers, B. A. (Forthcoming). Trans men’s pathways to incarceration. Sociological Spectrum. doi: 10.1080/02732173.2020.185037

  • Scaptura, M. N. & Boyle, K. B. (Forthcoming). Masculinity threat, “incel” traits, and violent fantasies among heterosexual men in the United States. Feminist Criminology. doi: 10.1177/1557085119896415

  • Shadmanfaat, S. M., Kabiri, S., Smith, H., & Cochran, J. K. (Forthcoming). A longitudinal study of Iranian fans’ cyberbullying: The utility of social learning theory. Deviant Behavior. doi: 10.1080/01639625.2019.1637996

  • Sitren, A. H., Smith, H. P., Andersen, T. S., & Bookstaver, M. R. (Forthcoming). Jail visitation: An assessment of alternative modalities. Criminal Justice Policy Review. doi: 10.1177/0887403420921221

  • Spencer, M.D.*, Green, E.K., & Bolin, R.M.* (Forthcoming). Exploring the relationship between fishing regulations and angler compliance in Virginia. American Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1007/s12103-020-09576-8

  • Stansfield, R., Mancik, A., Parker, K. F., & Delacruz, M. (Forthcoming). County variation in intimate partner homicide: A comparison of Hispanic and non-Hispanic victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi: 10.1177/0886260519861657

  • Sutton, T. E., Culatta, E., Boyle, K. M., & Turner, J. L. (Forthcoming). Individual Vulnerability and Organizational Context as Risks for Sexual Harassment among Female Graduate Students. Social Currents. doi: 10.1177/23294965211001394

  • Wilson, A.*, Applegate, B. K., & Bolin, R. M.* (Forthcoming). Evidence-based practices in community corrections: Officers’ perceptions of professional relevance and personal competence. American Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1007/s12103-020-09581-x

  • *Wilson, A., & Koons-Witt, B. (Forthcoming). “They still know I’m their momma”: Incarcerated mothers’ perceptions of reunification and resuming a caregiver role. Feminist Criminology. doi; 10.1177%2F1557085120983468

  • Wolfe, S. E., McLean, K.*, Rojek, J., Alpert, G. P., & Smith, M. R. (Forthcoming). Advancing a theory of police officer training motivation and receptivity. Justice Quarterly. doi: 10.1080/07418825.2019.1703027

  • Aizpurua, E., Applegate, B. K., Bolin, R. M., Vuk, M., & Ouellette, H. M. (2020). The sins of the child: Public opinion about parental responsibility for juvenile crime. Children and Youth Services Review, 114 (105023), 1-12.

  • Boehme, H. M.* & Isom Scott, D. A. (2020). Alt-white? A gendered look at “victim” ideology and the alt-right. Victims & Offenders, 15(2), 174-196.

  • Isom Scott, D. (2020). The new Juan Crow? Unpacking the lnks between discrimination and crime for Latinxs. Race and Justice, 10, 20-42.

  • Kabiri, S., Shadmanfaat, S., Smith, H., & Cochran, J. (2020). A social learning model of antisocial coaching behavior. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 68, 860-879.

  • Mancik, A. M., Stansfield, R., & *Kinard, S. M. (2020). Intimate partner femicide in context: An examination of firearm type across the rural/urban divide. International Journal of Rural Criminology, 5(2), 276-299.

  • *Martin, T. E., *Huffman, A., Koons-Witt, B. A., & Brame, R. (2020). Hiring people with criminal records in South Carolina: Examining businesses' hiring practices and views on incentives. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 31(4), 532-554.

  • Metcalfe, C., & *Cann, D. (Forthcoming). Arab threat and social control: An exploration of the relationship between ethnic attitudes and punitiveness among Israeli Jews. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 64(5), 498-521.

  • *Park, Y. & Metcalfe, C. (2020). Bullying victimization as a strain: Examining changes in bullying victimization and delinquency among Korean students from a developmental general strain theory perspective. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 57(1), 31-65.

  • Regoeczi, W. C., Jarvis, J., & Mancik, A. (2020). Homicide investigations in context: Exploring explanations for the divergent impacts of victim race, gender, elderly victims, and firearms on homicide clearances. Homicide Studies, 24(1), 25-44.

  • *Spencer, M.D. (2020). The Problem of Wildlife Poaching on U.S. Federal Lands. A Problem Solving Guide: Wilderness Problems, Guide No. 1. Phoenix, AZ: Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, Arizona State University.

  • Stoughton, S. W., Noble, J. J., & Alpert, G. P. (2020). Evaluating police uses of force. New York University Press.

  • Vuk, M., Applegate, B. K., Ouellette, H. M., Bolin, R. M., & Aizpurua, E. (2020). The pragmatic public? The impact of practical concerns on support for punitive and rehabilitative prison policies. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 273-292.

  • Wilson, T., Loughran, T., & Brame, R. (2020). Substantial bias in the tobit estimator: Making a case for alternatives. Justice Quarterly, 37, 231-257.

  • Wolfe, S., Rojek, J., McLean, K., & Alpert, G. (2020). Social interaction training to reduce police use of force. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 687, 124-145.

  • Fairchild, A. J., Gupta-Kagan, J., & Andersen, T. S. (2019). Operationalizing intake: Variations in juvenile court intake procedures and their implications. Children and Youth Services Review, 102, 91-101.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. & Grosholz, J. M. (2019). Unpacking the racial disparity in crime from a racialized general strain theory perspective. Deviant Behavior, 40(12), 1445-1463.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. & *Mikell, T. (2019). "Gender" and general strain theory: Investigating the impact of gender socialization on young women's criminal outcomes. Journal of Crime and Justice,42(4), 393-413.

  • Isom Scott, D. & *Seal, Z. T. (2019). Disentangling the roles of negative emotions and racial identity in the theory of African American offending. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 44, 277-308.

  • Mancik, A. M., & Parker, K. F. (2019). Homicide clearances during pre- and post-U.S. crime drop eras: the role of structural predictors and demographic shifts, 1976–2015. Journal of Crime and Justice, 2(3), 237-256.

  • Schnell, C., Grossman, L., & Braga, A. (2019). The routine activities of violent crime places: A retrospective case-control study of crime opportunities on street segments. Journal of Criminal Justice, 60, 140-153.

  • Smith, H. P. (2019). A rescue dog program in two maximum-security prisons: A qualitative study. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 58(4), 305-326.

  • Smith, H. P., Kaminski, R. J., Power, J., & Slade, K. (2019). Self-harming behaviors in prison: A comparison of suicidal processes, self-injurious behaviors, and mixed events. Criminal Justice Studies, 32(3), 264-286.

  • Smith, H. P., Power, J., Usher, A. M., Sitren, A. H., & Slade, K. (2019). Working with prisoners who self-harm: A qualitative study on stress, denial of weakness, and encouraging resilience in a sample of correctional staff. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 29(1), 7-17.

  • Tiesman, H. M., Gwilliam, M., Rojek, J., Hendricks, S., Montgomery, B., & Alpert, G. (2019). The impact of a crash prevention program in a large law enforcement agency. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 62(10), 847-858.

  • *Wilson, A. (2019). Returning to academia: The value of perspective. The Criminologist, 44(6), 37-39.

  • Andersen, T. S. (2018). Social support and one-year outcomes for women participating in prison-based substance abuse treatment programming. Criminal Justice Studies, 31, 80-94.

  • Bolin, R. M. & Applegate, B. K. (2018). Supervising juveniles and adults: organizational context, professional orientations, and probation and parole officer behaviors. Journal of Crime and Justice, 41, 410-426.

  • Crittenden, C. A., Koons-Witt, B. A., & Kaminiski, R. J. (2018). Being assigned work in prison: Do gender and race matter? Feminist Criminology, 13, 359-381.

  • Hine, K. A., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. J., & Alpert, G. P. (2018). Too much or too little? Individual and situational predictors of police force relative to suspect resistance. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy, 28, 587-604.

  • Hine, K. A., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. J., Alpert, G. P., & Allen, A. (2018). Exploring police use of force decision-making processes and impairments using a naturalistic decision-making approach. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 45, 1782-1801.

  • Isom Scott, D. (2018). Latina fortitude in the face of disadvantage: Exploring the conditioning effects of ethnic identity and gendered ethnic identity on Latina offending. Critical Criminology, 26, 49-73.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. (2018). Disentangling the impact of female victimization across racial and ethnic lines. Victims & Offenders, 13, 711-737.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. (2018). Understanding white Americans' percetions of "reverse" discrimination: An application of a new theory of status dissonance. In S. R. Thye & E. J. Lawler (eds.), Advances in Group Processes, Volume 35. Emerald Publishing Limited (pp. 129-157). 

  • Koons-Witt, B. & Crittenden, C. (2018). Gender differences and program participation among prisoners with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57, 431-458.

  • Metcalfe, C. & Chiricos, T. (2018). Race, plea, and charge reduction: An assessment of racial disparities in the plea process. Justice Quarterly, 35, 223-253.

  • Metcalfe, C. & *Hodge, O. (2018). Empowering the police to fight terrorism in Israel. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 18, 585-603.

  • Owens, E., Weisburd, D., Amendola, K. L., & Alpert, G. P. (2018). Can you build a better cop? Experimental evidence on supervision, training, and policing in the community. Criminology & Public Policy, 17, 41-87.

  • Sevigny, E.L. & *Zhang, G. (2018). Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools? Journal of School Violence, 17, 164-179.

  • Applegate, B. K. (2017). Advancing justice through our students. Justice Quarterly, 34, 727-738.

  • Crittenden, C. A. & Koons-Witt, B. A. (2017). Gender and programming: A comparison of program availability and participation in U.S. prisons. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61, 611-644.

  • Ferdik, F. V. & Smith, H. P. (2017). Correctional officer safety and wellness literature. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from:

  • Iratzoqui, A. & Metcalfe, C. (2017). Set up for failure? Examining the influence of monetary sanctions on probation success. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28, 370-393.

  • *Leasure, P. (2017). Neutralizations in retail banking: A qualitative analysis. Deviant Behavior, 38, 448-460.

  • Alpert, G. P., McLean, K., & Wolfe, S. (2017). Consent decrees: An approach to police accountability and reform. Police Quarterly, 20, 239-249.

  • Nix, J., Campbell, B. A., Byers, E. H., & Alpert, G. P. (2017). A bird's eye view of civilians killed by police in 2015: Further evidence of implicit bias. Criminology & Public Policy, 16, 309-340.

  • Ouellette, H. M., Applegate, B. K., & *Vuk, M. (2017). The public’s stance on prisoner reentry: Policy support and personal acceptance. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 768-789.

  • Porter, L. E. & Alpert, G. P. (2017). Understanding police recruits' attitudes toward public interactions: An Australian example. Police Quarterly, 20, 449-480.

  • Sitren, A. H. & Smith, H. P. (2017). Teaching criminal justice online: Current status and important considerations. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 28, 352-367.

  • Wolfe, S. E., *Chrusciel, M. M., Rojek, J., Hansen, J. A., & Kaminski, R. J. (2017). Procedural justice, legitimacy, and school principals' evaluations of school resource officers: Support, perceived effectiveness, trust, and satisfaction. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28, 107-138.

  • Alpert, G. P. (2016). Toward a national database of officer-involved shootings. Criminology & Public Policy, 15, 237-242.

  • Alpert, G., Lyman, M., & Baxter, K. (2016). Police pursuits. In W. Jennings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Bolin, R. M. & Applegate, B. K. (2016). Adultification in juvenile corrections: Examining the orientations of juvenile and adult probation and parole officers. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 321-339.

  • Ferdik, F. V. & Smith, H. P. (2016). Maximum security correctional officers: An exploratory investigation into their social bases of power. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 498-521.

  • Hickman, M., Atherley, L., Lowery, P., & Alpert, G. (2016). Reliability of the force factor method in police use-of-force research. Police Quarterly, 18, 368-396.

  • Isom, D. (2016). Microaggressions, injustices, and racial identity. An empirical assessment of the theory of African American offending. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 32, 27-59.

  • Isom, D. (2016). An air of justice? An integrated approach to understanding the link between police injustices and neighborhood rates of violence. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14, 371-392.

  • *Leasure, P. & Anderson, T. S. (2016). The effectiveness of certificates of relief as collateral consequence relief mechanisms: An experimental study. Yale Law & Policy Review Inter Alia, 35, 11-22.

  • *Leasure, P. & *Martin, T. (2017). Criminal records and housing: An experimental study. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 13, 527-535.

  • Metcalfe, C. (2016). The role of courtroom workgroups in felony case dispositions: An analysis of workgroup familiarity and similarity. Law & Society Review50, 637-673.

  • Metcalfe, C., Wolfe, S. E., Gertz, E., & Gertz, M. (2016). They protect our homeland but neglect our community: Homeland security overemphasis, legitimacy, and public cooperation in Israel. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 53, 814-839.

  • Power, J., Gobeil, R., Beaudette, J. N., Ritchie, M. B., Brown, S. L., & Smith, H. P. (2016). Childhood abuse, nonsuicidal self-injury, and suicide attempts: An exploration of gender differences in incarcerated adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 46, 745-751.

  • Power, J. & Smith, H. P. (2016). Examining Nock and Prinstein's four-function model with offenders who self-injure. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7, 309-314.

  • Power, J., Smith, H. P., & Trestman, R. L. (2016). "What to do with the cutters?"-Best practices for offender self-injurious behaviors. Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society, 29, 57-76.

  • Prenzler, T., Cawthray, T., Porter, L. E., & Alpert, G. P. (2016). Reducing public complaints and use of force: The Portland Police Bureau experience. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 2, 260-273.

  • Smith, H. (2016). Self-injurious behavior in prison: A case study. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60, 228-243.

  • Wolfe, S. E., Nix, J., Kaminski, R., & Rojek, J. (2016). Is the effect of procedural justice on police legitimacy invariant? Testing the generality of procedural justice and competing antecedents of legitimacy. Journal of Quantiative Criminology, 32, 253-282.


 South Carolina Law Enforcement Census

The South Carolina Law Enforcement Census is an annual project conducted by researchers in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. The purpose of the Census is to provide law enforcement agencies in our state with empirical evidence concerning contemporary issues of importance to policing in South Carolina.

The overarching goal of the annual census is to produce a research report (that is posted online) that will prove useful to executives, their agencies, and, ultimately, the communities in South Carolina they serve.

The issues examined in the census change annually. In the past, we have conducted research on issues surrounding terrorism, immigration, gang violence, school resource officers, officer-involved vehicle collisions, and body-worn cameras (see links to PDF reports below). We also periodically conduct a Census that explores issues such as personnel, budgets, salaries, equipment, and policies.

A key component of the census is law enforcement executive participation in developing ideas for upcoming research projects. We encourage executives throughout the state to contact Scott Wolfe, Ph.D. ( or Bob Kaminski, Ph.D. ( if they have issues they would like to see explored in the census. Many of the topics we research each year developed because of this process.

 Census Research Staff

 Yearly Census Reports



Challenge the conventional. Create the exceptional. No Limits.