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updated 6/9/2009

Biological Sciences

Charles R. Lovell, Chair

Professors
Ronald H. Benner, Ph.D., University of Georgia, 1984
Franklin G. Berger, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1974, George H. Bunch Professor of Science
Berten E. Ely III, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1973,
Director of Science Education Center
Michael R. Felder, Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1970
Madilyn Fletcher, Ph.D., University College of North Wales, 1974, Director of School of the Environment
Thomas J. Hilbish, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1984
Austin L. Hughes, Ph.D., Indiana University, 1984
Charles R. Lovell, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984,
Chair of the Department
László Márton, Ph.D., Jozsef Attila University, 1976
James T. Morris, Ph.D., Yale University, 1979
, Director of Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences
Timothy A. Mousseau, Ph.D., McGill University, 1988
, Associate Dean for Research and Education of the College of Arts and Sciences
Roger H. Sawyer, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts, 1970, Carolina Distinguished Professor,
Senior Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences
Vicki Vance, Ph.D., Washington University, 1983, Wade T. Batson Professor of Botany
Richard G. Vogt, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1988
, Graduate Director
Alan S. Waldman, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1985
David S. Wethey, Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1979
Sarah A. Woodin, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1972, Carolina Distinguished Professor

Associate Professors
Franklyn F. Bolander Jr., M.D./Ph.D., Duke University, 1977
Lewis H. Bowman, Ph.D., University of Virginia, 1979
Erin L. Connolly, Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1997
Brian S. Helmuth, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1997
Beth A. Krizek, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1993
Robert P. Lawther, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1974
, Undergraduate Director
Rekha C. Patel, Ph.D., Indian Institute of Sciences, 1987
James L. Pinckney, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 1992
Joseph M. Quattro, Ph.D., Rutgers University, 1991
David Reisman, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1986
Richard M. Showman, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1979
Deanna S. Smith, Ph.D., Stanford University, 1994
Johannes W. Stratmann, Ph.D., University of Regensburg, 1994

Assistant Professors
Dan A. Dixon, Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1994
Jeffry Dudycha, Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1999
Robert Friedman, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, 2002

Richard A. Long, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego, 2001
Lydia E. Matesic, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 2000
Tammi L. Richardson, Ph.D., Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S., Canada, 1996

Research Professor
Yung-Pin Chen, Ph.D., Murdoch University, 1986

Research Associate Professors
Loren W. Knapp, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1980, Assistant Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Gail Pruss, Ph.D., University of California Berkeley, 1977
Briana Crotwell Timmerman, Ph.D., Curtin University, 2008, Associate Dean, South Carolina Honors College
Barbara C. Waldman, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1985

Research Assistant Professor
Kevin Higgins, Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1997
Maria Marjorette O. Pena, Ph.D., Bowling Green State University, 1995

Instructors
Susan M. Carstensen, M.S., Emory University, 1991
Margret Cirtain, Ph.D., University of Memphis, 2009
Charles F. Duggins, Ph.D., Florida State University, 1980
Kirk A. Stowe, Ph.D., University of Missouri, St. Louis, 1997

Distinguished Professors Emeriti
Wade T. Batson Jr., Ph.D., Duke University, 1952
B. Theodore Cole, Ph.D., Duke University, 1954
Wallace D. Dawson, Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1962
John Mark Dean, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1962
Patricia J. DeCoursey, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1959
Robert J. Feller, Ph.D., University of Washington, 1977
John M. Herr Jr., Ph.D., University of North Carolina, 1957
David E. Lincoln, Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, 1978
David H. Rembert Jr., Ph.D., University of Kentucky, 1967
Duane L. Rohlfing, Ph.D., Florida State University, 1964
Stephen E. Stancyk, Ph.D., University of Florida, 1974
Norimitsu Watabe, D.Sc., Tohoku University, 1960
F. John Vernberg, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1951

Richard G. Zingmark, Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1969

Professors Emeriti
David L. Claybrook, Ph.D., University of Texas, 1960
Gerard T. Cowley, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1962
Duane Yoch, Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 1968


Overview

The Department of Biological Sciences offers a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in biological sciences. Specific degree requirements and course descriptions are listed below. For more information about the department, please visit www.biol.sc.edu.

Degree Requirements

(128 hours)
All biological sciences majors must earn at least a C in BIOL 101 and 102 ot progress in the major.

1. General Education Requirements (53-54 hours)

The following courses fulfill some of the general education requirements and some cognates and must be completed for a major in biology: CHEM 111, 112, 333, 331L, 334, 332L and STAT 201 (Note: PHYS 201 and 202 are recommended); MATH 141 and 142 are recommended. However, successful completion of MATH 122 and MATH 170, or MATH 172 may be substituted.
A minimum grade of C in all biology courses is required of all biological sciences majors.
For an outline of other general education requirements, see "College of Arts and Sciences."

2. Major Requirements (28 hours)

At least 28 hours of biological sciences majors courses 300, 400, 500, or 600 level including BIOL 301, 302, and 303; one physiology and one plant biology course. At least three courses applied toward the major must have an associated laboratory. No more than three credits of 398/399 may be applied toward the major. Two of 301, 302, or 303 must be completed to advance to 400-600 level courses. At least two courses must be at the 500 level or above.

3. Cognate Requirements (12 hours)

As part of the cognate requirement, four hours of an advanced course must be completed in one of the following areas: anthropology, chemistry, physics, geological sciences, mathematics, statistics, computer science, experimentally oriented psychology, or other related fields.

4. Electives, see "College of Arts and Sciences."

5. Progression Requirement

Biological sciences majors may enroll in a biological sciences major course a maximum of twice to earn the required grade of C or higher. For the purposes of this standard of progression, withdrawal with a W does not constitute enrollment.

6. Transfer Requirement

Any student applying for transfer to the biological sciences major from other programs within the University, or from other accredited colleges and universities, is required to have a minimum overall grade point average of 2.50 on a 4.00 scale.

Course Descriptions (BIOL)

  • 101 -- Biological Principles I. (4) Introductory survey of macromolecules, cell structure and function, genetics, and molecular biology. Three lecture hours and three lab hours per week.
  • 101A -- Biological Principles I. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 101L) Introductory survey of macromolecules, cell structure and function, genetics, and molecular biology. Three lecture hours per week. Restricted to students who have credit for BIOL 101L but lack the lecture.
  • 101L -- Biological Principles I Laboratory. (1) Enrollment by special permission only. Intended for students who have taken BIOL 101 lecture or its equivalent but lack the lab. Three hours per week.
  • 102 -- Biological Principles II. (4) (Prereq: grade of C or better in BIOL 101) Introductory survey of plant and animal development, physiology, ecology, and evolution. Three lecture hours and three lab hours per week.
  • 102A -- Biological Principles II. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 102L) Introductory survey of plant and animal development, physiology, ecology, and evolution. Three lecture hours per week. Restricted to students who have credit for BIOL 102L but lack the lecture.
  • 102L -- Biological Principles II Laboratory. (1) Enrollment by special permission only. Intended for students who have taken BIOL 102 lecture or its equivalent but lack the lab. Three hours per week.
  • 110 -- General Biology. (4) Basic biological concepts and issues for non-biology majors. Credit may not be given for both this course and BIOL 120. Three lecture, two laboratory hours per week.
  • 110A -- General Biology (Audio-Tutorial). (1) Addendum to BIOL 110.
  • 120 -- Human Biology. (3) Fundamental principles of human biology. Credit may not be given for both BIOL 110 and BIOL 120. Three lecture hours per week. Not for major credit.
  • 120L -- Laboratory in Human Biology. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 120) Exercises dealing with basic concepts of human biology. Not for major credit.
  • 200 -- Plant Science. (3) An introduction to plant science for the non-major. This course does not carry major credit, and is not designed as a prerequisite for other biology courses. Plant development, physiology, genetics, evolution, and ecology will be considered. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 200L -- Plant Science Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 200) Laboratory exercises, demonstrations, and audio-visual supplements to BIOL 200. Two hours per week. Not for major credit.
  • 206 -- Genetics and Society. (3) (Designed for non-major students.) Genetic principles, emphasizing human heredity. Relevance of recent advances in genetics. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 220 -- Selected Topics in Biology. (1 each; 8 maximum) A series of courses each lasting one-third of a semester. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of classes by suffix and title. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 232 -- Anatomy. (3) Functional anatomy of the human body and its relation to disease processes. Not for biology major credit.
  • 232L -- Anatomy Laboratory. (1) (Coreq: BIOL 232) The principles of anatomy as demonstrated by microscopic studies and animal dissection. Three hours per week.
  • 240 -- Applied Human Physiology. (3) Fundamentals of functional human biology and knowledge of contemporary medical problems. Not for major credit.
  • 242 -- Human Physiology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 232 or permission of instructor) Functional biology of organ systems in the maintenance of the whole organism; homeostatic relationships. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
  • 243 -- Human Anatomy and Physiology I. (3) (Prereq: CHEM 102) Functional anatomy and physiology of the human body, including the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 243L -- Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory. (1) (Coreq: BIOL 243) The principles of anatomy and physiology as demonstrated by microscopic studies, animal dissection, and physiological experiments. One three-hour laboratory per week.
  • 244 -- Human Anatomy and Physiology II. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 243) Functional anatomy and physiology of the human body, including the cardiovascular, endocrine, excretory, reproductive, digestive, and respiratory systems. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 244L -- Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory. (1) (Coreq: BIOL 244) A continuation of BIOL 243L. One three-hour laboratory per week.
  • 250 -- Microbiology. (3) (Prereq: college-level biology and chemistry; coreq: BIOL 250L) An introduction to bacteria and viruses, emphasizing structure, metabolism, and pathogenesis. Discussion of infectious diseases, antigen-antibody relationships, and anti-microbial agents in chemotherapy. Not available for biology major credit. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 250L -- Microbiology Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 250) Not available for biology major credit. Three hours per week.
  • 260 -- Physiology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 102) Physiology of human systems especially susceptible to disturbance: immunobiology, circulation, excretion, metabolism, endocrinology, and muscle physiology. Not for biology major credit. Intended for pharmacy students.
  • 270 -- Introduction to Environmental Biology. (3) Basic ecological principles and the impacts of human population growth and technology. Not for major credit.
  • 270L -- Introduction to Environmental Biology Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 270) Demonstrations, data analyses, discussions, and films relating to human ecology, resource use, and environmental impact. Two hours per week. Not for major credit.
  • 301 -- Ecology and Evolution. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 102 or MSCI 311) Concepts of evolution, populations, and population interactions; communities and ecosystems. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 301L -- Ecology and Evolution Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 301) Experiments, exercises, and demonstrations. Three hours per week.
  • 302 -- Cell and Molecular Biology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 102 or MSCI 311; prereq or coreq: CHEM 333) Principles of eukaryotic cell structure, molecular organization, and physiology. Genome organization and expression. Cell growth, division, and cell-cell interactions. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 302L -- Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 302) Experiments, exercises, and demonstrations. Three hours per week.
  • 303 -- Fundamental Genetics. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 102 or MSCI 311) Basic principles of transmission and molecular genetics; quantitative inheritance; recombination; biochemical aspects of gene function and regulation; developmental genetics and population genetics. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 398 -- Laboratory Teaching Experience. (1) (Prereq: Department permission) Participation in preparation and teaching of undergraduate biological sciences laboratories.
  • 399 -- Independent Study. (1-6) Contract approved by instructor, advisor, and department head is required for undergraduate students.
  • 415 -- Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 102 or MSCI 311) Phylogenetic and comparative aspects of anatomy, reproduction, and embryology of the vertebrates. Three lecture and two two-hour laboratory periods per week.
  • 420 -- Survey of the Plant Kingdom. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301) Phylogenetic survey of the major plant divisions; consideration of the structure and development of flowering plants.
  • 420L -- Survey of the Plant Kingdom Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 420) Three hours per week.
  • 425 -- Plant Form and Function. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302) Basic introduction to plants, including cellular biology, energetics, structure-function relationships, development, nutrition, and diversity.
  • 425L -- Plant Form and Function Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 425) Illustration of principles of introductory botany and plant physiology using experiments, exercises, and demonstrations. Three laboratory hours per week.
  • 450 -- Principles of Biological Oceanography. {=MSCI 450} (3) (Prereq: MSCI 311, BIOL 301, or consent of instructor) Principles and methods of measuring production in the sea. Emphasis on the ocean's role in the global carbon budget. Three lecture hours per week. Scheduled field trips are required.
  • 460 -- General Physiology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 or MSCI 311) Functional mechanisms of vertebrate organ systems. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 460L -- General Physiology Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 460) Experiments on vertebrate organ system functions using different animal models. One four-hour laboratory per week.
  • 465 -- Domestic Animal Nutrition. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302) Elements of nutrition and animal feeding in veterinary practice. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 498 -- Biological Research: An Introduction. (4) (Prereq: one 300-level or higher biological laboratory and consent of instructor) Methodologies of biological research with emphsis on hypothesis formation, research design, and data collection, and current issues in biology. Two lecture and six laboratory hours per week.
  • 505 -- Developmental Biology I. (3) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 302) An introduction to the descriptive and experimental embryology of animals. Living and preserved specimens will be used to demonstrate the basic processes of embryogenesis. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 505L -- Developmental Biology Laboratory I. (1) (Coreq: BIOL 505) Descriptive and experimental exercises related to embryology. One three-hour laboratory per week.
  • 506 -- Developmental Biology II. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 505) Molecular aspects of development from gamete formation through tissue and organ differentiation in plants and animals. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 506L -- Developmental Biology Laboratory II. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 506) A series of experimentally oriented laboratory exercises will be performed. One three-hour laboratory per week.
  • 510 -- Invertebrate Zoology. (=MSCI 510) (5) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) Phylogenetic and comparative aspects of anatomy, physiology, reproduction, and embryology of the invertebrates. Three lecture and two three-hour laboratory periods per week.
  • 523 -- Plant Development. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 and 303) Descriptive and molecular examination of the processes and mechanisms used by plants in organogenesis, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 523L -- Plant Developmental Laboratory. (1) (Coreq: BIOL 523) Experiments utilizing a genetic approach to the study of plant development. Three laboratory hours per week.
  • 524 -- Mycology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or consent of instructor) Taxonomy and morphology of fungi; cultivation, life histories, and economic importance; all classes and major orders considered. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
  • 525 -- Marine Plants. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) Diversity, distribution, physiology, ecology, evolution, and economic importance of marine algal, seagrass, and mangrove communities. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Scheduled field trips are required.
  • 526 -- The Fall Flora. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or consent of instructor) Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
  • 527 -- The Spring Flora. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or consent of instructor) Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
  • 528 -- The Summer Flora. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or consent of instructor) Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
  • 530 -- Histology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 302) An introduction to the tissues that make up the human body. The microscopic anatomy of tissues is examined and discussed in terms of function and physiology. Three lecture hours and four laboratory hours per week.
  • 531 -- Parasitology. {=ENHS 661 and EPID 661} (4) (Prereq: 300-level biology course or equivalent) Parasites of biological, economic, and public health importance. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
  • 534 -- Animal Behavior. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) A comparative survey of behavior patterns of animals from protists to humans and the physiological mechanisms underlying behavior.
  • 534L -- Animal Behavior Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 534) Observational and experimental methods used in classifying animal behavior patterns and in determining underlying control mechanisms. One three-hour laboratory per week.
  • 536 -- Ichthyology. {=MSCI 536} (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311 or consent of instructor) Phylogeny, morphology, behavior, and ecology of fishes. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Several field trips are required.
  • 537 -- Aquaculture. {=MSCI 537} (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) Introduction to the practical and scientific aspects of the commercial culture of freshwater and marine organisms. Three lecture hours per week. One all-day field trip required.
  • 541 -- Principles of Biochemistry. {=CHEM 550} (3) (Prereq: CHEM 334) A survey of fundamentals of biochemistry.
  • 541L -- Principles of Biochemistry Laboratory. {=CHEM 550L} (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 541) Three laboratory hours per week.
  • 543 -- Comparative Physiology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 or MSCI 311) A study of phylogeny of physiological systems and functional mechanisms involved in the maintenance of life in zoological forms. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 543L -- Comparative Physiology Laboratory. (1) (Coreq: BIOL 543) Laboratory exercises to illustrate principles from BIOL 543. Three hours per week.
  • 545 -- Biochemistry/Molecular Biology I. {=CHEM 555} (3) (Prereq: CHEM 334 or equivalent) Essentials of modern biochemistry. Three lecture hours per week. First semester of a two-semester course.
  • 546 -- Biochemistry/Molecular Biology II. {=CHEM 556} (3) (Prereq: BIOL 545 or consent of instructor) Essentials of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. Three lecture hours per week. Second semester of a two-semester course.
  • 549 -- Plant Physiology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 302 and 425) A general survey of the major physiological processes in plants. Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
  • 550 -- Bacteriology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 or MSCI 311; coreq: BIOL 550L) Introduction to bacteria and viruses emphasizing ultrastructure, physiology, genetics, and growth. Discussion of public health, industrial, and environmental microbiology. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 550L -- Bacteriology Laboratory. (1) (Coreq: BIOL 550) Three laboratory hours per week.
  • 552 -- Population Genetics. {=MSCI 552} (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301, MSCI 302, and BIOL 303) An introduction to the principles of population genetics, with emphasis on the origin, maintenance, and significance of genetic variation in natural populations.
  • 570 -- Principles of Ecology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) Interactions of organisms and the environment; ecosystem structure and functions. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 570L -- Principles of Ecology Laboratory. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 570) Three hours per week.
  • 572 -- Freshwater Ecology. {=ENVR 572} (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or permission of instructor) Quantitative study of the population, community, and evolutionary ecology of freshwater habitats (lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands). Includes mandatory field trips.
  • 575 -- Marine Ecology. {=MSCI 575} (3) (Prereq: CHEM 111 and BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) Structure, dynamics, and interactions between populations and communities in marine ecosystems. Three lecture hours per week. Attendance at designated departmental seminars is required.
  • 575L -- Marine Ecology Laboratory. {=MSCI 575L} (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 575) Laboratory and field exercises in coastal environments.
  • 577 -- Ecology of Coral Reefs. {=MSCI 577} (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311 or consent of instructor) Structure, productivity, and biodiversity of coral reefs, emphasizing their sensitivity, stability, and sustainability. Taught as an extended field experience with daily lectures and guided research activities.
  • 599 -- Topics in Biology. (1-3) Current developments in biological sciences. Readings and research on selected topics. Course content varies and will be announced in the schedule of classes by suffix and title.
  • 610 -- Hallmarks of Cancer. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 and 303) Survey of current concepts regarding the molecular and genetic factors that regulate the origin and progression of cancer. Readings based on current primary literature.
  • 620 -- Immunobiology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302) Basic immunological concepts including antibody structure, function, and genetics; cellular immunology; transplantation; hypersensitivity; autoimmunity; and immunity to infectious diseases.
  • 630 -- Biology of Birds. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301, 302, and 303 or consent of instructor) Biology of birds at molecular, organismal, and population levels, emphasizing unique adaptations of the class of Aves.
  • 635 -- Neurobiology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 302 and permission of instructor) Descriptive and experimental aspects of the neural basis of behavior, emphasizing cellular and molecular mechanisms. Two lecture and six laboratory hours per week.
  • 640 -- Microbial Ecology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 550 and either BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) Interactions of microorganisms with each other, with more complex organisms, and with their environments. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 641 -- Biophysical Ecology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301; MATH 141 or MATH 122) This course examines how the mechanisms by which animals and plants interact with their physical environments influence organismal physiology.
  • 643 -- Advanced Microbiology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 and 550) The taxonomy, morphology, metabolism, genetics, and ecology of microorganisms. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 645 -- Senior Seminar. (1) (Prereq: 16 hours of biology)
  • 651 -- Limnology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301) A study of the aquatic environment and its biota. Three lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
  • 652 -- Evolutionary Biology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 552 or consent of instructor) A survey of major themes in evolutionary biology, including natural selection, molecular evolution, population genetics, quantitative genetics, sexual selection, speciation, and coevolution. Three lecture and two recitation/laboratory hours.
  • 653 -- Bioinformatics. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302, 303) Studies of the principles of genetics and molecular biology as applied to adaptive evolution of genes and genomes.
  • 654 -- Speciation. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or 652) Speciation as the source of biological diversity. Historical and biological viewpoints. Analysis of concepts of species and models of speciation. Two lectures and one recitation per week.
  • 655 -- Biotechnology. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 and 303) Studies in molecular biology and genetics with emphasis on the use of newly developed techniques in biotechnology. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 656 -- Experimental Biotechnology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 302, 302L and consent of instructor) Techniques used in biotechnology will be employed in the context of an experimental project. Twelve laboratory hours per week.
  • 660 -- Biology of Mammals. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301 or MSCI 311) Evolution, systematics, genetics, ecology, and adaptation of mammals. Emphasis on native South Carolina species. Two lectures and one two-hour laboratory per week, plus five field trips to be arranged.
  • 665 -- Human Molecular Genetics. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 and 303 or consent of instructor) Molecular mechanisms underlying gene action and differentiation in man; the genetic bases for human variability and inborn metabolic errors leading to inherited diseases.
  • 670 -- Plant Ecology. (4) (Prereq: BIOL 301) Structure and dynamics of plant populations and communities, including life histories, adaptations, and plant interactions. Three lecture hours per week.
  • 670L -- Plant Ecology. (1) (Prereq or coreq: BIOL 670) Laboratory and field exercises in plant ecology. Four hours per week.
  • 671 -- Plant Responses to the Environment. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302) Physiological, molecular, and genetic examination of induced plant responses to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses.
  • 690 -- Ultramicroscopy. (3) (Prereq: BIOL 302 or MSCI 311 or consent of instructor) Theoretical and practical aspects of electron, optical, and atomic force microscopy including energy dispersive analysis and digital image acquisition and processing. Two lecture and one laboratory hour per week, plus a research project to be arranged.

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