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 Principle Investigator
School 
Project Description
Type 
Reports/Links
Bennett, A. Clemson University Add sustainability module to Honors College course 
C
Final Report
Bethel,B 
Natvig, D 
Lander University Explore community sustainability model; lay groundwork for courses and programs 
Final Report
Cooper, M  Clemson University Add experiental modules to chemistry course for non-majors 
C
Final Report
Darnell, S  USC  Add sustainability module to Maymester course
 
Fredendall, L Clemson University Bring visiting faculty to Clemson; supervise development of EMS 
Other 
Final Report
Gribb, M  USC  Expand Maymester course to include consideration of environmental factors, discussion of sustainability issues
Final Report
Hammitt, W.  Clemson University Place attachment and influence on sustainable practices
R
Final Report
Haque, M.
Tai, L.
Clemson University & USC  Development of “Sustainable Tool Kit” for Habitat for Humanity and National Wildlife Federation partnership 
Final Report
Hawkins, G
Adkins, B
Blacklocke, S
Clemson University & USC  Research relating to establishment of a multi-university Environmental Conflict Management Center (including College of Charleston)
Final Report

Publication

Hogan, R 
Moore, P
USC & Florence- Darlington Technical College Evaluate efficacy of internet/distance ed courses (to be sure encouragement in name of “sustainability” is warranted)
R
Final Report
Jacques, J
London, J 
Clemson University Sustainable Development working group; student projects; campus building projects 
R
 Final Report
Liken, M  USC  Development of environmental medicine component for graduate nursing course
Final Report
Mack, P  Clemson University Add sustainability module to Honors College course 
Final Report
Morse, J  Clemson University Inventory of SC Botanical Garden, using students 
R
Final Report
Peters, W  USC  Identifying legal impediments to sustainable development
R
Final Report
Pierce, C. USC Identify possible ways to recycle granular waste into geomaterials 
Final Report
Skewes, P Clemson University Development of multi-media module on environmental aspects of animal husbandry 
Final Report
Tinsley, J  Clemson University Sustainability module for earth sciences course for non-majors 
Final Report
Wagner, J  Clemson University Sustainability issues in sciences for education majors 
Final Report
Wallace, S Clemson University  Interns at Sustainable Agriculture facility (in cooperation with Francis Marion U.)
Other
Final Report
Warner, L
Brannan, W 
USC and MUSC Possible uses of dense CO2 to replace hazardous cleaners in hospital complexes 
Final Report
Wells, G Clemson University Development of sustainability module for international economics course for non economics majors 
Final Report

 
R= Sustainability Research Mini-Grants C= New Course Development/
Summer Support
V= Faculty/Student Visiting Scholar Awards Other


Reports

Calhoun Honors Seminar H203:
The Arts, Politics & Technologies of Food

Prepared by: Alma Bennett, Professor
Department of English
Clemson University

The course, as its description indicates, is a highly interdisciplinary study that traces and integrates artisitic, technological, theological, economic and political preoccupations with food- from prehistory to the present.

Description of the Seminar's Goals & Participants
An Associate Professor of Humanities and English who specializes in highly interdisciplinary courses, I first proposed and began to teach this Calhoun Honors Seminar five years ago, after Dr. Steve Wainscott, Director of the Calhoun Honors College, asked me to design a course on any subject which could serve as a nexus for a number of disciplines.  I chose food since it is a natural nexus that binds together disparate components of life, death, society, barter, labor, invention, diplomacy, immigration, weather, natural resources, religion, mystery, and creativity.    As the policy statement indicates, my primary goals for the course are for the students to explore the intricate nature of those connections and to appreciate food's central role in human history, creativity, and inventiveness.

The twenty students in the seminar represent a wide range of majors, backgrounds, and interests.  Their majors are as follow:

Animal Science                                                          2
Biochemistry                                                               1
Biological Sciences                                                   2
Chemical Engineering                                               1
Civil Engineering                                                        2
Computer Engineering                                              1
Construction Science & Management                     1
English                                                                         1
Graphic Communications                                          1
Marketing                                                                     2
Pre-Rehabilitation                                                       2
Psychology                                                                  2
Speech & Communications                                      2

Innovations Motivated by the Mini-Grant
The mini-grant has encouraged my expanding and/or adding several components to the seminar:

  • The addition of a second field trip, which was a resounding success, during which we visited the Aquaculture Facilities, the Starkey Swine Center, and the Simpson Beef Unit of Clemson University.  As a result of these learning experiences and the students' responses, this will be a permanent component of the seminar.  To demonstrate something of the students' appreciatiion of this opportunity.  I have enclosed two of the student's responses to the field trip.
  • An expanded study of the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century exchanges between the New World and Europe of seeds, plants, agricultural innovations and traditions, and diseases.  This study in turn, encouraged me to begin preparation of an expanded study unit on the Irish Potato Famine and all the population, agricultural, political, and immigration issues surrounding that calamity.
  • A new course component, using Coca-Cola as our model, in which we examined current contemporary problems and law suits surrounding major food-related corporations, problems that range from charges of tainted bottlings in Europe to racial discrimination.  My preliminary research on this was presented to and discussed by the seminar prior to our six-hour visit to the international headquarters of Coca-Cola in Atlanta.
In addition to these special course components, the mini-grant has enabled me to purchase (or to rent, in the case of one film unavailable for purchase) copies of food-related films which will be a permanent part of the seminar's Food in Films study unit.

Purchases:

  •      Babette's Feast, based on the story by Isak Dinesen
  •      Big Night
  •      How Tasty My Little Frenchman
Rental:
  •      Like Water for Chocolate, based on the novel by Laura Esquivel.
An additional benefit of the grant was the purchase of two books -- The Absolut Book and the Cuisine of the Creative -- which will be used, respectively, in a future study unit on food and advertising/the alcohol wars and in a Food of the Artists series, including food and agricultural traditions and aesthetics surrounding such artists as Monet, Toulouse-Lautrec, Cezanne, and others.

Description of the Seminar Assignments
The enclosed policy statement, syllabi, assignments, responses, and list of solo presentations will indicate something of the complexity of the students' work this semester.  Their final solo presentations -- each of which included Powerpoint slides -- were excellent as were their final research papers, which expanded their presentation topics.  I was particularly impressed by their highly professional portfolios which reflected the scope of the their study and all written (23 in all) assignments, which I had edited and critiqued prior to their inclusion in the portfolios.


A Sustainable Development/Environment Module for an International Economics Course for Non-Majors—Final Report 

Prepared by: Gary J. Wells, Professor
Agricultural and Applied Economics
Clemson University

The Project

The basic objective was to incorporate a module addressing trade, sustainable development and environmental issues into Economics 310, International Economy.  This course is designed for non-economics majors interested in international economics.  Students come from a broad spectrum of the University including management, languages, and engineering.  The course is offered each semester, and this semester (Fall 2000) the enrollment is 80.

Specifically, sustainable development/environment has been incorporated into discussions of:

  • The World Trade Organization
  • The European Union and
  • The North American Free Trade Agreement
Additionally, a section considering the unique interactions of trade, sustainable development, and the environment has been included.  Issues addressed include:
  • Does trade encourage or deter sustainable development?
  • Should trade policy concern itself with sustainable development and environmental issues?
  • Should there be differential international trade rules for developing versus developed countries?
  • Is regulation the route to go?
  • Are environmentally friendly countries put at a trade disadvantage?
To supplement the text selected for ECON 310 a set of notes has been developed.  To "bring the material home" a mini-case study will be required. 

To facilitate maximum use of the material by the course's students as well as by students at other universities revised notes and case study have been placed on the course’s web site.  The course outline (including links to the web material) have been submitted to the Starfish program.

Project Material Includes:
 

  • Power Point presentation of Trade and the Environment
  • Power Point presentation of the European Union, Trade and the Environment
  • Power Point presentation of the World Trade Organization, Trade and the Environment
  • Power Point presentation of NAFTA, Trade and the Environment
  • Case Study entitled "A Towering Tangle of Tires or When the Rubber Leaves the Road" (requires a Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition subscription) 
  • An extensive general listing of recent environmental issues in the news (requires a Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition subscription)
  • A web site with the above material 
(http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~gjwells/Environment.html
FINALREPORT

PROJECT TITLE: The Development of a Comprehensive Research Plan to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Distance Learning 

Name:  Dr. Robert P. Hogan,  Associate Vice President for Learning Resources
College:  Florence-Darlington Technical College
Phone:  (843) 661-8344    Fax: (843) 661-8217 Email:  hoganr@flo.tec.sc.us

Name:  Dr. Philip S. Moore,  Director of Assessment
College: University of South Carolina
Phone: (803) 777-2814    Fax: (803) 777-5415 Email: PhilMoore@sc.edu
 

PROJECT SUMMARY

As colleges and universities move to embrace distance learning, the need for students to travel to college campuses will diminish.  The trend toward "paperless" courses and distance learning will consequently reduce the need for new classroom buildings and parking lots, and will result in less demand for gasoline for student travel and electricity for heating and lighting of classrooms.  While this trend to conserve natural resources and increase accessibility to higher education is laudable, it is essential to ensure that these savings are not realized at the expense of student learning and success.  Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop a comprehensive research plan to evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning courses.

The project assembled a comprehensive review of he literature that is available for all South Carolina colleges, and it developed a comprehensive research plan and method of analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of Internet courses.  Although the research model is tailored to online delivery, the model is applicable for interactive televised courses (ITV), independent study, and satellite courses.  The research supported by this Initiative has assisted the college in evaluating the effectiveness and sustainability of online education. 

On unique aspect of this project has been the collaboration between the University of South Carolina and Florence-Darlington Technical College.  Florence-Darlington Technical College has expertise in online delivery of courses, offering several associate degrees and more than 50 online courses.  The University of South Carolina provides research expertise that is not available at the technical college level. 

RESULTS

Literature Search

The project conducted an extensive review of the research literature and assembled the results on a CD.  CD copies of the literature search have been distributed to Clemson University, the University of South Carolina, and the 16 technical colleges. Dr, Moore will facilitate a breakfast session on distance learning at the national AAHE Assessment 
Conference in June and will distribute our CD to all participants.

Copies of the literature search have been requested by researchers at the University of Maryland’s Office of Institutional Research, University of South Carolina researchers, and members of the South Carolina Partnership for Distance Learning.  The University of Maryland researchers have agreed to send the results of their follow-up literature search.

The literature search identified several key variables. The following is a list of primary independent and dependent variables in research dealing with the effectiveness of distance education.

 Independent Student Variables

  • Academic confidence 
  • Age
  • Cognitive skills, study habits
  • Employment,  PT/FT
  • Familiarity with subject taught
  • Familiarity with technology 
  • Family, children
  • Gender 
  • Hours enrolled, PT/FT
  • Learning style
  • Educational attainment 
  • Motivation,  persistence
  • Prior distance learning experience
  • Socio-economic background
 Independent Instructional Variables
  • Advance organizers
  • Class size
  • Course age 
  • Course workload
  • Feedback
  • Individual/ group assignments
  • Instructional material quality
  • Instructor availability 
  • Instructor DL training
  • Instructor teaching load
  • Statement of course goals, 
  • Variety of media
  • Visual aids
 Independent Program Support 
  • Availability of course materials
  • Availability of library services to off-site students
  • Ease of communication, i.e., toll free lines, fax, email
  • Number of staff, facilitators per course
  • Number of students enrolled 
  • Student advisement, tutoring 
  • Key Dependent Variables 
  • Amount/Quality of interaction 
  • Attrition rate
  • Course satisfaction
  • Employer satisfaction
  • Grades
  • Number of program graduates
  • Willingness to participate in future DE courses/recommend to others
 DATA ANALYSIS

The online program at Florence-Darlington Technical College has increased dramatically during the 1999-2000 academic year with nearly 1000 students enrolling in Internet courses.   A preliminary review of the data has shown that the attrition rate for online courses is significantly greater than for traditional on-campus courses.  For this reason, the research effort has been shifted to focus on both retention and course quality.

The researchers will complete the data analysis in summer 2000 and based upon the results of the analysis and the literature search, changes will be made to the online programs to increase student retention.

The researchers will present their findings at to EdTEch 2000 (Sept 26-28, Charleston, SC  and The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2000 Annual Meeting  (December 5-8, Atlanta, GA).   Proposals have also been submitted) and The Chair Academy 10th Annual International Conference, "New Horizons: Leadership for the Future," (Feb. 14-17, Tampa, FL).  A proposal will also be submitted to present research findings at the National Learning Infrastructure Initiative (NLII) Annual Meeting (Jan 28-30, New Orleans.


FINALREPORT

PROJECT TITLE: The Development of a Comprehensive Research Plan to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Distance Learning 

Name:  Dr. Robert P. Hogan,  Associate Vice President for Learning Resources
College:  Florence-Darlington Technical College
Phone:  (843) 661-8344    Fax: (843) 661-8217 Email:  hoganr@flo.tec.sc.us

Name:  Dr. Philip S. Moore,  Director of Assessment
College: University of South Carolina
Phone: (803) 777-2814    Fax: (803) 777-5415 Email: PhilMoore@sc.edu
 

PROJECT SUMMARY

As colleges and universities move to embrace distance learning, the need for students to travel to college campuses will diminish.  The trend toward "paperless" courses and distance learning will consequently reduce the need for new classroom buildings and parking lots, and will result in less demand for gasoline for student travel and electricity for heating and lighting of classrooms.  While this trend to conserve natural resources and increase accessibility to higher education is laudable, it is essential to ensure that these savings are not realized at the expense of student learning and success.  Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop a comprehensive research plan to evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning courses.

The project assembled a comprehensive review of he literature that is available for all South Carolina colleges, and it developed a comprehensive research plan and method of analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of Internet courses.  Although the research model is tailored to online delivery, the model is applicable for interactive televised courses (ITV), independent study, and satellite courses.  The research supported by this Initiative has assisted the college in evaluating the effectiveness and sustainability of online education. 

On unique aspect of this project has been the collaboration between the University of South Carolina and Florence-Darlington Technical College.  Florence-Darlington Technical College has expertise in online delivery of courses, offering several associate degrees and more than 50 online courses.  The University of South Carolina provides research expertise that is not available at the technical college level. 

RESULTS

Literature Search

The project conducted an extensive review of the research literature and assembled the results on a CD.  CD copies of the literature search have been distributed to Clemson University, the University of South Carolina, and the 16 technical colleges. Dr, Moore will facilitate a breakfast session on distance learning at the national AAHE Assessment 
Conference in June and will distribute our CD to all participants.

Copies of the literature search have been requested by researchers at the University of Maryland’s Office of Institutional Research, University of South Carolina researchers, and members of the South Carolina Partnership for Distance Learning.  The University of Maryland researchers have agreed to send the results of their follow-up literature search.

The literature search identified several key variables. The following is a list of primary independent and dependent variables in research dealing with the effectiveness of distance education.

 Independent Student Variables

  • Academic confidence 
  • Age
  • Cognitive skills, study habits
  • Employment,  PT/FT
  • Familiarity with subject taught
  • Familiarity with technology 
  • Family, children
  • Gender 
  • Hours enrolled, PT/FT
  • Learning style
  • Educational attainment 
  • Motivation,  persistence
  • Prior distance learning experience
  • Socio-economic background
 Independent Instructional Variables
  • Advance organizers
  • Class size
  • Course age 
  • Course workload
  • Feedback
  • Individual/ group assignments
  • Instructional material quality
  • Instructor availability 
  • Instructor DL training
  • Instructor teaching load
  • Statement of course goals, 
  • Variety of media
  • Visual aids
 Independent Program Support 
  • Availability of course materials
  • Availability of library services to off-site students
  • Ease of communication, i.e., toll free lines, fax, email
  • Number of staff, facilitators per course
  • Number of students enrolled 
  • Student advisement, tutoring 
  • Key Dependent Variables 
  • Amount/Quality of interaction 
  • Attrition rate
  • Course satisfaction
  • Employer satisfaction
  • Grades
  • Number of program graduates
  • Willingness to participate in future DE courses/recommend to others
 DATA ANALYSIS

The online program at Florence-Darlington Technical College has increased dramatically during the 1999-2000 academic year with nearly 1000 students enrolling in Internet courses.   A preliminary review of the data has shown that the attrition rate for online courses is significantly greater than for traditional on-campus courses.  For this reason, the research effort has been shifted to focus on both retention and course quality.

The researchers will complete the data analysis in summer 2000 and based upon the results of the analysis and the literature search, changes will be made to the online programs to increase student retention. 

The researchers will present their findings at to EdTEch 2000 (Sept 26-28, Charleston, SC  and The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2000 Annual Meeting  (December 5-8, Atlanta, GA).   Proposals have also been submitted) and The Chair Academy 10th Annual International Conference, "New Horizons: Leadership for the Future," (Feb. 14-17, Tampa, FL).  A proposal will also be submitted to present research findings at the National Learning Infrastructure Initiative (NLII) Annual Meeting (Jan 28-30, New Orleans.


 Final Report

PLACE ATTACHMENT AND ITS INFLUENCE
ON SUSTAINABILITY OF CAMPUS RESOURCES

William E. Hammitt, Professor
Department of Forest Resources
Clemson University
Clemson, SC

The study was part of the Clemson University “Sustainable Universities Initiative Mini-Grant Project,” conducted 30 June 1999 through 30 June 2000. The purpose of the research was to inventory places on campus (buildings and open spaces) for student and faculty “sense of attachment”, to be used as an indicator for sustainable planning and management on campus. The premise underlying the study was that Clemson University’s “places” within the campus are special places that many South Carolinians have experienced and are strongly bonded/attached. Current students are developing emotional bonds and attachments to campus places and attributes that will be sustained over a lifetime. It is essential that Clemson University personnel understand the major components of campus place bonding/attachment, and to work toward the sustainability of these valued resources. 

There were two phases to the study. Phase I involved passing out instamatic cameras to 15 freshmen and 15 seniors to photograph 12 places/spaces on campus, that students felt a sense of attachment toward. Classrooms were visited on two geographical areas of campus (agricultural and central) to ask for volunteers to take photos. The photos served as an inventory of campus resources and were analyzed for universal and thematic content. The 300+ student generated photographs, after reduction by a panel of four researchers to 24 universal and/or thematic themes, were re-photographed with a digital camera and used as stimuli (place photos) in Phase II of the project.

Phase II consisted of a photo-questionnaire consisting of 24 prototype photos from the student (plus researcher) generated photo inventory, a place attachment scale, and some background characteristics of respondents. The photo-questionnaire was used to sample 58 freshmen, 116 seniors (n = 174), 10 new (1st year) faculty, and 11 senior (15+ years at Clemson University) faculty (n = 21) for sense of place bonding/attachment toward campus environments. Different disciplines and areas of campus were purposefully sampled (classrooms) to approximate a representative sample of students.

Results indicate that students have a fairly strong to strong attachment with the overall campus, while faculty have significantly less (p  0.001). Students were most bonded/attached with the football stadium, followed by Tillman Hall, the amphitheater, the amphitheater-pond-library corridor, and the reflecting pond. Bowman Field, along with Tillman Hall and Death Valley, symbolize the place theme most bonded with by students. In general, students are most bonded/attached to the central area of campus, its buildings, and connecting pathways.

They have a very weak to only a little attachment for the landscaped and natural areas of campus.  Although students were significantly more bonded/attached to campus than faculty, they both agreed that the campus is “quite familiar and recognizable” to them, that “the campus is easy to bond with”, that “it is a part of them”, that “five years after graduation (retirement or transfer) campus places will still be an important part of them”, and that “the campus places having the strongest ratings of bonding/attachment should be sustained.” The latter two statements are quite relevant to the purpose of this project, being the sustainability of universities and their resources.  Freshmen, though new to campus, did not differ significantly (statistically) from seniors in degree of bonding/attachment with campus places. In the few instances where differences were found, freshmen were more  bonded/attached. When females and males were compared, males were significantly more attached to outdoor, landscaped, and natural places-areas of campus. There were no differences between females and males for developed-constructed places and areas.

There are many aspects or dimensions of place bonding and attachment, ranging from being only familiar with a place, to belonging to it, to self-identity, to dependence on it, and to even developing a sense of rootedness. Students revealed the following order (most to least) of bonding for the dimensions: place belongingness, place familiarity, place rootedness, place identity, and place dependence. Students were neutral as to whether they depend on campus places a lot.

Although faculty rated all but two of the 24 photographed places lower (18 of them
significantly, p <=0.05) than students, the pattern of places most to least bonded with was quite similar (correlation = 0.83). The exception was with the football stadium and playfields, which students ranked considerably higher than faculty. In general, faculty ratings simply seem to be more reserved than student ratings. (Other explanations are offered in the Summary, Implications, and Conclusions section of the report).

The study results generate several questions and concerns about student/faculty sense of place bonding/attachment on campus. The findings also have various implications for how to best plan and manage place bonding/attachment on campus, and sustain the places of campus attachment. For example, (1) why have students not developed or acquired a greater bonding for the natural and landscaped dimensions of campus, (2) why are faculty ratings of bonding/attachment consistently lower than students’ ratings, (3) why does length of time on campus (i.e., freshmen versus seniors) not influence sense of campus bonding, and (4) what is and can be done to improve an already established sense of bonding/attachment with campus
places?

Finally, there were limitations to the study. It was a pilot study funded by seed-money
for a period of only one-year. The sampling and data analysis were not extensive. In particular, a larger sample of faculty is needed for a valid interpretation of results. A second generation, more extensive study, is recommended as a sequence to this pilot study.


Final Report

Michelle A. Liken PhD, RN, CS
Department of Family and Community Health Nursing
The University of South Carolina

Incorporating Principles and Practice of Environmental Justice in a Core Health Major Course for Advanced Practice Nursing Students & Development of Case Studies of Communities at High Risk for Environmental Health Hazards in South Carolina

The impetus for submission of the Sustainable Universities grant proposals was The University of South Carolina, College of Nursing’s (CON) commitment to environmental sustainability.  Faculty and students of CON are cognizant of the direct impact of the environment on the health and well-being of our clients, families, and communities.  Teaching families mechanisms for maintaining a balance of resources may pale in comparison to providing care for clients experiencing crises related to acute and chronic illnesses.  Attention to environmental factors contributing to onset and exacerbation of illnesses, however, must be a priority for Nursing and other health care disciplines. 

Two key areas of significance to environmental sustainability and health care were identified, including environmental justice, and environmental health case management.  Two grant proposals were submitted to address these issues 

Incorporating Principles and Practice of Environmental Justice in a Core Health Major Course for Advanced Practice Nursing Students

Proponents of environmental justice posit that vulnerable populations, such as minority ethnic groups, and low-income communities are disproportionately exposed to pollution and environmentally induced related health risks.  Those concerned about issues of environmental justice seek to promote appropriate actions to eliminate these risks.  Advanced Practice Nursing students (Nurse Practitioners, Clinical Nurse Specialists, Post-Master’s, and Nursing Doctorate) will repetitively encounter individuals and families from disadvantaged groups in their health care practices.  Introducing principles of environmental justice to students early in the educational process allows them to integrate key principles across theoretical courses and clinical practicum.  The purpose of this project was to facilitate examination of health risks and outcomes resulting from a disproportionate exposure to toxins and pollution among advanced practice nursing students.  Toward meeting this objective, an environmental justice module was designed and implemented. 

The specific target population for this project was students enrolled in Conceptual Basis for Family and Community Health Nursing (NURS 708).  This course is required for all graduate Nursing students in the Health Major.  The key objective of NURS 708 is to introduce students to basic concepts, theories, and issues relevant to practice as a specialist in Public Health/Community Health Nursing.  Students obtaining their degree in the Health Major function as advanced practice nurses.  As such, these nurses assume leadership positions in the primary health care of families and selected community populations.  This core course is opportune for introducing students to the principles of environmental justice.

The environmental justice module took shape in two forms:

(1) Dr. Adrienne Cooper, Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering served as a consultant for developing this module.  Dr. Cooper presented a class lecture and provided students with a packet of materials to enhance understanding of principles and practice of environmental justice.  Dr. Cooper guest lectured for Nursing 708 on the topic of Principles of Environmental Justice in Spring of 2000 and Fall of 2000.  Her lecture has been recorded via Distance Education and the tape will be shown to students in the Spring of 2000 and Fall of 2001.  It is anticipated that this interdisciplinary teaching collaboration will continue in the future.  One plan is to invite a panel of experts including, but not limited to an environmental ethicist, an environmental justice activist, and community citizens and corporations who have been involved with issues of environmental justice. A manuscript, authored by the study’s principal investigator and Dr. Cooper, which will be submitted to a Nursing or health care journal, is in progress. 

(2) The change for adding an objective to explore political and ethical dimensions of environmental health issues environmental health to NURS 708 was approved in the College of Nursing and at the University level.  (Click here to view syllabus.)  The traditional Family Assessment and Care Plan assignment, required for Nursing 708 was expanded to include a second written paper.  This follow-up paper built on initial work with a selected family and included a comprehensive assessment of family’s immediate and broader environment.  Students developed a plan of care to address actual and potential environmentally induced health hazards.  As part of this written paper, students were required to consider the family’s values, concerns, motivation, and potential roles in solving local and global environmental problems. Students were also asked to consider principles of environmental justice to their assessment and plan .  Finally, students were asked to address various roles of the advanced practice nurse, such as advocate, educator, and case manager in working families and communities concerning environmental health issues.  (Click here to view a sample Environmenatl Assessment and Plan paper)

A survey to assess knowledge level of environmental justice issues indicated that less than 25% of students knew what environmental justice was, but that over 85% felt assessment of environmental risks was an important part of planning and care provided by advanced practice nurses.  Over 75% of the students felt the current curriculum was lacking in terms of teaching them to assess and plan care related to environmental health issues. 

Developing Case Studies and Planning Interventions to Reduce Environmental Health Hazards among High Risk Communities and Vulnerable Populations in South Carolina

The purpose of this project was to identify communities at high risk for environmental health hazards in South Carolina, and to develop environmental health learning modules based on selected cases.  This project was a collaborative effort between University of South Carolina’s (USC) Department of Family and Community Health Nursing, and the Medical University of South Carolina’s Area Health Education Council. 

The project’s principle investigator and a graduate assistant from USC and MUSC to identify critical health problems across the state, which were potentially environmentally induced.  To fully assess these problems, the project team traveled too numerous sites throughout the state and interviewed to the individuals in the community including government officials and lay citizens.  The team then worked to identify possible factors for untoward health outcomes.  Finally, numerous resources were identified to aid in planning care to addresses environmentally induced health hazards.  These case study modules are linked to USC College of Nursing’s home web page: 

http://www.sc.edu/nursing/likeshell/index.htm

Developed case study modules have been distributed to 60 faculty on the MUSC’s campus to be used by students in the College of Health Professions and the College of Nursing.  In addition, 25 students in the parallel curriculum in the College of Medicine at MUSC will utilize problem-based exercises centering on case study modules. Faculty in the College of Pharmacy and Dental Medicine at MUSC are considering incorporation of these modules into their existing curriculum.  The modules have also been sent to Clemson University and will be featured in an upcoming public health meeting.

It is anticipated that these case study modules will be incorporated in USC’s graduate and undergraduate Community Health Nursing courses in the near future.  Likewise, plans for having Community Health students, as part of their course activities, update and add to components “under construction” on USC’s CON Environmental Health website, are underway.

The second component of this project was to develop an intervention designed to assess for and reduce specific environmentally induced health hazard among high-risk communities and vulnerable populations.  The graduate student from USC and the project’s principal investigator worked together to investigate mechanisms to design an intervention to assess lead poisoning among children in a selected community.  The community selected was Olympia Mills (OM), a small, older neighborhood in Columbia, South Carolina.  This community was of particular concern due to a number of risk factors including the houses, the population, and the surrounding environment.

To date, this project remains ongoing.  This small community has become engaged in a dispute with local industries and city officials regarding the redirecting of quarry trucks through a residential community.  This major environmental health risk to safety and quality of life of community residents has consumed time and resources of this community and the plan to address lead poisoning was put on hold until the traffic redirecting issue is resolved.  This community remains highly at risk and will be a target community for ongoing USC CON/community partnering projects to reduce environmental health risks. 


Final Report
Interns at Sustainable Agriculture facility 
(in cooperation with Francis Marion U.)

Susan Wallace
Clemson University

With the SUI funds and other funds, we supported 6 interns working with the Agroecology program at Pee Dee REC.  One was from Clemson, two from SC State, two from Francis Marion, and one from Ga Tech.  From all reports, the experience was good for the students and faculty.


Final Report

New Focus on Sustainability in the Earth Resources Course
Jody Tinsley
Department of Geological Sciences

Introduction:

This grant supported two major goals.  The first goal was to develop and implement a pilot project for the Fall 1999 semester in Geology 112 (Earth Resources) as a trial for the complete module to be used later.  The second goal was to develop a three-week module on sustainability that would be implemented during the Spring 2000 semester in Geology 112.

The Pilot Project:

The pilot project was developed and implemented in one section of Geology 112 in the fall of 1999.  This course, called Earth Resources, is the second in a two-semester sequence of geology classes taken mostly by freshmen to satisfy their general education requirements in science.  The student population in these courses is entirely non-geology majors and nearly completely non-science majors, and this course is designed to meet the needs of this population as well as possible by focusing on relationships between earth resources and societies, rather than simply focusing on the resources themselves.  Studying sustainability provides a way to link many of these connections into an overall pattern.  The pilot projct, where students in one seciton could participate for extra credit in their Earth Resources class, gave us a chance to try out many of the ideas concerning group work, topic selection, and presentation format which we later used in the Spring 2000 semester.  We judged the results successful, and we continued with our plan to use this project as a larger part of Geology 112 in Spring 2000.

Three-Week Module

The three-week module that we developed for the Spring 2000 classes, which includes a couple of class days early in the semester and about two weeks near the end, contains the workings of a sustainability curriculum.  The goal of the curriculum is to have the students tie the factual information from the course and outside research into answering this general question:  What connection is there between earth resources, sustainability, and my own life?  The basis of the curriculum is student-researched and presented projects, focusing on particular aspects of sustainability, with the projects fitting into a loose structure that attempts to answer the above question for the class as a whole.  In addition to the projects, one or more speakers address the class, discussing sustainability in a specific context.

The outline of the curriculum follows:

1.  Four or five weeks into the semester the idea of sustainability is introduced to the class; a list of proposed projects is handed out.

2.  The class following this introduction, 15-20 minutes are set aside for the assignment of projects, the organization of groups and the selection of group liaisons.

3.  Two weeks after the groups and projects have been assigned, the group liaisons meet with the instructor to discuss their group's specific topic.

4.  Four weeks after the intitial meeting with the instructor, the liaison meets again with the instructor to show a summary of research and a presentation outline.  Direction is given to the students for areas to alter or improve.

5.  One to two weeks later a final meeting occurs between the liaison and the instructor to review visual aids and last-minute preparations.  The liaison must be prepared to request special needs items, i.e. overhead projector, computer projector, etc.  Also, assignments are made of day and time for the reports at this time.

6.  During the class period before the reports begin, if possible, a speaker comes in to talk about sustainability issues in a specific industry or other specific context. 

7.  Approximately a week and a half of class time near the end of the semester is given over to the groups' oral presentations, which run 10 to 15 minutes per project.

8.  During the following class period, an overview and summation is held.

Projects are graded based on 3 main criteria:

1.  quality, quantity, and appropriateness of research
2.  presentation quality, including the use of visual aids
3.  group participation (This grade is assigned by the group members themselves in a private fashion.)

Conclusion:

This project was enjoyed by the majority of the students, based on their comments on the course evalutions, and they also felt that they learned from it, both about the issues of resources and sustainability and about the skills demanded by group work and oral presentations.  As their instructor, I share their impressions of the experience.  I saw them engaged by the material and developing good work skills, which they can apply elsewhere.  They came away from the exercise with a strong understanding of sustainability and a clear view of some of the ways our society does and, as is more generally true, does not operate in a sustainable fashion.  The curriculum may certainly be modified as time passes, but it provides a working framework for future semesters.
 


Final Report
Course Development
Calhoun Honors Seminar--The Millenium: Technology and Its Critics
Fall 1999
Pamela E. Mack

The course, an interdisciplinary seminar for honors students, was successfully taught in the fall of 1999.  I used the funds from the Sustainable Universities Project to buy three videos and to subscribe to a teleconference.  I showed the videos during class (in some cases only in part) and the class met in the evening once a month to watch the teleconference live.  The video and teleconference material made a real difference to the richness of the course—I was able to give students a variety of experiences and formats to think about the issues raised by the course.

The syllabus of the course is available on line at: http://people.clemson.edu/~pammack/chs-mil.htm .  The course centered on studying impacts of and critiques of technology.  I was very pleased with how the students tackled challenging material. I didn’t want to turn the students into Luddites (a movement we studied), but to tell them that if we are to use our technology well we must think about the problems pointed out by its critics.   However, I think I expected too much of them in the argument around which I organized the course. I found that students had some trouble comparing critiques of technology because they weren’t used to looking from the outside at the impact of technology on society.  They also expected a course more about the future and less about the past.  Some students commented at the end of that course that they enjoyed the course because it made them think for the first time about the impact of technology—what I had thought of as the starting point was for them the most important thing they got out of the course.

My experience with the Millenium course has led me to develop a related course for spring 2001, called: 2001: A History of the Future (see http://people.clemson.edu/~pammack/syl2001.htm ).  On the basis of what I learned in the first course I am going to ground the course somewhat differently, in hopes of doing a better job of starting where the students are.  I will be using a lot that I learned from teaching the first course and probably one of the films.  Another film I bought with grant money, Charlie Chaplin’s “Modern Times”, I now show every year in my big course for freshman engineers, History 122.  I find that gets students into seeing things from the point of view of the workers more effectively than anything else I have tried.

I feel that my project helped the students in the course understand the issues we must consider to use technology in a sustainable way in the future.  It has also helped me to teach more effectively about those issues in other courses.


Final Report
Peter Skewes
Animal and Veterinary Science

 A course module on Animal Agriculture and the Environment was developed for use in AGRIC 103 Introduction to Animal Industries. This course is taught each fall and has an enrollment of 60-90 students. The multimedia module was developed in Toolbook II and includes an interactive exit quiz. The broiler industry was used as a model to cover current information related to manure management including size of the animal industries, production of manure, handling of manure, utilization of manure, economic value of manure, legislation related to animal agriculture, quality of life, and public perception issues.  This module provides an introduction into the environmental issues related to manure handling in animal facilities.

This module will be incorporated into AGRIC 103 this fall.


Final Report
Small Mammal /Amphibian Survey of the SC Botanical Gardens

John C. Morse, PhD
Professor of Entomology and Director,
Department of Entomology
Clemson University
(864)656-5049
email: jmorse@clemson.edu

Three sites were set up at the Botanical Gardens in order to proceed with the survey. Each site contained six 300 foot transects (A-E) with a space of 30 between each trap. Five pitfalls were placed at each corner and in the center of the site. Site One, a riparian woodland area located at the south end of the gardens, contains an access road and a trail system running through.  Site 2 located in the Shoenike Aboretum is a dry, open grassland with trees planted sparsely.  Site 3, referred to as the Redwood Area, is a lush grassland often wet due to drainage from the greenhouse. 

From March through June 2000 pitfalls at all three sites were opened several times and checked for small mammals and amphibians. Results can be seen by following the designated links.  During the week of June 13 to June 16, Site One was trapped using Sherman Live traps and the pitfalls.  One trap was placed at each 30-foot interval.  Each site included approximately 55 traps. Traps were baited with peanut butter and checked early every morning.  The next week, Site 3 was trapped using the same method.  Site 2 has a severe problem with fire ants inhibiting any trapping of this area.  Retrapping will be tried in the fall when ant populations may be lower.  Results of the trapping efforts can be found in Table 2.  Table 3 and Chart 1 summarize data for all of the animals caught and their abundance.

Below are links to the reports in PDF format:

(Click here to get a free version of Adobe Acrobat Reader)

Final Report
Lawrence D. Fredendall
Department of Management, College of Business & Public Affairs, 
Clemson University

This is a report about 3 grants including their extension through 6/30/00.

I.  Research Minigrant:

Project Title:  Implementing a Sustainable Environmental Management System at Clemson University

Associate Professor Lawrence D. Fredendall

This first mini-grant was of great assistance in exploring the problems of installing an Environmental Management System (EMS) here at Clemson University.  The creation of the web site and interaction with students around that made it clear that there is limited knowledge in the community and limited information about the purposes and benefits of an EMS.  It was also made clear that there is no organized resistance to the idea of implementing an EMS, rather there is a lack of interest in implementing the EMS.

A student intern, Tipparat Laohavichien, developed alot of information about the flow of materials and energy on campus.  She found that many administrators in Facilities Management are interested in an EMS, but do not believe that there is administration support for implementing a formal EMS. 

The most successful idea to involve faculty and administrators in resource conservation was to co-operate with the university's Kite Hill recycling program and involve department faculty in this effort.

II.  Visiting Scholar:

Dr. Peter Lemathe from Ruhr Universitat in Bochum Germany came to Clemson University the entire Fall semester of 1999.  He returned for a week visit in April, 2000.  He gave four different lectures on environmental management systems at Clemson and met with at least 10 representatives from industry about their EMS implementation and their expectations for the future.   He initiated research projects with three Clemson faculty, Dr. Fredendall, Dr. Balakrishnaan and Dr. Doost.

III.  Extension of Grant:

Following are the Activities that were part of this extension:

  • Refine recycling in managment department and extend beyond copy paper. 
  • Continue development of EMS on paper. 
  • Examine use of environmental management tools in industry to see which are applicable to the univerisity. 
  • Identify institutional barriers to implementing recycling on Clemson's campus.


Sustainable Planning & Design Initiative
Project Deliverables

Principal Investigators: 
James B. London, Professor, Dept. of Planning & Landscape Architecture, Clemson University
John C. Jacques, Professor, School of Architecture, Clemson University
Umit Yilmaz, Associate Professor, Dept. of Planning & Landscape Architecture, Clemson University

Project Overview:

The project involved three different academic disciplines in the College of Architecture, Art & Humanities at Clemson.  Those disciplines included architecture, city & regional planning and landscape architecture.  The principal focus of the effort was to include sustainable development concepts into planning and design studies.  Other components addressed faculty development, research and professional interaction. 

Student projects included a semester long graduate architecture studio project working with Public Interest Group, an Asheville group working to provide downtown housing and commercial opportunities.  A series of design options were developed for an infill mixed use project on Biltmore Street as an alternative to exurban sprawl.  A graduate course in city and regional planning examined the benefits and costs of in-town, city edge and remote areas in terms of public service requirements. 

Landscape architecture projects included a highway interchange and roadway stretch along Clemson Boulevard conducted by Professors Yilmaz and Tai in conjunction with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, Richland County, and the Clemson Sandhills Research Station.  The landscaping plan that included drainage studies, xeriscaping and visual improvements was well received and presented at a press conference by SC DOT as a prototype for other roadway interchanges in the state.

Other landscape studios out of this project included design alternatives for the city of Clemson's Recycling Center which has been very successful in the past but which has grown incrementally.  The proposed plans provide functional delineation of activities leading to greater operational efficiency as well as visual improvements to make the facility more accomodating to patrons.  The last landscape project as part of this effort was a reuse project for the Morrison Elementatry School Annex in Clemson.  Plans for the site included clustered affordable housing and a neighborhood park and greenspace incorporating environmentallly sensitive design.  The city's Community Development program is moving forward with this concept plan.

In addition to work in Asheville, a planning course project conducted a light rail study for Greenville County/City.  The project, initiated by the Foothills Chapter of the Sierra Club, examined light rail options along an abandoned rail corridor purchased by Greenville County.  The plan includes proposed transit stops, design and funding options.  The project was awarded a best student project award by the Sierra Club.  A final project looked at parking lot design in conjunction with the city of Clemson and Upstate Forever.  Conventional parking lot design, improved design using the city of Clemson's new design standards and variations to those standards were simulated for two commercial parking lots in the city.  Appearance as well as economic and environmental impacts were assessed. 

To view images and reports in PDF file format of the above mentioned projects click below:

(Click here to get a free version of Adobe Acrobat Reader)

Three thesis projects (listed below) were completed with support from this project.

In addition to the principal investigators, other faculty memebers participating in these projects and related projects included:

Lolly Tai, Professor of Landscape Architecture
Francis F. Chamberlain, Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture
Robert J. Miller, Lecturer in Architecture
Julie P. Wilkerson, Lecturer in Architecture
J. Terrance Farris, Associate Professor of City & Regional Planning
Kerry R. Brooks, Associate Professor of City & Regional Planning
David M. Deitrich, Assistant Professor of Art
David W. Houston, Lecturer in Art
Sydney A. Cross, Professor of Art
Mary T. Haque, Professor Horticulutre
Judy D. Caldwell, Associate Professor of Horticulture
Donald L. Ham, Professor of Forestry

Studio Projects

Jacques - Asheville Downtown Housing Project
Yilmaz - Clemson Road, Recycling Center, Morrison Annex Reuse
London - Greenville Light Rail, Clemson Parking Lots, Asheville Downtown Housing

Theses

Nicole Hill - State Land Conservation Programs (London)
Diane Eldridge - Criteria for Selecting Land for Conservation (London)
Pernille Christensen - An Infill Housing Project in Downtown Asheville (Jacques)

Case Studies

London/Davis - Sustainable Communities (3)

Paper

London, Yilmaz and Jacques.  Environmentallly Sensitive Building Practice:  Getting to the Next Step.   Develoint Naturally Conference

New Initiatives to Incorporate Sustainability into the Curriculum

Graduate Course in Sustainable Development, Fall 19999 - London.


Final Report

Technical and Market Feasibility of Using Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide for Sterilization in Hospitals

Langdon Warner - University of South Carolina
Wayne Brannan - Medical University of South Carolina

This final report was summarized from a thesis directed by Michael A. Matthews, PhD, and prepared by Heinz Kaiser in partial fulfillment of requirements for the Master of Earth and Environmental Management degree at the University of South Carolina.  For more information, contact Mr. Kaiser at heinz_kaiser@hotmail.com.

Click here to view an article published in Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry, based on Heinz Kaiser's work & SUI funding in collaboration with MUSC. 

Supercritical CO2 has been considered as a method for the inactivation of bacteria by several researchers (Kamihira et al., 1987; Taniguchi et al., 1987; Wei et al., 1991; Ishikawa et al., 1995; Enomoto et al., 1997; Kumagai et al., 1997; Dillow et al., 1999). The purpose of this project is to determine whether CO2-based technology is technically feasible and cost-competitive for the sterilization of medical devices in hospitals.

Specific Objectives

  • Determine the cost, technology basis, and rate of utilization of existing sterilization processes in a working hospital 
  • Determine the technical feasibility and cost of sterilization, disinfection, and cleaning with liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide in a typical hospital
  • Compare current sterilization methods with dense phase CO2 sterilization
Conclusions

Carbon dioxide based technology is technically feasible for sterilization within the parameters found in the literature. Manufacturers of current applications (e.g. dry cleaning and precision cleaning) would be able to design and build a prototype that would satisfy the temperature, pressure, humidity, and agitation requirements for CO2 sterilization. Moreover, this CO2 sterilizer would have similar dimensions and capacity to current ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide equipment. Carbon dioxide is widely available. Several companies distribute and sell carbon dioxide in different grades. 

The feasibility of marketing CO2 based technology for the sterilization of medical devices in hospitals is evident if the application (market) is carefully targeted. The most likely market for CO2 among existing applications is as a replacement for EtO sterilizers. Carbon dioxide sterilization is less expensive than ethylene oxide sterilization. In addition, it does not have the environmental and health problems related with the use of EtO (e.g. toxicity, flammability, worker exposure, long cycle time, and regulatory issues).  Gas plasma hydrogen peroxide sterilization is competitive with CO2 sterilization in that both technologies have similar costs, their cycle times are approximately the same, and they do not produce toxic wastes. 

Steam sterilization is the most effective method for the sterilization of heat-resistant instruments. The costs of autoclaving are lower than those of CO2 sterilization. It is not proposed that CO2 compete with steam for the sterilization of heat and moisture stabile goods. However, CO2 sterilization is a suitable method for the sterilization of heat-sensitive instruments. The current trend in hospitals is to increase the number of less invasive medical procedures, which are performed with complex instruments that require low-temperature sterilization methods.

Even though the use of CO2 sterilization would have cost and environmental advantages, a CO2 sterilizer will have to be approved by the FDA. A market clearance may be capital and time consuming. In addition, there is no guarantee that a CO2 sterilizer will be approved. A sterilizer must achieve the Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) under the worst conditions. The sterilizer must be capable of meeting the sterilization specifications every time the process is performed. The process must maintain the functionality of the product and its packaging. These areas need further research.

Another important factor for the introduction of a CO2 sterilizer is the market structure. The sterilization market is dominated by two companies: Steris Corporation and Getinge Industrier AB. Their product service and availability are an important factor of their success. Only two companies currently compete with these market leaders Johnson & Johnson and 3M. CO2 sterilizers would require similar service and distribution in order to penetrate the market.

Future Work

  • The sterilization effect of CO2 on bacteria has been successful. However, more resistant organisms must be tested (e.g. bacterial spores) in order to determine the real effectiveness of this promising technology. Such work is essential for both optimization of the technology as well as obtaining FDA approval.
  • The material compatibility issue must be addressed. For example, surgical instruments and devices must be sterilized with the CO2 sterilization method under various test conditions in order to determine their integrity after the sterilization process. This is likewise necessary for FDA approval.
  • Although cleaning was not the main focus of this thesis, the concept of using CO2 for cleaning as well as sterilization could have significant effects upon economics of hospital operations. For this reason, the cleaning effect of CO2 in surgical instruments and devices must be studied. The ability to clean devices with long lumens (e.g. flexible endoscopes) must be assessed.
  • If CO2 continues to show technical and commercial promise then several more operational and procedural issues would have to be developed. For example, a packaging material compatible with CO2 sterilization must be found. Several current packing materials must be tested in order to identify one that ensures terminal sterilization. Otherwise, a new non-woven material must be used. Supplies such as biological indicators, chemical indicators, and tape compatible with CO2 sterilization must be found in order to ensure that the sterilization conditions are reached. Hospitals, clinics, and labs now rely on such materials for routine quality assurance.
Recommendations

 Based on the results of this research, carbon dioxide should be thoroughly researched for use as a sterilant.  The inactivation process produced by the solvent power of CO2 in organisms must be determined.  The sterilization parameters, such as pressure, cycle time, water content, and agitation, must be determined in order to design and build a actual size prototype (most of the research has been conducted with small scale CO2 systems).  The literature review suggests that carbon dioxide requires a long cycle time to kill bacterial spores.  If that is the case, carbon dioxide will not be suitable for sterilization.  However, disinfection and cleaning with CO2 may be possible applications because the requirements are less strict. Liquid carbon dioxide has been successfully used in precision cleaning.  This technology could be directly applied to clean contaminated medical devices.


Sustainability Issues in Sciences for Education Majors

John Wagner - Professor of Geology
Clemson University
jrwgnr@clemson.edu

The original sustainability grant funding was used to hire master teachers and graduate students to work together to update the lab manuals used in PH SC 107 and PH SC 108 (earth science and physical science for future elementary school teachers).  A major part of the update was incorporating sustainability concepts into many of the lab exercises and creating a new activity dealing with earth resources (renewable vs.non-renewable). This was completely a teaching related process and we believe it will benefit the students taking these courses immensely.

The one related impact which springs from this sustainability mini-grant involves graduate courses for teachers that are offered irregularly by the Geology Department (under the course designation GEOL 790).  Some of the concepts developed as part of the mini-grant for the PH SC courses have also been used in activities for in-service teachers.  All of these concepts will eventually find their way into the classroom where
K-12 students will also gain a better understanding of why sustainability is such an over-riding concern for their future society.


Final Report
Explore Community Sustainability Model; Lay Groundwork for courses and programs 

Deborah Natvig -  dnatvig@lander.edu 
Elizabeth Bethel
Lander University

The Sustainable Universities Initiative funded our project, Building a Sustainable University Initiative Partnership at Lander University, from August 15, 1999 through May 15, 2000.  This report describes activities initiated under the rubric of the fellowship.

Activities Initiated

  • In August 1999 we guided the establishment of the New Haven Community Center.  This community-based facility is located squarely within the most impoverished and troubled neighborhood in Greenwood.  Our aim was to establish a community-based site that would serve as a laboratory for university-community collaborations within a problem-based learning environment.
  • Working within the New Haven Community Center, the Lander Univeristy School of Nursing has established a "Street Nurses" program that provides health screenings and, when appropriate, health provider referrals.  The Street Nurses program is staffed by senior nursing students under the direction of an appropriately certified School of Nursing faculty member, and maintains a regular routine of activities at the New Haven Center.  Contacts average 25-35 adults per event.
  • Working in collaboration with Self Memorial Hospital Wellness Works, a community outreach program, the Lander University School of Nursing faculty and students have established a fixed site-screening schedule for breast cancer, hypertension, and tuberculosis.  This program also provides health provider referrals when appropriate.  Screenings deliver services to an average of 30-40 adults per session.
  • Crafting a collaboration of faculty, student, and community resources, the New Haven Community Center offers English classes to non-English speaking community residents two nights a week (Mondays and Tuesdays).  The classes average 15-20 adult learners per night.
  • Using faculty and student volunteers, the New Haven Community Center provides social and recreational Saturday activities for children and young people.  These events have included holiday parties, athletic clinics, and the center is moving toward an after-school tutoring program for elementary and middle school aged children that will be staffed by Lander Univeristy faculty and students and community volunteers.
  • During the fall months we worked with Professors John Graham and Richard Fox (Environmental Science) to develop a campus project that would serve as a problem based learning environment.  We identified a campus creek in need of restoration, formed a planning committee that represented a broad spectrum of Lander and Greenwood community resources and interests, and assisted Professors Graham and Fox in obtaining a small grant to serve as seed money for the creek restoration project.  That project has moved forward and will be seeking greater funding to support the efforts forged within the planning committee's deliberations.
  • Course Description:  ES 110 Natural Resource Conservation

  • ES110 - Governor's Institute for Natural Resource Conservation.  This one-week summer field workshop for high school students is offered in collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources and the Conservation Districts of South Carolina.  Activities include lectures and field/laboratory experiences with impacts of land use on water quality, use of macroinvertebrates as water quality indicators, water chemistry, hydrological engineering, watersheds, cartography, forestry, Geographical Information Systems, natural resources management, peer-tutoring, and a whitewater raft trip.   Students must use data collected during the week to analyze a community-based land use issue and design a strategy to improve water quality in that community.  Strategies are presented orally at the culmination of the program.  Graded on a pass/fail basis.  No prerequisites, 1 semester hour credit.
These activities have served as a good foundation for the development of an integrated community studies program that initiates and supports collaborations among University students, faculty, and community residents/agencies.  However, three crucial components of our fellowhip plan remain:  (1) site visits to Clemson's Strom Thurmond Institute and the Sullivan Center (Bethel & Natvig); (2) site visitis to one or more universitieis with established problem basesd learning ctivities and curricula in place (selected Lander faculty); and, (3) the formation of interdisciplinary Board of Opportunity composed of students, faculty, and community leaders. 
Final Report

A Cooperative Learning Project for General Chemistry:
Fertilizer and Water Quality

Melanie M. Cooper and Eddie Case
Clemson University

The laboratory curriculum for the General Chemistry sequence at Clemson University was modified several years ago to incorporate principles of constructivism and cooperative learning.  The two-semester lab program has students working in groups of 3 to 5 students on three open-ended projects each semester.  Students are given a problem to solve and then spend the several weeks developing and implementing a plan for solving the problem.  At the end of the project students are required to submit a written formal report on the project and/or give an oral report on the project. 

While the lecture portion of the Beginning General and Organic Chemistry sequence (which serves our non-science majors) is taught utilizing many of the principles of constructivism and cooperative learning, the laboratory curriculum remains mostly prescriptive and confirmational.  We have developed an environmental based project which is cooperative in nature for use at the end of the first semester of the course. 

In this project, students research the major ingredients of commercially available fertilizers including the macronutrients, secondary nutrients, and micronutrients.  Further, they are to find the sources for each of the three macronutrients.  Once identified, they must determine procedures for confirming the presence of the macronutrients in a sample of fertilizer and, if possible, the percent by mass of the macronutrient present.  Students test their procedures on known compounds provided in the laboratory and, once satisfied with the procedures, use them to test the fertilizer.  Finally, to investigate the possible impact of the use of fertilizer on water supplies, students develop a model for application of the fertilizer to soil and for testing for the presence of the macronutrients in groundwater.  Students complete the project by giving an oral report on their findings.

Completion of this project reinforces such concepts as chemistry of solutions, qualitative and quantitative analysis, ions and ionic compounds, precipitation reactiosn, and environmental chemistry.  Laboratory procedures which are utilized may include flame tests, gravimetric analysis, vacuum filtration, and qualitative tests for ions.  A copy of the project follows.

FERTILIZER AND WATER QUALITY

Fertilizers are commercially available for a variety of specialized applications:  for lawns, house plants, gardens, and farming applications.  One fertilizer application that has been of particular interest has been the use of fertilizers on golf courses.  It is feared that the large quantities of fertilizers used to keep fairways and greens lush and beautiful are also damaging surface and ground water supplies around the courses.  Fertilizers do, in fact, contain a number of compounds that may cause specific problems in water supplies if they are present in high enough quantities.  The question then becomes, “how much is too much?” and “how much fertilizer stays where it’s put?”

You have been assigned to a group of researchers working for a local golf course.  The owner has several concerns about the use of fertilizers on his course.  First, he does not trust the manufacturer.  He wants to know if the stuff he has bought really contains what it says it does.  Secondly, he has heard that the government may soon pass regulations on how much of the nutrients present in fertilizer can end up in ground water supplies.  Your team has been hired to address these concerns.

GOALS

1. Determine the nutrients most commonly present in commercially available fertilizers.  You will find these fall into three categories: macronutrients, secondary nutrients, and micronutrients.
2. Determine the sources for these nutrients in commercially available fertilizers.
3. Determine for which of the macronutrients can you perform qualitative and quantitative tests.
4. Practice these tests on known compounds.
5. Perform these tests on the fertilizer(s) provided by the golf course owner.
6. Develop a model for determining the amount of these nutrients entering the groundwater supply.
7. Use this model to determine if these nutrients may be present in groundwater after their application.
Known Compounds

Samples of compounds which contain the macronutrients found in fertilizer are available in the lab.  You may use these to determine properties of these compounds which may be useful in developing qualitative and quantitative tests.  You may want to investigate properties such as odor, solubility, and others.  Remember, you have a limited supply of your fertilizer so you will want to test your procedures before you carry them out on the fertilizer itself.

Results

Having already done a couple of short, single lab period, open-ended projects, students are fairly well prepared for the larger project presented here.  Most begin by going to the internet to find the required information regarding the nutrients in fertilizer and their primary sources.  The nutrients present in most commercial fertilizers which are identified as macronuttients are nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous.  Once this is determined and the sources are identified (urea or an ammonium salt, K2O, and a phosphate salt, respectively), students begin the search for tests for these compounds.  In our labs, students use a computer based resource, Super ChemLab, which is available online at http://chemed.ces.clemson.edu/SCL.   Urea and ammonium can be determined qualitatively by adding 6M NaOH which produces a strong smell of ammonia,  The presence of potassium can be determined using a flame test, although it will be masked by the presence of sodium in the fertilizer.  Phosphate ion can be determined gravimetrically by precipitation.

The most common model developed for simulating application of the fertilizer is to apply it to a sample of potting soil and collecting the water that runs through.  After allowing the soil to dry between lab periods, students again run water through the soil and collect it for testing.  Most discover that phosphate and ammonia are present in the water.

In laboratory evaluations conducted at the end of the semester, students express a particular interest in the projects which involve real-life situations.  In fact, this is a frequent response to questions regarding what they liked best about the labs.  We have found that students will spend more time on this type of project than those more prescriptive in nature.  Because they are not presented with a list of steps they must complete in order to leave lab, they are more likely to spend more time doing research and investigating what is actually happening as they do the experiments.    We have also found that students become more adept at approaching and solving problems as they do more open-ended projects.  This is evidenced by the decreased amount of guidance required for projects such as this one done near the end of the semester.

As we develop and implement more of this type project in the labs for the Beginning General and Organic Chemistry course, we plan to investigate how students in labs based on this type of project perform in the lecture section of the course compared to those in more traditional, prescriptive labs.  We would also like to determine how it affects their attitudes toward the course, the lab, and chemistry in general.

 

Prepared by:  Kim Buchanan
Document URL:  http://www.sc.edu/sustainableu/1999funded.htm

This page copyright  © 2006, The Board of Trustees of the University of South Carolina.