of Nature, Leisure, and
||H. Gregory Hawkins, Ph.D.
|| Research Coordinator
|Parks, Recreation and
||Jim Self Center on the
|| (864) 656-0217
This course will reach
a large and diverse number of students on the Clemson University campus,
with initial offerings directed at graduate and undergraduate students
of community development and resource-management. The program chairs
of Policy Studies (PO ST) and Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management
(PRTM) have tentatively agreed to offer the course in the next year, and
the Chairman from Environmental Science and Policy (ENSP), Dr. Alan Elzerman,
has indicated that he would support this course with the department’s program
curriculum committee. The suggested Departments and levels for this
course are: PRTM 4XX / 6XX, ENSP 4XX / 6XX, PO ST 6XX.
The 1990s marked a period of significant economic growth, and American
society’s indulgence is obvious. We applaud as the Gross National
Product skyrockets. We openly profess our faith in the Gods of Technology
as we witness miracles and strange works. Forgotten or repressed are thoughts
of the fuel shortages of the 1970s, as we “let the good times roll” from
behind the wheel of Lincoln Navigators and Ford Expeditions. These
trends are deeply rooted in American culture, and they are alarming.
According to Arnold Toynbee, a civilization showing “true growth” will
development of a sense of community, the strengthening its democratic processes,
the development of a capacity for compassion, and the development of its
culture. This compels us to reinforce principles other than the GNP
model for living, where more is understood as inherently better.
Sustainability necessitates contemplation of one’s role in the greater
complex of life, an understanding of the relationship between humankind
and other life, and the development of environmental and civic responsibility.
The content of this course is designed to provide students with a basis
for addressing this dilemma found in cosmologies of nature and philosophy,
leisure theory, environmental philosophy and science, and models of democracy
and civil society.
Approach to the Course:
This course involves a weaving of diverse concepts, and consists of five
I. The Nature of “Nature:”
We will spend considerable time exploring our understanding and experience
of “nature” by examining cosmologies of nature. This section will
address classical, late renaissance / Gothic, and modern explanations of
nature, along with associated social and cultural philosophies and paradigms.
The Social Good: The manner in which we consume leisure and spend
time will be examined. Topics will include social movements emphasizing
increased discretionary time, American reactions to these movements, the
influence of technology on social change, amusement and entertainment,
and the relationship between classical leisure as the “contemplative life”
and civic responsibility.
III. Issues in Environmental
Science: This section will focus on principles of ecology and
tradeoffs between simple and cultural carrying capacity. Topics will
include anthropogenic changes to ecosystems, population dynamics, and issues
of resource competition within a “commons.”
The origins and expressions of the “American Dream,” and the implications
of this cornerstone of American culture, will be examined in this section.
Emphases will be placed on both historical and anticipated future contexts
as they relate to American patterns of consumption. Optimization
strategies, precautionary principles, and mini-max models will be discussed.
V. Civil Society:
The final section of the course will introduce a broad discussion of American
social and political culture, emphasizing the essential role of civic engagement
in determining acceptable and sustainable balances between social, economic
and environmental concerns. Topics will include rights and responsibilities
within a democracy, the value of civil society, historical and modern expressions
of civil society, and the relationship between the social functions of
contemplative leisure, civic responsibility, and environmental sustainability.
Section 1 Readings
Late Renaissance / Gothic:
Secret Garden, A Far Off Place
Emerson’s “Nature”-- http://www.jjnet.com/emerson/nature1.htm
Muir’s “American Forests”-- http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer
Section 2 Readings / Reference Materials
Section 3 Readings
Postman, Neil Technopoly
Postman, Neil Amusing
Ourselves to Death
PUTTING THE BITE
ON PLANET EARTH: Rapid Human Population Growth is Devouring Global
Natural Resources http://www.dieoff.org/page120.htm
Section 4 Readings
IMPACT OF POPULATION
GROWTH ON FOOD SUPPLIES AND ENVIRONMENT http://www.dieoff.org/page57.htm
WORLD SCIENTISTS' WARNING
TO HUMANITY http://www.dieoff.org/page8.htm
The Tragedy of the Commons
Population Politics http://www.dieoff.org/page58.htm
Cultural Carrying Capacity
Revisiting Carrying Capacity
The GDP Myth:
Why “Growth” Isn’t Always a Good Thing http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/1999/9903.rowe.growth.html
Section 5 Readings
Does Economic Growth
Improve Human Morale? http://www.newdream.org/newsletter/myers.html
Waking Up From the American Dream http://www.ecofuture.org/ecofuture/pk/pkar9506.html
American Attitudes about
Materialism, Consumption and the Environment http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/mer_5.html
of the Body Politic http://douglass.speech.nwu.edu/tocq_a97.html
The Sovereignty of the
General Tendency of the
Authority as Nurse of
Freedom and the Common Good http://www.strom.clemson.edu/becker/prtm320/authority_common_good.html
Bowling Alone http://www.strom.clemson.edu/becker/prtm320/bowling_alone.html
American Burbs and Values
CIVIL SOCIETY: THEMES
AND HISTORY--The Value of Civil Society http://www.puaf.umd.edu/civicrenewal/finalreport/value_of_civil_society.html
It’s Healing Time on
Development Policy Course
Thomas D. Potts
This course, PO ST 851 Rural
Development Policy is taught once a year. It has been taught twice.
The total number of students was 3. They all ranked the course as excellent.
Strom Thurmond Institute
Syllabus and course
is no longer available.
English 469: Rhetoric of Science
A final report by:
Rhetoric of Science was taught in Fall 2000 at USC-Aiken. The English
Department at USCA has committed to offering English 469 every other Fall
semester (even years). The course description reads: "An exploration
of writing in the sciences with an overview of current rhetorical theory
applicable to the sciences and a contemporary critique of scientific writing."
The targeted student audience for this course/module included students
in humanities and the sciences. As Leoplold (1949) noted, education
has created groups who seem barely aware of the existence of each other.
This fusion of rhetorical study and science/environmental issues drew students
from diverse majors: several were interdisciplinary, with concentrations
in English/communications, and some were from major fields such as biology,
geology, meteorology and education.
As part of the course
an environmental module was developed so as to be appropriate for use by
other professors who wish to examine the rhetoric of science and the rhetoric
of the environment. The course/module should appeal to an interdisciplinary
audience, and appropriate materials will be posted to the Starfish
The material covered in
the course included an introduction to rhetorical discourse analysis, and
applications of discourse analysis to landmark essays on the rhetoric of
science. The primary text for the course - in total - was a collection
of case study essays entitled Landmark Essays on Rhetoric of Science
(1997) published by Hermagoras Press. A supplemental text for the
module - in particular - is a similar collection of case study essays,
also part of the Landmark Essays series, on Rhetoric and the Environment
The assignments that were particularly relevant to this course and module
were assignment 3 (a rhetorical analysis with an environmental slant) and
assignment 4 (a service learning project). They collectivily worked
as "theory" and "application" so that the students gained a rhetorical
foundation for their own environmental projects.
Following are the assignments:
Assignment #1: A
summary essay (about 2 - 4 pages) comparing two views about rhetoric in
science based on exploration of recent history and examination of first
"landmark" essays (10% of final grade)
Assignment #2: A
series of short analytic exercises that explore the components of the research
report; about 6 exercises to accompany several reading assignments over
a four week period; these can be completed collaboratively (30% of
Assignment #3: A
documented argumentative essay which will examine a particular rhetorical
conflict between scientists or between the scientific community and the
public. Suitable topics will be drawn from readings from course texts
(30% of final grade).
Assignment #4: A
"hands-on" service - learning project (which may be done collaboratively
or individually) which will allow students to work with actual scientists
and the public forum. This will culminate in a rhetorical analysis
(a report of about 4 pages) analyzing the rhetorical elements of language
used during the project (20% of final grade).
Assignment #5: A
final take-home exam that reviews the major concepts of the course (10%
of final grade).
PUBLICATION ON LANDSCAPE DESIGN FOR
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND A DISTANCE DELIVERY SEMINAR EXCHANGE ON SUSTAINABILITY
Mary Taylor Haque, Professor,
Department of Horticulture; Registered Landscape Architect
Campus Phone: 864-656-4958 Fax: 864-656-4960
Lolly Tai, Professor,
Department of Planning and Landscape Architecture
Campus Phone: 864-656-3884 Fax: 864-656-7519
We communicated solutions
regarding landscape design for energy efficiency through four media: web
page development, poster displays, a printed book, and distance delivery
(teleconference presentation scheduled for March 29, 2001). Our target
population included university students, faculty, and operations personnel
and all the people of South Carolina who are involved in the residential
sector of economic development, planning, building, and renovation.
We printed 4,000 copies
of a book entitled Landscape Design for Energy Efficiency.
It is aimed to educate college students in horticulture, planning, landscape
architecture, and urban forestry and will serve a wide audience throughout
the State. Landscape Design for Energy Efficiency contains information
on the way energy is used in homes as well as strategic tree planting considerations
and ways to incorporate these concepts for energy conservation. The
book promotes the use of native, non-invasive vegetation in landscape design.
With South Carolina’s astronomical growth rate, communities need to grow
with a responsible stewardship approach and our future professionals (college
students) need to learn how to achieve this goal.
We were awarded an external
contract from the South Carolina Energy Office (SCEO) for $19,500 to help
cover the development, layout, and printing cost of the book. They
are promoting the book and are distributing 1,200 free copies upon request.
We have also provided them with 1,200 copies of Xeriscape: Landscape
Water conservation in the Southeast by John Kelly, Mary Haque, Deborah
Shuping and Jeff Zahner, which is also being promoted and distributed free
of charge. An important facet of SCEO’s mission is to help residential
users minimize utility bills while maintaining comfortable living conditions.
SCEO concentrates its efforts on educating residential builders, inspectors,
and homeowners about building practices and behavioral changes that will
lead to greater energy efficiency. Traditionally, SCEO has focused
on energy efficiency within the building envelope, but is now recognizing
that landscaping can play an important role in reducing energy use.
In fact, the US Department of Energy estimates that a well-planned landscape
design can help save residential energy users up to 50 percent on their
energy bills in the summer.
The book has been integrated
into the Clemson University curriculum in three different departments and
is required reading in Professor Haque’s, Tai’s, and Ham’s classes.
We used service-learning pedagogy to involve students and faculty in writing
and illustrating the book. As a land-grant institution, Clemson University
has a responsibility to develop and share information that will promote
lasting change not only on our campus, but throughout the state of South
Carolina. Our partner on this grant, SCEO, is helping Clemson University
market this information to South Carolinians through a variety of methods.
Residential consumers have access to the EnergyWise articles, which
are distributed bi-weekly in 24 different newspapers in the State with
a combined readership of 276,000. They can also access this information
by visiting SCEO’s Home Page (www.state.sc.us/energy/residential/landscape.htm
), which attracts about 60,000 hits per year. SCEO exhibits energy
efficiency information in Home Shows, which are generally attended by about
60,000 people. Public agencies and schools are learning about the
guide through SCEO’s Energy Connection newsletter, which is mailed quarterly
to approximately 2,000 people. Thus, the impact of this project will
contribute to lasting change at both the university level and statewide
in the spirit of the land grant initiative. All project partners
including Clemson University, Sustainable Universities Initiative, South
Carolina Forestry Commission, and SCEO are listed inside the cover of the
guide and on the
Holcombe, Veronda and
Mary T. Haque. “Educating the Public about the Design and Implementation
of Sustainable Landscapes for Low-income Communities.” Abstract. HortScience
Vol. 35, Number 3, p. 510. June 2000.
WEB PAGE DEVELOPMENT
To make this information
immediately accessible for faculty, students, university administrators,
and operations and to residential consumers, we packaged the information
in a modular form, and SCEO has uploaded it onto their web site.
This modular guide is available in PDF format at the following address:
DISTANCE DELIVERY (TELECONFERENCING):
Sustainability will be
the theme that will bring together students and faculty from Clemson University
and Greenville Technical College. Classes including Horticulture
308- Landscape Design, Horticulture 208- Landscape Appreciation, Landscape
Architecture 551 and/or 451-Landscape Design Studio, Landscape Architecture
490 – Directed Studies in Landscape Architecture; Architecture Engineering
Technology 221 and 231-architectural computer graphics and Construction
Engineering Technology 254-construction senior project will participate
in design, research, and/or teleconferencing. Information about landscape
design for energy efficiency will be shared with our partner institutions
and the public through the web page and through the book. SC Alliance
20/20 has provided $5,000 as partial funding for teleconferencing, which
is now scheduled to cover landscape design for energy efficiency on March
PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
AND STUDENT AWARD:
Student advisee Veronda
Holcombe won 1st Place in the Collegiate Branch Oral Competition for her
paper entitled “Educating the Public about the Design and Implementation
of Sustainable Landscapes for Low-income Communities” presented at the
American Society for Horticultural Science 97th International Conference.
Orlando, Fla., July 24, 2000.
We developed a poster
about the project and are finishing another power point presentation, which
is scheduled to be presented at the SUI conference "Shaping the Ecology
of a City" on March 26, 2001. The poster will be presented by students
and others at events such as earth day, arbor day, service-learning collaborative