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Presenter Name(s) Mentor Name(s) Abstract Title Session Time / Location Poster Number / Oral Presentation Time
Claire, Jillian Sims, Kerry
Poole, Shannon
Treatment of Suspected Postpartum Endometritis with Postplacental IUD insitu
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Abstract Text

Postplacental IUDs are a popular and effective method of contraception in the postpartum period. Treating patients who develop suspected endometritis after placement of an IUD is a concern, as there have been limited cases reported in the literature. Options for treatment include immediate removal of the IUD or antibiotic therapy with the IUD in place. We report two cases in which patients were successfully treated for suspected postpartum endometritis while the IUD remained in place.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 95

Smithwick, Sabrina Moreno, Nina Study Abroad Changed Me
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Abstract Text

Through my international business major at University of South Carolina, there is the requirement to study abroad the spring semester of your junior year. Through a tough application process, I was accepted into the study abroad program at Bocconi University in Milan, Italy. People say going abroad “changes people” and I’ll help show you how. I had the opportunity to live in Milan for four months in the spring of 2017. I was able to travel to different cities and countries every weekend. I got to try new food, experience new cultures, and meet so many new people. I have always loved to travel and knew that I wanted to grow and experience more. I learned a lot about how to adapt to new situations, think on my feet, be open to every experience and challenge myself. I experienced traveling alone and the thought that goes into that, as well as paraglide when I am afraid of heights. My study abroad experience is so crucial to my individual growth and my increased desire to do more and see more. It is so easy to be scared while you're away in a different country by yourself but the strength you get out of every experience is incredible. I plan to start working at Ernst and Young, LLP this upcoming summer on a large international client where I will hopefully gain travel opportunity.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 207

Martin, Lauren Lewis, Elise Management through Motivation
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Abstract Text

Management has played a major role throughout my career at the University of South Carolina and in experiences I have held beyond the classroom. During my freshman year, I began working at the Hyatt Place Columbia/Harbison hotel and realized my passion for hospitality and customer service. Through this position, I added a minor in Hospitality, Restaurant and Tourism Management (HRTM) and discovered an endless thrill of long nights and early mornings spent working with a team. After 9 months, I increased my rank from gallery host to lead gallery host where I was tasked with managing a diverse set of employees; many of which were older than me. As a retail major, I brought in a fresh sense of customer service to our quirky hotel as the front desk team shifted focus to delivering the product (customer service) to the consumers (our guests). A major issue plaguing the retail and hospitality industries is high employee turnover rates. To combat this issue I created a training guide specific to new-hire employees in order to effectively and fully train each new member while establishing clear guidelines and a pathway detailing their future goals with the company. This guide is used at multiple hotels in the franchise and the main idea is to focus on hiring the right people, training them properly, and retaining them for the future in order to avoid high employee turnover. Growing and excelling in my experiences with the Hyatt Place has reaffirmed my decision to continue expanding my skills in management and cooperative step training. Through this experience I hope to pursue a career with a leading and innovative hotelier upon graduation.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 249

Pacana, Matthew Dumont, Guillaume Acetabular Labral Tear Dimensions and Quantity of Suture Anchors Required for Repair
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Abstract Text

Introduction: Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that has allows treatment of a growing number of hip injuries including acetabular labral tears. Trends have shown a shift toward labral repair as opposed to labral debridement. The goal of this study is to assess the number of suture anchors used in arthroscopic acetabular labral repairs and correlate it to the dimensions of the labral tear as defined by the location of the tear on the clock face. Methods: Hip arthroscopy procedures including labral repair from a single surgeon were evaluated using patient operative reports to determine the location and dimension of the acetabular labral tear and the number of suture anchors utilized. Data was analyzed to determine mean size, starting location, and ending location (based on the clock face system) of labral tears. The number of suture anchors utilized to repair the tear was recorded. Results: 106 patients with a labral repair performed from 2014 to 2017 were included. The labral tears extended a mean of 3.5 hours (range 1.5-5.0) on the clock face or 105° (range 45°-150°). A mean of 3.07 anchors (range 1-5) was used. Tears ranged between 9:00 and 3:00 on the clock face. The mean tear starting location was 2:12 and the mean tear ending location was 10:54 on the clock face. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that most tears occurred in the anterosuperior quadrant of the clock face with most tears requiring one anchor per hour on the clock face. The most common tear size was a three-hour tear which required a mean of 3 anchors (range 2-4). Additionally, there is a positive association between tear size of number of anchors needed.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 125

Ferster, Brady Bulusu, Subra Confirmation of ENSO-Southern Ocean Teleconnections
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Abstract Text

The Southern Ocean is the focus of many physical, chemical, and biological analyses due to its global importance and highly variable climate. This analysis of sea surface temperatures (SST) and global teleconnections shows that SSTs are significantly spatially correlated with both the Antarctic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation, with spatial correlations between the indices and SST anomalies approaching 1.0. Here, we report that the recent positive pattern in the Antarctic and Southern Oscillations are driving negative (cooling) trends in SST in the high latitude Southern Ocean and positive (warming) trends within the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropics and mid-latitudes. The coefficient of regression over the 35-year period analyzed implies that temperatures have warmed at a rate of 0.0142°C per year between 1982-2016 with a monthly standard error in the regression of 0.0008°C. Further regression calculations between the indices and SST indicate strong seasonality in response to changes in atmospheric circulation, with the strongest feedback occurring throughout the austral summer and autumn.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 10:15 

Woronko, Stephanie Camp, Lisa Study Abroad in Thailand
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Abstract Text

The world is so connected, yet so misunderstood. I am fascinated by travel and others' experiences abroad, and I noticed that well-traveled adults often have a hole in their maps, where the pins stop and their knowledge takes a turn. While Americans frequently travel through South America, Europe, Australia, and even Africa, I have noticed how few people have ever stepped foot in Asia. There is an intense fear of a region situated literally on the opposite side of the world, a culture marked by competitive technological innovation and a government structure that is quite different from much of the Western Hemisphere. As a public relations major who plans to work in the foreign service, I was particularly interested in exploring the Thai perception of America and testing my understanding of Southeast Asian culture. What I observed were two different versions of Thailand - the local and the tourist. The separation of the two became increasingly obvious, and I realized how important it is to keep this in mind when drawing observations about a culture or a place. The characteristics that are the easiest to understand are often not accurate representations of the whole. I learned that entering any country, especially one that has been invaded by your own, puts you on the hot seat for any criticisms people may have. My experiences had been difficult and even awkward at times, but in order to fully get to know Thailand, I knew that I needed to venture away from the tourist traps. I met monks, war survivors, people from hill tribes, as well as other students. The push to learn English in Southeast Asia means that almost anyone is willing and able to talk to you, and my best moments were at locations that others have not heard of in cities that barely make the map. It took me several weeks to understand that people genuinely wanted to travel with me, show me their country, and share their story. I returned home with seven different currencies in my wallet and memories to treasure for a lifetime.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 201

Jacobsen, Natalie Ducate, Lara A Reflection on My Semester in Athens
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Abstract Text

This presentation is intended to fulfill my final requirement for graduating with Leadership Distinction in the Global Learning pathway. During my Junior year at South Carolina, I was lucky enough to study abroad at the Hellenic American College in Athens, Greece. My time in Greece and the other countries I visited taught me to think beyond the “American Bubble” I have known my whole life. In my E-portfolio, I tied the experiences and lessons learned in Athens back to concepts that I was taught here at USC and the expanded on the greater insights I’ve come to realize. My time abroad shifted my ideas about drug use, addiction and assimilation. The experience gave me valuable insight into what it means to be a global citizen, and a better leader.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 205

Manning, Tykiera Rishika, Rishika Like It. Share It. Love It: Social Media’s Influence on the Development of a Business through Brand Marketing
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Abstract Text

There was a time when only brick and cement businesses thrived. The present innovation prompts brand marketers to be relevant by designing marketing strategies involving online networking, and social media. Along these lines, social media is influential in the improvement of the business field, particularly when industry and marketing trends are constantly evolving. This investigation audits current proof on (1) the utilization of social media in the development of a business and (2) the technological advances utilized in brand marketing. Implications for the use of social media and innovation in business development and brand marketing are discussed as well as suggestions for future research.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 12

Lateef, Azalfa Klusek, Jessica Heart Activity and Anti-Saccade Performance in Women with the FMR1 Premutation
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Abstract Text

Background: The FMR1 premutation occurs when there is an expansion of 55-200 of the CGG codon on the FMR1 gene. Many people carry the FMR1 premutation, which affects about 1:151 women. Some research suggests that women with the FMR1 premutation show impaired inhibition skills, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. The study of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) may lend insight into inhibition deficits in the FMR1 premutation. RSA is the variation in the inter-beat intervals which can be used to measure vagal tone. Increased vagal reactivity marks greater autonomic flexibility and improved ability to respond to stressors. Research Question: (1) Do women with the FMR1 premutation show impairments in inhibitory control, as assessed by an antisaccade eye tracking paradigm, as compared to control women? (2) Does RSA reactivity relate to inhibition? Methods: Participants were made up of 28 women with the FMR1 and 18 neurotypical control women, aged 26-65 years. The groups were similar in age (p = 0.180). A prosaccade task was performed, followed by an antisaccade task. The average latency and percent correct was computed for each condition, and a difference score for latency and was computed by subtracting the prosaccade from the antisaccade condition. Heart activity was recorded during the antisaccade task and the resting baseline condition, and mean RSA in each condition was estimated using CardioEdit/CardioBatch. Results: Group comparisons indicated that the latency difference score was significantly elevated in women with the FMR1 premutation compared to controls [F(1,44) = 4.88, (p<0.0325)], suggesting poorer inhibitory control in this group. There were no group differences in the percent of correct trials [F (1,44)= 0.64, (p<0.4271)]. No significant correlations were detected between performance on the antisaccade task and RSA in either group. Conclusion: Women with the FMR1 premutation showed difficulties in inhibitory control compared to control women. Performance on the antisaccade task was not associated with RSA, suggesting that reduced inhibitory control in the FMR1 premutation does not stem from autonomic dysfunction.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 101

Fowler, Miles Widener, Colin Resuscitation for dummies: Increasing pediatric resident confidence in resuscitation leadership, a quality improvement project
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Abstract Text

The aim of this QI project is to increase pediatric resident confidence in leading resuscitation efforts by providing additional evidence based learning opportunities. Multiple studies have been published describing the deficiencies in pediatric resident resuscitation training which subsequently produces pediatricians ill equipped to lead resuscitation efforts. Reviews of the literature suggest that a curriculum of distributed, high fidelity, role based simulations emphasizing the role of the physician as a leader, applying the learning principle of mastery, and possibly incorporating unanticipated learning opportunities would improve resuscitation knowledge, skills and confidence. Surveys were given to PHR pediatric residents to collect baseline data on resident learning opportunities, experience, and confidence regarding resuscitation. They also collected resident suggestions for resuscitation curriculum changes. This data was discussed by myself and Dr. Widener, the PICU attending who provides simulation lab training. Inviting residents to attend monthly simulation lab training was proposed as an intervention. Residents were to receive invitations to attend simulations during off service months. They could elect to attend as many simulations as their schedule allowed. A follow up survey collected data on simulation training attendance and potential changes in confidence. Only half of survey respondents knew about the simulations and even fewer residents attended the optional simulations, however several suggestions for further improvement were offered in both these surveys.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 132

Abboodi, Fadi Pirisi-Creek, Lucia Molecular mechanisms of loss of E7 expression in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes
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Abstract Text

Human Papillomavirus HPV is responsible for 5% of all human malignancies. The HPV oncoproteins E6/E7 are responsible for the transforming potential of the virus. Although continuous expression of HPV oncogenes was considered indispensable for HPV-induced carcinogenesis, we have demonstrated that a subset of HPV-positive cancers (10% in cervical cancer and up to 30% in Oropharyngeal cancer) contain HPV DNA but do not express the HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. These tumors have been designated as HPV-inactive tumors. The gene expression profile of the HPV-inactive cancers is different from HPV-positive active tumors and is close to that of HPV-negative tumors. Interestingly, metastases from OPC tend to be HPV-inactive, while primary tumors are more often HPV-active. This evidence led to the hypothesis that HPV-inactive cancers begin as HPV-active lesions and lose their dependence on continuous E6/E7 expression during progression. This may be due to mutational and/or epigenetic modifications caused by additional carcinogens to which the tumor is exposed. Based upon our observation that HPV-inactive cancers of the uterine cervix often have mutated p53, while HPV-active cancers don’t and p53 mutations are common in HPV-negative tumors, but comparatively rare in HPV-positive cancers, we suggested that HPV-positive tumors may become inactive if tumor suppressor protein p53 becomes mutated. Therefore, by using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we knocked out the p53 gene in HPV16-transformed differentiation resistant human keratinocytes. We noticed that the E7 expression is increasing with increasing passage number in p53 wild-type cells, while it decreased in p53 knocked-out cells. This decrease in E7 expression was reversed by using the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2’deoxycytidine, suggesting that methylation plays a role in this process. Also, we used In Situ hybridization to detect HPV16 E7 mRNA in the same cell lines grown as spheroids on an agarose cushion. We found that some spheroids of p53-KO strains have lost E7 expression partially or completely while all the spheroids of p53-WT strains have a uniform distribution of E7 mRNA. These results support our suggestion that p53 mutation is an important factor in driving the HPV16 transformed cells to lose dependence on continuous expression of HPV oncoproteins.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 1

Chabot, Claire Pittman, Doug The Universe Under a Microscope
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Abstract Text

For many women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, their tumors are a direct result of mutations in DNA repair genes such as RAD51D. The RAD51D gene is essential for cell division, repairing DNA damage, and maintaining genome integrity. My research focuses on studying the localization of RAD51D and its connection to ovarian cancer. To study this correlation, I generated a fusion between RAD51D and the GFP green fluorescence reporter protein allowing me to detect its cellular localization. When I first saw the cells fluoresce under a microscope I was blown away at how similar they looked to nebulas in space and how beautiful they were. With this art project, I want to spread awareness and understanding of how the genetics of ovarian cancer works as it is the fifth most prevalent cancer amongst women and, according to the American Cancer Society, women have a one in seventy-five chance of being diagnosed with ovarian cancer in their lifetime. I want to engage people in scientific research who may not be otherwise interested in it; to show others that there can be beauty in lab work and that it is not just statistics and pipetting. When examined closely enough we can see the universe everywhere, even under a microscope. Each piece in my work is etched on glass and has been named after historical or contemporary female scientists who I find extremely fascinating or have influenced me personally. I chose to do this not only to represent women in science but also to represent the female population that is heavily impacted by ovarian cancer.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 1

Garuz, Jeyko Talente, Gregg Increasing participation of the healthy food share box program for families in a resident pediatric clinic, a quality improvement project
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Abstract Text

With the rise of pediatric obesity rates in the US it is important that pediatricians promote healthy, affordable and accessible food options in their clinic. The Children's Hospital Outpatient Center (CHOC) in Columbia South Carolina the residents serve many families that do not have access to affordable, healthy foods. At CHOC efforts were made to promote the food share box, a box of food filled with top-quality fruits and vegetables at a very affordable price. This initial food share box collaboration increased the workload of the office staff, limited the population size that could benefit from a healthier lifestyle, did not serve the Spanish speaking population and did not provide a sustainable project. We tackled all these drawback in our project through two simple but effective changes. Our first implemented change included revamping the flyer to to include English and Spanish. This first change only saw a small increase of participation, averaging 6.25 new participants per pickup in a two month period, pickups occur every 2 weeks. Our next implementation included posters in every room containing all the same information as the flyer in a more concise and larger format. This change caused an average of 9.7 new participants per pickup in a 5 month period. When compared to data collected prior to the new changes of this project, 2015 data, CHOC averaged 10.9 bi-monthly participants in a 5 month span. But these were not new participants and possibly included repeat participants to the program and thus might have a much lower new participants average. When comparing the last two months from each year the 2015 data for the last two months had an average of 8 bi-monthly participants while the new changes in 2016 saw an average of 9.75 in the last 2 month of data collection. We can infer that the new changes not only increased the number of voluntary participants to the food share box program but also is more sustainable, easier to perform and more cost effective.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 133

Gillespie, Jennie Castleberry, Lauren
Schrift, David
Retrospective Analysis of IV Flow Capacity in Obstetric Patients at Risk for Postpartum Hemorrhage
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Abstract Text

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the leading causes of preventable pregnancy-related mortality and complicates between 1-3% of pregnancies. However, unlike other causes of hemorrhage, the risk of PPH can be estimated prior to its occurrence. This allows clinicians to take the necessary precautions to manage high-risk patients, which includes establishing two, 18-gauge (large-bore) intravenous (IV) catheters. This is an imperative first step in the management of hemorrhaging patients and can help avoid a suboptimal resuscitation and its subsequent complications. This retrospective study aims to assess how often obstetrical patients at high-risk for PPH received appropriate IV access, defined as two 18-gauge or larger IVs. Methods: Exempt Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. A retrospective analysis was performed to examine the IV access placed in obstetrical patients upon admission to Labor and Delivery or Antepartum Service at our institution from September 1, 2015 through February 29, 2016. Only patients managed by the teaching service were included. A patient’s risk for PPH was determined on admission, and patients were stratified into low, medium and high-risk groups based on the risk stratification put forth by the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative (CMQCC). The number and size of IV catheters inserted upon admission were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using the T-test, Chi-Square test, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression model. Results: In total, 922 patients were included in the study. 10% (93) were deemed high-risk for PPH. Of those patients, 93.5% (87) received a single IV catheter on admission, of which 75% were 20-gauge or smaller IVs. Only 1% (1) of the high-risk patients received appropriate IV access (two 18-gauge or larger IVs). Discussion: Only 1% of patients at high-risk for PPH received appropriate IV access. Our data represents a single-center experience and should be confirmed. However, these results are concerning and suggest PPH patients may experience under-resuscitation and/or a delay in resuscitation due to inadequate IV access. Based on this data, the authors plan to revise the current Postpartum Hemorrhage Protocol and implement a new policy to ensure appropriate IV access is obtained in patients at high-risk for PPH.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 125

Risher, John Lai, Wei-Kai On Some Inequality Problems with Cyclic Fractions
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Abstract Text

In Cvetkovski’s book “Inequalities: Theorems, Techniques and Selected Problems”, we noticed a pattern of several inequalities with cyclic fractions. Using AM-GM inequality and mathematical induction, we proved these patterns while the exponents in the inequalities are integers. Furthermore, using rearrangement inequality, Chebyshev’s sum inequality, and a weighted Hölder’s inequality, we successfully generalized these results to the case when the exponents are real numbers. In this talk, we will first introduce these patterns we found, and then we will prove the generalized version of these patterns.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 177

Gillman, Rebecca Moreno, Nina The Impact of Peer Leadership and Holistic Health
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Abstract Text

I became heavily involved with Changing Carolina Peer Leader (CCPL) three years ago due to my passions for public health and holistic wellness, as well as an interest in opportunities for leadership. CCPL constitutes a diverse group of passionate undergraduate students who work to foster a healthier and happier campus environment here at USC. CCPL’s education, outreach, and advocacy events incorporate various aspects of wellness relevant to college students, including general wellness, mental health, and sex and relationships, via peer-facilitated presentations and campus-wide awareness events and programming. As a two-year executive board member, serving as both the Historian and now the current Treasurer, I have had the privilege of providing mentorship to new members while receiving invaluable guidance and support from staff within Student Health Services. Additionally, I have gained valuable written and oral communication skills, and program planning and evaluation proficiencies. I have also gained insight as to the importance of sustainability of an organization to ensure its long-term success, which can often involve critical thinking, as well as flexibility and adaptability to best address and remediate specific problems. CCPL taught me the importance of health in context, in order to best address health problems holistically. This presentation will discuss specific insights gained through leadership experiences in CCPL, as well how direct peer leadership has impacted my future plans to serve as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Moldova as a Health Education Teacher, and further to pursue an MPH, likely in the field of Global Health and Environmental Sustainability.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 259

Ramsey, Elizabeth Al-Hasan, Majdi Seasonal variation in antimicrobial resistance of community-acquired Escherichia coli bloodstream infections
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Abstract Text

Background Seasonal variation in antibiotic consumption in the community has been previously demonstrated on multiple continents, with lowest rates of consumption during summer months. The aim of this study is to examine the seasonality of antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired Escherichia coli bloodstream isolates. Methods All community-acquired E. coli bloodstream isolates collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 through central microbiology laboratory at Palmetto Health in Richland County, SC, USA. Multivariate logistical regression was used to examine resistance in E. coli isolates during the warmest four months (June-September) compared to the rest of the year after adjustment for calendar year, demographics, and baseline clinical characteristics. Results A total of 339 unique patients with community-acquired E. coli bloodstream infection were included in this study. The median age of patients was 65 years, 205 (60%) were women, and 265 (78%) had urinary source of infection. After adjustments in the multivariate model, an independent association between summer months and lowered antimicrobial resistance was demonstrated in cases in which the patient used amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (p-value=0.02, OR=0.53, CI=0.30-0.92), cefazolin (p=0.001, OR=0.26, CI=0.10-0.58), ceftriaxone (p-value=0.04, OR=0.25, CI=0.04-0.93), trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole (p-value=0.001, OR=0.27, CI=0.13-0.53). Conclusion The study demonstrates two- to four-fold reduction in antimicrobial resistance among E. coli bloodstream isolates for four frequently used antimicrobial agents when comparing summer months to the rest of the year. Lower consumption associated with decreased resistance indicates that resistance to these antimicrobials may be reversible. Thus, this is promising because consistent decline in antimicrobial use in the community may produce decreased resistance rates over an extended period time.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 130

Wulf, Siobhan
Miller, Henry
Stephenson, Kathryn Breathe Easy: Improving Asthma Care in the Outpatient Setting
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Abstract Text

Background and Objectives: Asthma is a common childhood disease that makes up a significant number of emergency room visits each year in South Carolina. Our hopes with this project was to provide residents with education on proper spacer teaching and appropriate documentation so that comprehensive asthma care can be provided to patients at outpatient visits with the ultimate aim to decrease the number of asthma related emergency room visits. Methods: A survey was provided to resident physicians to identify how comfortable they were in providing spacer education to family members in Children’s Hospital Outpatient Center. Standardized asthma documentation provided to residents in the form of a Quick Text. We provided an educational session conducted by a respiratory therapist to demonstrate the proper technique of spacer use with metered dose inhalers. We provided a follow up survey to identify improvement in both resident educations of families as well as appropriate documentation. Chart review was done from periods before and after intervention to quantify resident compliance with adequate documentation. We also reviewed number of emergency room visits by patients from Children’s Hospital Outpatient Center for asthma related complaints from December 2015 to January 2016 and compared them to post intervention dates of December 2016 to January 2017. Results: There did appear to be a significant improvement in self-reported resident comfort with spacer teaching. Both self-reported and documented spacer teaching was also improved following intervention. There was no improvement in complete asthma history documentation throughout the duration of this project. While spacer teaching interventions were improved, our primary outcome of decrease in ED visits was not shown. Conclusions: We conclude that our intervention improved their comfort level with spacer teaching at asthma outpatient appointments. We also improved overall documentation and classification at outpatient appointments. We were unable to show statistically significant improvement in the number of emergency room visits by our patients with asthma as a result of our project. Further intervention and analysis would be needed to increase population and thus power of our project.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 126

Phillips, Kristopher Patel, Shefali The Application of a Clinical Prediction Rule to Identify Cervical Myelopathy in a Patient with Shoulder Pain
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Abstract Text

Introduction Cervical myelopathy (CM) refers to compression of the spinal cord, typically due to cervical spine stenosis or a herniated disc. Patients with cervical myelopathy may present with a wide variety of symptoms, including arm and leg pain and paresthesia, balance deficits, and ataxic gait. A diagnosis of cervical myelopathy is typically confirmed via magnetic resonance imaging. If untreated, CM could lead to permanent muscle weakness or even paralysis. Physical therapists are often charged with being the front line care providers for neck and arm pain. This necessitates the performance of thorough neurological and musculoskeletal examinations to decide if patients are appropriate for physical therapy, or if they warrant a referral to a physician. There has been growing evidence to support the use of clinical prediction rules (CPR) to identify clusters of examination findings that could help to indicate the presence or absence of a condition. Previous research has identified a CPR consisting of five objective findings that are both sensitive AND specific in the diagnosis of CM. The patient met four of these five findings, and thus the presence of CM was hypothesized. Case Description The patient was a 53-year-old female referred to physical therapy with a diagnosis of shoulder impingement. In addition to her shoulder pain, she reported occasional numbness in the left shoulder and face. Due to the presence of these symptoms, a neurological examination was performed. The patient was found to have hyper-reflexia in the upper and lower extremities bilaterally as well as a positive Hoffman’s Reflex and Inverted Supinator Reflex bilaterally. Because the patient met four of five criteria for the CPR for CM, the patient was referred to a spine surgeon. MRI of the cervical spine confirmed posterior disc protrusions at both C4-C5 and C5-C6 causing severe stenosis and contacting the spinal cord. The patient subsequently underwent anterior cervical fusion. Conclusion This case report demonstrates that a CPR for CM can be an effective tool to help identify the presence of CM. Front-line care providers should consider utilizing this valuable tool when examining patients with neck and shoulder discomfort.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 148

Walsh, Eleanor Brendell, Kathrene
Tavakoli, Abbas
Long Term Effects of Childhood Sexual Trauma
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Abstract Text

Research shows that childhood sexual trauma (CST) alters normal growth patterns, brain development, social and mental advancement. Yet there is lack of research correlating age of CST with specific mental health, physical health and emotional health outcomes. Investigations of the sequelae of CST need to consider the developmental period during which the trauma occurred. Neurobiology, attachment theory and infant development research create the Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) model for mental processes and memory storage. Trauma response develops into a failure of adaptive processing to neural connections by preventing information from being fully processed. Understanding stages of brain development and disruption of integrated neural processing after trauma through the AIP model can explain symptoms of mental and physical health patterns. A survey consisting of demographic data, modified Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire and a symptoms checklist categorizes participants as being exposed to CST during specific developmental periods, as well as identifies presenting symptoms of mental and physical health diagnoses. Survey participants are University of South Carolina students in various colleges, including the College of Nursing. Statistically significant data is presented on specific developmental periods, type of sexual trauma and various mental and physical health outcomes. Outcomes in correlation are shared based on data from the administered survey. Understanding the impact of CST at different developmental stages open avenues for targeted age appropriate intervention. Recognition of correlations between brain developmental period and specific disease outcome patterns serves as a guide for future research on how trauma impacts age-related neurophysiology.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 72

Holmes, Jordan Hashemi, Parastoo Enzyme-free Glutamate Sensing at Ionophore-Grafted Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes
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Abstract Text

In recent years there has been a push to expand the boundaries of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure a suite of physiologically relevant signaling molecules in real-time. Our group, among others, has spearheaded this movement with in vivo serotonin and histamine sensing. In this study, our focus shifts towards a fascinating analytical challenge: measuring glutamate, which is one of the most abundant neurotransmitters and was previously thought to be non-electroactive. Glutamate is particularly difficult to analyze with voltammetry because it electropolymerizes at biological pH and is structurally similar to many other amino acids found in the extracellular space. For the first time, we introduce a voltammetric method for direct glutamate detection using an optimized waveform. We approach selectivity issues from a unique angle by designing a novel ionophore for glutamate binding incorporating Cu(II). Glutamate detection coupled with Cu(II) FSCV provides a strategy capable of rapid, sensitive, and stable responses. Here, we describe in detail the development of this novel glutamate sensor and characterize the electrochemical response both in vitro and in vivo. The future of this work is to gain an in depth understanding of glutamate transmission in health and disease comparable to that of other analytes measurable by FSCV.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 33

Larkin, Kelsey Binev, Peter Improved Filtering of Electron Tomography EDX Data
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Abstract Text

The processing of EDX tomography data involves using an electron microscope that scans a sample containing different elements which occasionally emit x-rays. Each element emits an x-ray with specific energies which are then collected. We use mathematical methods to manipulate the data to produce the best reconstructions of the samples. The collection of data using the electron microscope involves various inaccuracies that arise when the data is obtained. Additionally, there are not many x-rays detected at a single position and in order to see which elements are involved and how their energies are distributed, it is necessary to perform the analysis of this information on the combined spectrum of all the positions. We decompose the data into a background and several Gaussian-like bump functions. This is used to create filters to faithfully extract the counts for the elements at each individual pixel and provide accurate data for tomographic reconstruction. The focus of this presentation are the improvements of several particular elements of the procedure. The Gaussian-like bumps are usually represented by e^((-b)*(x-c)^2) and the focus is on specifying the factor “b.” It is traditionally equivalent to 1/(2*(sigma^2)) but since the distribution is not exactly Gaussian - the specialists have observed that it varies with the position of the center “c” and the bump itself is not exactly symmetric. Another problem is that some bumps are formed by two close energies of the same chemical element and for those, we should consider different approximation containing two exponentials. The parameters are fit for each bump using the nonlinear least squares iteration with a very good initial guess provided by the preliminary analysis of the data. Several different sets of data involving different compositions of chemical elements were analyzed.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 175

Sulzer, Kara Onopochenco, Natalie Gilda's Club South Jersey
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Abstract Text

Cancer can have a devastating impact on an individual's life, as well as on the lives of the family and friends of the individual. Gilda's Club - an affiliate of the Cancer Support Community - provides a safe environment to educate and support those touched by cancer at no cost. Their mission is to "ensure that all people impacted by cancer are empowered by knowledge, strengthened by action, and sustained by community." In 2014, I made the decision to volunteer at Gilda's Club South Jersey, the only cancer support community located in southern New Jersey, in the child support sector of the organization. Here I worked one-on-one with children impacted by cancer, helping them express their feelings and cope with their situations through communication and activities. When I first decided to volunteer at Gilda's Club, I hoped to have the opportunity to impact children's lives in a positive way; I did not anticipate, however, the monumental impact the children would have on my life. I have transformed into a role model, learned to put things into perspective, and put into my everyday life the values I want to uphold: compassion, courage, patients, and leadership. Today, I consider Gilda's Club South Jersey to be my second home and the community members to be my second family. This experience has had an invaluable impact on my life, and I cannot imagine where I would be today without the support and love of my second family.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 288

Start, Ethan Culley, Joan
Tavakoli, Abbas
Impressions of Participants in a Chemical Mass Casualty Exercise
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Abstract Text

Background: Validating Triage for Chemical Mass Casualty Incidents, a current study funded by the National Institutes of Health and the National Library of Medicine, examines the effectiveness of triage algorithms in handling a sudden influx of chemical-exposed patients. After reviewing medical records from the 2005 Graniteville chlorine spill, the Irritant Gas Syndrome Agent (IGSA) triage algorithm was created to triage suspected chemical victims. Purpose: On April 4th, 2017, the USC College of Nursing held a one-day chemical mass casualty exercise, using junior and senior nursing students as mock patients. The purpose of this exercise was threefold: 1) education of nursing students in mass casualty scenarios; 2) testing application of the IGSA triage algorithm; and 3) testing effectiveness of decontamination methods. Methods: Prior to the event, students completed a training course on mass casualty response. On the event day, students were assigned one of two activities: Emergency Department (ED) and Decontamination (DECON). ED students were sent through a mock emergency department triage, where they portrayed assigned symptoms either from a victim of the 2005 chlorine spill or a non-exposed patient. DECON participants were sprayed with fluorescent powder, then photographed before and after decontamination. After the exercise, all students were given a questionnaire sampling their impressions of the event and difficulties they experienced. Results: On average, students agreed that the experience was valuable (3.8 / 5), peaked an interest in emergency response (3.9 / 5), and they would participate again (66%). However, the DECON group reported higher scores in these three areas (4.2/5, 4.0/5, 84%) than the ED group (3.9/5, 3.75/5, 0.61%). Discussion: Students appreciated the experience, finding it valuable and interesting. The higher levels of participation and more physical nature of the DECON activities likely gave the DECON students a greater appreciation for the drill.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Carolina Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 9:45-9:55am 

Kirby, Alexander Kulkarni, Varsha Constraining Extinction due to Dust in Distant Galaxies
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Abstract Text

Extinction due to interstellar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon that dims and reddens the light of background objects. As such, it is essential to apply extinction corrections to observations of distant objects in order to deduce their properties. Since the discovery of interstellar extinction in 1930, astronomers have developed a fairly detailed understanding of the interstellar dust in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies, especially the Magellanic Clouds. However, studies of extinction by dust in galaxies beyond the Local Group have been limited. In this work, we seek to generate better constraints on dust extinction in other galaxies in order to improve corrections for observations of objects that lie beyond them. As such, we are constructing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for quasars/active galactic nuclei whose lines of sight go through foreground galaxies at lower redshifts. We will describe our compilation of archival optical, UV, and IR spectroscopic and photometric data from various observatories. Using the SEDs compiled from these data, and fitting the underlying continuum of the background quasar/AGN, we will estimate dust extinction curves for each foreground galaxy, and compare those with extinction curves in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 169

Namsinh, Amanda Scher, Howie Determining the Sensitivity of the Hf-Nd Proxy to the Pleistocene in the North Atlantic
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Abstract Text

The history of the modern ice caps is incompletely known, though many have studied the glaciation of the northern hemisphere cryosphere there is intense debate of the timing. Ice sheet history can be reconstructed using geochemical proxies for continental weathering, particularly those proxies, such as the Hf-Nd proxy, that are sensitive to the mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals that occur as ice sheets grind away the upper continental crust. The Hf-Nd proxy has not been previously applied to the late Pleistocene that dates the beginning and continuation of the northern hemisphere deglaciation. Application of the Hf-Nd proxy to the Pleistocene will further refine the proxy and provide insight on how this proxy operates in difference climate conditions. By measuring the authigenic and detrital Hf-Nd isotopic composition of sediment from the Bermuda Rise in the N. Atlantic abyssal plains, the deglaciation magnitude during the late Pleistocene will be assessed. The BOFS (Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study) provided the cores in which sediment was used for this study. The authigenic fraction of the sediment was extracted from the sediment through a leaching process, while the detrital fraction was extracted from a bomb digestion of leached sediment. Column chemistry was used to isolate neodymium and hafnium to be measure on a mass spectrometer.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 148

Kaura, Nancy Carson, James
Vanderveen, Brandon
Muscle AKT Signaling Sensitivity to Short-Term Fasting in Tumor Bearing Mice
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Abstract Text

Background: Cachexia, muscle mass loss secondary to chronic disease, commonly affects cancer patients and is directly related to reduced life quality, poor treatment outcomes, and reduced survival. While the basal disruption of cachectic skeletal muscle protein turnover is well established, significant gaps remain in our understanding of how cancer influences physiological short-term fasting regulation of protein turnover. Purpose: We examined short-term fasting regulation of skeletal muscle Akt signaling in tumor bearing mice exhibiting cachexia. Methods: Cachectic (>5%BW loss) ApcMin/+ (MIN, n=3) and age matched C57BL/6 (WT, n=3) mice were sacrificed after a 4 hour fast. MIN (n=3) and WT (n=3) mice given food ad libitum served as controls. Analysis was performed on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Results: MIN mice had significant body weight loss (-15% ± 2) and reduced TA weight (29mg ± 1) compared to WT (48mg ± 2). Akt phosphorylation (T308) was reduced after a 4 hour fast (-81% ± 9) in the MIN, while the WT (10% ± 5) did not change. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that cancer increases catabolic signaling caused by short-term fasting in cachectic mouse skeletal muscle. Additional work is needed to determine the effect of a short-term fast on downstream Akt signaling that regulates muscle protein turnover. Supported by NCI R01-CA121249.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 81

Margolis, Rachel Kadar, Tim Margolis Equestrian
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Abstract Text

Over the past two years I have been running and expanding my own small business in the equine industry called “Margolis Equestrian.” I have been training and competing a wide variety of horses for private clients in Sumter and Camden, South Carolina. In creating my business I was seeking to continue riding while in college even though I did not have the funds to support my own horse. Through networking with different farm owners and trainers in the area, I came into contact with my very first clients in South Carolina. Tim and Mary Kadar hired me to train their horse Maximo, known as “Mo,” so that he would be safe for Mary to ride. Mary suffers from Vertigo so I was tasked to train Mo to be the ideal partner for Mary. The partnership grew and I eventually began competing Mo in United States Dressage Federation competitions regionally for the Kadars and he has been very successful. As I continued to ride Mo, friends and neighbors of the Kadars heard of my training and began to get in contact with me. Mo had been notoriously a difficult horse and my ability to better him made me a very attractive trainer to use and led me to the current string of five horses I now have in my program. I had found my niche of clientele. I strategically priced my services to attract clients. I have learned a lot in terms of training from riding five very different horses as well as an extreme amount of patience dealing with not only difficult horses but at times difficult clients. I have also become very well organized in order to work around everyone’s schedule including my own. Running my own business while in school has been difficult but every time I get to wear my polo shirt with my “Margolis Equestrian” logo it is all worth it. I hope to continue to expand my training services and have more of my horses competing in regional competitions this coming season.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 245

McDuffie, Cameron Behroozmand, Roozbeh Effect of Altered Auditory Feedback on Sensorimotor Deficits in Aphasic Individuals
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Abstract Text

Aphasia is a communication disorder that occurs following a stroke in the left-brain areas. Although aphasia is associated with a wide range of language impairments, sensorimotor deficits are also implicated in the disorder. The present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of sensorimotor deficits in aphasic patients using an altered auditory feedback paradigm. Sixteen aphasic patients and sixteen matched neurologically healthy control subjects were recruited for the present study. Participants were instructed to produce a steady vowel sound of /a/ at their normal conversational pitch and loudness for 2 to 3 seconds. A short altered auditory feedback pitch shift, either upward or downward, of 200 ms was randomly applied to each trial at different time intervals between 750 and 1250 ms. Subject’s speech signals were recorded and further processed to calculate compensation magnitude in response to pitch-shift stimulus. To identify localized brain damage associated with speech sensorimotor impairments, a univariate lesion-symptom-mapping analysis was performed using the neuroimaging data collected in Aphasic patients. In each region of interest, a mean intensity value was taken and analyzed with voxel-based permutation thresholding to predict diminished speech compensation responses to acoustic auditory feedback. To determine the phases of error processing, the correlation between diminished speech altered auditory feedback response at four points in time and location of the lesion was analyzed. Results indicated that there was a larger magnitude of speech compensation responses to altered auditory feedback in the control group of neurologically intact individuals. Individuals with aphasia scored lower on speech repetition tasks produced a greater number of diminished compensatory responses. Results further indicated that damage to the superior and middle temporal gyri, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus were negatively correlated with the magnitude of compensation in responses to altered auditory feedback. The findings of the current study indicate that damage to these areas predicts specific aspects of sensorimotor impairment in speech error processing in aphasic individuals.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 76

Ergen, Thomas Pacana, Matthew
Money, Adam
Barnes, Jack
Dumont, Guillaume
Impact of the Severity of Femoroacetabular Impingement Bony Abnormalities on Severity of Chondrolabral Injury
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Abstract Text

INTRODUCTION: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a common cause of anterior hip / groin pain that results from abnormal conflict between the acetabulum and femoral head/neck, and often is associated with acetabular labral tears. Radiographic findings and measurements are helpful in diagnosing FAI. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative radiographic parameters (lateral center edge angle (LCEA), alpha angle, cross over sign) and the size of labral tear noted intra-operatively. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of radiographic and intraoperative findings was performed on patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAI. LCEA, alpha angle, and cross over sign were obtained from preoperative imaging. Intraoperatively, the size of labral tear on the acetabulum was determined by numbers on a clock face, with 3 o’clock by convention located anteriorly at the psoas “u”. Spearman’s rank correlation rho test was utilized for data analysis. RESULTS: Increased alpha angle was associated with increased labral tear size. A 10 degree increase in the alpha angle was associated with a 0.1552 hour increase in labral tear size. Increased acetabular depth (LCEA) was associated with increased labral tear size. A 10 degree increase in LCEA, correlated with a 0.306 hour increase in labral tear size. The median / mean labral tear size was 3.0 / 3.2 hours in patients with a negative crossover sign versus, versus 3.5 / 3.476 hours in patients with a positive crossover sign. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that greater bony structural abnormalities of FAI, including acetabular depth and larger cam morphology is associated with larger labral tear size. This may support a growing body of knowledge associated chondrolabral injury with FAI.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 140

Garces, Natalie Walsh, Declan Cancer Survivorship Care Plans: Clinician Engagement and Accountability in a Large Hospital Network
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Abstract Text

Background: Challenges to Survivorship Care Plan (SCP) implementation persist and guidelines to facilitate provider engagement and accountability are needed (Birken and Mayer, 2017). In 2014, Levine Cancer Institute (LCI), one of the largest Commission on Cancer networks, instituted a SCP delivery model with the survivor’s oncology physician or advanced care provider. Purpose: The primary goal is to illustrate methods used to enhance provider engagement and accountability in the SCP program. The secondary goal is to show the effectiveness of these methods. Methods: In 2016, survivorship section leaders partnered with the cancer committee to develop a system to further enhance provider engagement and accountability. Strategies included: 1) emailed SCP metrics monthly to administrators, clinic managers, providers and tumor site section leaders; 2) presented section- and clinic-specific SCP performance reports at quarterly cancer committee, NAPBC leadership and operational meetings; 3) partnered with tumor site section leaders to clarify SCP eligibility criteria, set monthly goals and to optimize delivery; 4) discussed SCP metrics at each monthly tumor site section meeting to highlight participation rates of providers and clinics; and 5) required newly hired outpatient ACPs to get SCP training and included SCP delivery in goals. Results: Enhanced provider engagement and accountability led to substantial growth Conclusions: LCI developed and implemented a multilayer partnership strategy that enhanced engagement and accountability at the leadership, clinic and clinician level. Since 2014, more than 3,100 SCPs have been given at LCI. Cancer programs within large hospital networks may benefit from replicating these methods.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 1

Mills, Baker Blanck, Erika BLUMENSAAT'S LINE AS A PREDICTION OF NATIVE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT LENGTH
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Abstract Text

Purpose: Graft-tunnel mismatch is a condition in which the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft is either too long or short. It is hypothesized that Blumensaat's line length (BLL) measured from a lateral knee radiograph, will accurately approximate the native ACL length and help to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch. Methods: A lateral knee radiograph was used to determine BLL. The mean percent difference (MPD), mean percent similarity (MPS), absolute difference (AD), and correlation between BLL, PLL, and the native ACL length were calculated. An inter-observer and intra-observer reliability coefficient were calculated for the measurement of BLL. Results: A total of 130 patients (66 male and 64 female) underwent direct measurement of their native ACL during knee arthroscopy. For males, the average length of the ACL was 32.5mm, BLL 30.4mm, and the PLL 49.2mm. The AD between BLL and the native ACL was 2.4mm ± 1.3mm, the MPD 3.7% ± 1.9, the MPS 97.4% ± 2.6, and the correlation coefficient (CC) 0.88 (>0.8 excellent, <0.2 poor). The CC between the PLL and native ACL was 0.08. For females, the average length of the ACL was 30.2mm, BLL 27.5mm, and PL 44.4mm. The AD between BLL and native ACL was 2.7mm±1.7mm, the MPD was -4.5%±2.4, the MPS was 95.5%±2.5, and the CC was 0.93. The CC between the PLL and native ACL was 0.1. The inter-observer and intra-observer reliability coefficient for the measurement of BLL was 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. Conclusion: A strong correlation was found between BLL and the native ACL with a high inter-observer and intra-observer reliability. This correlation provides a simple and reliable method to approximate the native ACL length prior to reconstruction and possibly aide in graft-tunnel mismatch prevention. Level of Evidence IV

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 110

Uddin, Majbah Huynh, Nathan Factors Influencing Injury Severity of Crashes Involving HAZMAT Trucks
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Abstract Text

This study investigates factors affecting injury severity of crashes involving HAZMAT large trucks. It uses the crash data in the state of California from the Highway Safety Information System, from 2005 to 2011. The explanatory factors include the occupant, crash, vehicle, roadway, environmental, and temporal characteristics. Both fixed- and random-parameters ordered probit models of injury severity (where possible outcomes are major, minor, and no injury) were estimated; the random-parameters model captures possible unobserved effects related to factors not present in the data. The model results indicate that the occupants being male, truck drivers, crashes occurring in rural locations, under dark-unlighted, under dark-lighted conditions, and on weekdays were associated with increased probability of major injuries. Conversely, the older occupants (age 60 and over), truck making a turn, rear-end collision, collision with an object, crashes occurring on a non-interstate highway, higher speed limit highway (≥65 mph), and flat terrain were associated with decreased probability of major injuries. This study has identified factors that explain injury severities of crashes involving HAZMAT, and as such, it could be used by policy makers and transportation agencies to improve HAZMAT transport, and thus, the overall highway safety.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 36

Fayyaz, Humna Srinivasan, Shilpa Is delirium in the acute phase after initial stroke associated with future cognitive impairment or diagnosis of dementia? A review
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Abstract Text

Background: In the acute stroke setting, prevalence of delirium has been estimated to be as high as 48% and has been associated with prolonged hospital stays, twelve-month mortality, and overall worse functional outcomes after stroke when compared to patients who did not experience delirium in the post-stroke period. Though several studies have investigated delirium after surgical procedures and trauma, there is limited literature addressing the long-term consequences of post-stroke delirium on neurocognitive function. Objective: To investigate whether delirium in the acute phase after initial stroke is associated with future cognitive impairment, we reviewed prospective and retrospective observational studies, review articles, meta-analyses, and systemic reviews that assessed the outcome of delirium in first time stroke patients. Methods: We conducted a literature search of MEDLINE with full text, CINAHL Plus with full text, Cochrane Library databases, Clinical Key, PubMed, and MedlinePlus. Eligibility criteria for the studies reviewed included first-time stroke patients admitted to an in-patient facility who experienced delirium in the first twelve days after stroke. The primary outcome measurements in these patients was the diagnosis of dementia or cognitive impairment. Results: Six studies were evaluated with 889 patients admitted consecutively for acute in-patient treatment of a stroke, with 323 meeting the criteria for diagnosis of delirium within 12 days after admission. Ojagbemi et al., Melkas et al., and Rijsbergen et al. found significant associations between patients who experienced post-stroke delirium and developed post-stroke dementia by the time of follow- up, compared to those who did not experience post-stroke delirium. The remaining studies examined the incidence of cognitive decline in the post-stroke period in patients who experienced delirium in the acute period after stroke, relying solely on MMSE scores to assess for cognitive impairment. Discussion: Unlike the many known predictors of dementia which cannot be modified, delirium in the acute phase after stroke can be treated and potentially prevented. Though further studies are required to elucidate the association between post-stroke delirium and post-stroke dementia, recognizing a potential risk factor such as delirium may lead to improved attentiveness and education in diagnosis, management, and treatment of delirium in the acute phase after stroke.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 109

Lu, Junyu Carbone, Gregory Uncertainty and hotspots in 21st century projections of agricultural drought from CMIP5 models
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Abstract Text

Future climate changes could alter hydrometeorological patterns and change the nature of droughts at global to regional scales. However, there are still considerable uncertainties in drought projections. Here, we focus on agricultural drought by analyzing surface soil moisture outputs from CMIP5 multi-model ensembles (MMEs) under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 scenarios. First, we investigate the MME annual and seasonal percentage change of surface soil moisture and evaluate the statistical significance of change using paired student t-tests for each grid. The annual mean soil moisture by the end of the 21st century shows statistically significant large-scale drying and limited areas of wetting for all scenarios, with stronger drying as the strength of radiative forcing increases. Second, we calculate the duration, frequency, severity, and spatial extent of severe agricultural drought. The MME median frequency of both short-term and long-term drought increases in most regions and most scenarios. The individual months are more likely to organize into sequences of consecutive dry months to produce longer-term drought for RCP8.5 than RCP2.6. The MME mean projections of the spatial extent of severe drought increase for all regions and all future RCP scenarios, and most notably in Central America (CAM), Europe and Mediterranean (EUM), Tropical South America (TSA), and South Africa (SAF). Third, we quantify and partition three sources of uncertainty associated with these drought projections: internal variability, model uncertainty, and emission scenario uncertainty. Variability between models presents the largest source of uncertainty (over 80%) across the entire 21st century owing to the wide range of precipitation projections, simplified hydrological models in many CMIP5 climate models, and complicated processes controlling soil moisture. The inter-model uncertainty of drought projections is larger for higher emission scenario. Finally, we examine the spatiotemporal variability of annual and seasonal signal to noise (S/N) change in soil moisture anomalies across the globe and for different lead times. The spatial pattern and magnitude of S/N do not change significantly by lead time, indicating that the spreads of uncertainties become larger as the signals become stronger.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Congaree Meeting Room B (lower level)
Time: 9:35 

LIU, ZHONGHAO HU, JIANJUN DeepMHC: Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for High-performance peptide-MHC Binding Affinity Prediction
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Abstract Text

Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been shown to outperform conventional methods in DNA-protien binding specificity prediction. However, whether we can transfer this success to protien-peptide binding affinity prediction depends on appropriate design of the CNN architecture that calls for thorough understanding how to match the architecture to the problem. Here we propose DeepMHC, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based protein-peptide binding prediction algorithm for achieving better performance in MHC-I peptide binding affinity prediction than conventional algorithms. Our model takes only raw binding peptide sequences as input without needing any human-designed features and other physichochemical or evolutionary information of the amino acids. Our CNN models are shown to be able to learn non-linear relationships among the amino acid positions of the peptides to achieve highly competitive performance on most of the IEDB benchmark datasets with a single model architecture and without using any consensus or composite ensemble classifier models. By systematically exploring the best CNN architecture, we identified critical design considerations in CNN architecture development for peptide-MHC binding prediction.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 36

Chua, Chei Hwee Liu, Leigh Anne
Ma, Li
Zhang, Zhi-Xue
Barzantny, Cordula
Differential Effects of Broad and Deep Foreign Experience in Intra- and Intercultural Negotiations
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Abstract Text

We explore how and when foreign experience influences negotiation outcomes in intracultural and intercultural negotiation contexts. Four studies with negotiators from multiple cultural backgrounds with varied negotiation cases reveal differential effects of deep and broad foreign experiences on negotiation outcomes. As expected, deep foreign experience significantly influences intercultural negotiation, and the effect is mediated by global identity. Somewhat surprisingly, broad foreign experience significantly influences negotiation outcomes in intracultural settings, and the effect is mediated by local identity. Our findings demonstrate a sophisticated alignment among foreign experience, cultural identity, and the context of social interactions such as negotiation, providing a new way of seeing how experience and identity affect social interactions.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 15

Mathias, Emily Bezuidenhout, Anne Speech Acts and Moral Responsibility
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Abstract Text

In the United States, freedom of speech is something taken seriously. So much so, in fact, that it is mentioned in the first amendment to the Constitution. However, a commonly held exception is that you should not yell out “FIRE!” unless there really is one. The importance of this exception is that it is clearly motivated by an understanding that words can have consequences. Today, so much of the discussion around moral responsibility focuses on the causal chain of events that culminate in the agency of the action in question. Causation may cover a lot of ground here, but the current understanding of causation is limited to physical acts – think of the over reduced example of a cue ball and billiard balls. This limitation excludes holding anyone accountable for things they have said. This is very problematic. Should we hold the general of an army morally responsible for ordering an unwarranted killing? I think we should. In fact, I argue that speech acts should be accounted for when analyzing the conditions of act being morally judged. But before we can do this, we must have a reliable moral analysis of speech acts themselves. When someone performs a speech act there is an intended audience. In order for the speech act to be successful, that audience needs to not only hear the words, but they need to understand the intention of the speech act as well. Austin, Grice, and Searle have covered this area in detail, but there is more to be said. I will present a viable schema to supplement their work. This schema can be used as a guide for providing analysis of morally questionable acts and situations so that we can have an account for harmful words.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 10:10 

Werner, Phillip Chakravarty, Anu Political and Social Impacts of the Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission
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Abstract Text

The Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission sought to repair relations following the events of November 3rd, 1979. The goal of this project was to examine what this Commission achieved as well as comparing this Commission to other commissions held throughout history.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 26

Alkarkoushi, Rasha Testerman, Traci Enterohepatic Helicobacter species modulate severity of DSS-induced colitis but do not prevent amelioration by indole-3-carbinol
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Abstract Text

Enterohepatic Helicobacter (EHH) species are Gram-negative bacteria, colonize the colons and the biliary ducts of humans, primates, rodents.Virtually nothing is known about the influence of EHH species which are more relevant to most humans. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment is widely used in mice to mimic ulcerative colitis. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a chemical extracted from cruciferous vegetables, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis. We hypothesized that specific EHH species would alter the course of DSS-induced colitis and possibly the responses to I3C treatment. We infected C57BL/6 mice with human- and rodent-associated EHH species and measured the effects on DSS-induced colitis and response to I3C treatment by measuring inflammation, T cell responses, and microRNA expression patterns. We found that H. muridarum and H. cinaedi exacerbate DSS-induced colitis and delay recovery, whereas some other EHH species may reduce DSS-induced colitis severity. Furthermore, I3C ameliorated colitis and shifted the Treg/Th17 balance in H. muridarum-infected mice. Moreover, the microRNA expression pattern was altered in H. muridarum-infected mice when compared to that of uninfected mice. Interestingly, enhanced colitis as well as increased Th17 cells in spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes were observed in H. muridarum-infected DSS-treated mice when compared to H. muridarum-infected mice. I3C treatment of DSS + H. muridarum-infected mice decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory IL17 and RORC as well as increased anti-inflammatory Foxp3 when compared to the DSS + H. muridarum group. These immunological changes correlated with the microRNA expression. The decreased expression of RORC correlated with increased miR-let7a-2 and miR-29a-3p expression and increased FoxP3 with correlated with decreased miR-874 expression following I3C treatment. These studies demonstrate that the presence of EHH species alters susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. Importantly, mice with exacerbated colitis respond to I3C. These results suggest that EHH species could make a human more or less prone to inflammatory bowel disease. In the future, we plan to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of EHH on colon cancer development and the efficacy of I3C in both the colitis and colon cancer models.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 1:00 

White, Spenser Ford, David Case Report: Simultanteous presentation of pyloric stenosis in monozygotic twins
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Abstract Text

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), although rare, is the most common surgical cause of vomiting in the infant. Pyloric stenosis is caused by hypertrophy of the pylorus muscle connecting the stomach to the intestine. This results in a gastric outlet obstruction leading to post-prandial emesis, dehydration, and severe or life threatening metabolic abnormalities. While the exact etiology is unknown, it is thought to be multifactorial, depending on both genetic and environmental influences. IHPS is accepted to occur more frequently in twins, and numerous case reports in monozygotic twins exist in medical literature. Almost all cases of co-twin disease involved temporal discrepancy in onset of symptoms and disease diagnosis. This case report discusses monozygotic twins that presented to the Emergency Department with symptomatic vomiting that began at the same time. Their diagnosis was determined by ultrasonography and confirmed by surgical intervention to be due to pyloric stenosis. This case is rare in that both twins present with symptom onset simultaneously.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 96

Guttman, Anne Prinz, Ron Triple P: Positive Parenting Program
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Abstract Text

NIMH-supported clinical trial comparing online versus person-delivered family-based intervention for 3-7 year old children experiencing behavioral difficulties. The research focuses on outcomes, parent/consumer satisfaction, and cost-benefit considerations.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 55

AHMED, FAHIM UDDIN, MAJBAH Analysis of Pedestrian Injury Severity in Motor Vehicle Crashes in Ohio
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Abstract Text

This paper investigates factors contributing to the pedestrian injury severity resulting from motor vehicle crashes in the state of Ohio, USA. It uses the crash data from the Highway Safety Information System, from 2009 to 2013. The explanatory factors include the pedestrian, driver, vehicle, crash, and roadway characteristics. Both fixed- and random-parameters ordered probit models of injury severity (where possible outcomes are major, minor, and possible/no injury) were estimated. The model results indicate that being older pedestrian (65 and over), younger driver (less than 24), driving under influence (DUI), being struck by a truck, dark-unlighted roadways, six-lane roadways, and speed limit of 40 mph and 50 mph were associated with more severe injuries to the pedestrians. Conversely, older driver (65 and over), passenger car, crash occurring in urban locations, daytime traffic off-peak (10 AM to 3:59 PM), weekdays, and daylight condition were associated with less severe injuries. This study provides specific safety recommendations so that effective countermeasures could be developed and implemented by the policy makers, which in turn will improve overall highway safety.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 35

Romagnolo, Shannon Limberg, Dodie Impact of a Social Justice-Focused School Counselor Education Curriculum on Trainees' Social Justice Attitudes and Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Knowledge
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Abstract Text

Social justice advocacy is a critical part of school counselors’ ethical and professional responsibilities; however, preparing school counselor trainees for this work if often complicated given lack of shared meaning regarding what constitutes a social justice-oriented practice. In this session, the presenter will address this issue by discussing the development and implementation of a curriculum designed to prepare graduate students and practicing school counselors to engage in specific social justice practices. Additionally, the presenter will discuss the outcomes of a quasi-experimental study in which she examined changes in graduate school counseling students’ social justice attitudes and beliefs, self-efficacy, and knowledge of social justice practices pre- and post-curriculum compared to students who received instruction as usual.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 40

Bain, Quentin Cooper, Joshua Small Ramsey Numbers
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Abstract Text

In this study, we use the probabilistic method to get a better understanding of small Ramsey numbers R(k, l). We investigate individual and joint frequency distributions of red and blue cliques in the complete graph Kn and determine the extent to which the frequency distributions are Poisson. We also consider failures of certain frequency distributions to realize the Poisson paradigm. Moreover, we consider values of n other than R(k, l) in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the distributions of cliques, and obtain asymptotic bounds on the covariance of red size k cliques and blue size l cliques.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 176

Palmer, Erik Vasquez, Paula A Stochastic Model for High Performance Computing of Polymer Gel Behavior
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Abstract Text

Hydrogels have attracted attention as "smart" materials for their tunable mechanical properties that respond to environmental stimuli such as pH, UV, or temperature; making them ideal for a variety of biomedical and sensor technology applications. Consisting of mostly water, the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels are the product of a network of polymer chains attaching and detaching at various entanglement points. Due to this complexity at the micro-scale, many previous polymer simulations rely on mathematical simplifications of chain dynamics to produce results. In this poster we explore the potential for a Brownian dynamics mean-field model to capture the properties that emerge from a mixture of hydrogels using massively parallel computation on graphics processing units. This approach abstracts away the network positions and uses stochastic differential equations derived from physical properties to capture the breaking and reforming behavior of attached segments, thereby keeping the non-linear micro-scale polymer dynamics intact.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 44

Murphy, Taylor Quattro, Joseph
Levasseur, Kathryn
Does hatchling fitness have a genetic component?
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Abstract Text

Assessing fitness variation within and among hawksbill turtle sibling groups.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 147

Brown, Christian Fallucca, Amber
Makris, Thomas
Advancing Professional Development Strategies for Undergraduates in Chemistry and Biochemistry
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Abstract Text

In the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of South Carolina (the Chemistry Department), most curriculum-driven professional development for undergraduates is reserved for third- and fourth-year students. Academic instruction occurs at all levels, but the context comes late. Early exposure to career options and hands-on training is imperative for undergraduates to obtain maximum experiential education. The purpose of this project is to advance the current professional development strategies of the Chemistry Department, specifically targeting second- and third-year students. The study will survey students' current involvement in professional development activities as well as how the Chemistry Department is facilitating undergraduate involvement in professional development. We will use the data on extracurricular experience and post-graduation interest to design a workshop series to reach students with practical tools for success, such as networking skills and synthesizing intra- and extracurricular experiences. The impact of each workshop will be assessed with post-session surveys asking participants about the value and applicability of the information shared. The most beneficial topics will be incorporated into curriculum development of the Chemistry Department's one-credit hour undergraduate seminar course. By integrating more advanced professional development into the curriculum, chemistry and biochemistry undergraduates will be encouraged to pursue experiential education in their second and third years.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 15

Lai, Joseph Humphrey, Mark
Barron, Keith
Hall, Jeffrey
MenkinSmith, Lacey
Lee, Jenny
Uses of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) and its impact in a limited resource setting: Nicaragua
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Abstract Text

Background: Short-term medical missions (STMMs) have become a well-established and appealing avenue for physicians and other medical professionals to provide philanthropy and direct medical care to developing parts of the world.  Limited resources and/or logistics may hamper the delivery of health care and point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become increasingly used in these remote areas. Newer, smaller machines are now available allowing physicians to provide real-time information at the point of contact. There have been few studies that have examined the frequency with which this modality changes diagnosis or patient management and that have evaluated how POCUS could be applied in the setting of STMMs. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted a prospective cohort study in Sébaco, Nicaragua, enrolling patients over the course of one week in a series of small outreach clinics to determine how often POCUS changed patient management when incorporated as part of the clinical encounter.  Two attending physicians, trained in POCUS, performed or supervised residents performing studies with a handheld ultrasound device (GE Vscan) in accordance with their usual practice and expertise.  A pre- and post-US diagnosis was recorded before and after the POCUS study was completed, respectively.  The change in management, including the need for new referral or pharmacotherapy, was recorded as well. Conclusion: POCUS can be of significant benefit to resource-limited countries where healthcare is limited by access to care, availability of medications and/or imaging, and the ability of the patient to adhere to treatment.  The authors present how trained physicians integrated POCUS into routine patient encounters and describe the frequency that it changed management, greatly facilitating patient care in a remote, resource-limited location.   Future studies should examine how this technology could be more widely applied in similar situations.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 126

Ruiz-Ramie, Jonathan Sarzynski, Mark Cardiovascular Health is Associated with Incidence of Elevated C-Reactive Protein over 18 Years of Follow-up: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
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Abstract Text

Introduction: In 2010, the American Heart Association established a composite of metrics aimed at defining cardiovascular health (CVH). Seven positive health factors (blood cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) and behaviors (diet quality, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index) are emphasized, each being scored into ideal, intermediate, or poor categories. While multiple studies have explored the association between the individual components of CVH and markers of inflammation and atherogenesis, none have examined total CVH score as a predictor of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Purpose: To assess the hypothesis that CVH score is predictive of future elevated CRP levels. Methods: Black and White men and women (N=1096) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in young Adults (CARDIA) study were examined at 4 different examinations across 18 years. At each examination, CRP and the components of CVH were measured. A 14-point CVH score was determined by summing points for each CVH metric at ideal (2 points), intermediate (1 point), and poor (0 points) levels. Three categories of CVH score were created: low (0-7), moderate (8-11), and high (12-14). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to test the association of both categorical and continuous CVH score with incidence of elevated CRP (>3.0 mg/L) over up to 18 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for sex and race, and the following time-varying covariates: age, and current level of education. Results: Baseline CVH was associated with lower risk (hazard ratio (HR): 0.83) of elevated CRP per 1point increment in CVH. When compared to the high CVH group at baseline, both low (HR: 2.80) and moderate (HR: 1.63) CVH groups had elevated risk of elevated CRP. Time-varying CVH was associated with a lower risk (HR: 0.88) of elevated CRP per increment in CVH score. In models that entered CVH category as a time-varying covariate, both low (HR: 2.84) and moderate (HR: 2.09) CVH categories were associated with over twice the risk of elevated CRP compared to the optimal CVH group. Conclusions: Lower CVH is associated with elevated risk of elevated CRP during the transition from young adulthood to middle age.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 50

Gill, Harmeet
Babatunde, Oluwole
Weissman, Sharon Social Determinants of Health and Disparities in Linkage to Care Among Newly Diagnosed HIV Cases – South Carolina, 2009-2011
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Background: Key to improved HIV outcomes include linkage to care (LTC). As treatment for HIV has become more effective, the gap in racial disparities has widened for LTC. Social determinants of health (SDH) are conditions like poverty level, income, education, employment that account for most health inequities and disparities in HIV prevalence. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of SDH on racial disparities on time to LTC for newly diagnosed HIV infected individuals in South Carolina (SC). Methods: Data was obtained from the SC enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. Analysis includes individuals diagnosed with HIV in SC from 2009-2011. LTC was calculated as the time from HIV diagnosis to first CD4 or VL test. Early LTC was defined as within 30 days. Late LTC was >30 to 365 days. Individuals not LTC by 365 days were considered as never been linked to care (NLTC). Census tract data was used to determine SDH based on residence at the time of HIV diagnosis. Factors potentially associated with late LTC and NLTC including patient demographics, and SDH were investigated. Results: From 2009-2011, 2151 individuals were newly diagnosed with HIV. 1636 (76.1%) were LTC early, 285 (13.2%) were LTC late and 230 (10.7%) were NLTC. NLTC was associated with male gender, lower initial CD4 count, and earlier stage of HIV at time of diagnoses (P <0.01). In multivariable analysis early HIV stage at HIV diagnosis (aOR: 1.82; 95% CI 1.3, 2.5) and living in census tracts with lower income (aOR 0.65; 95% CI 0.44, 0.97) are associated with late LTC. Male gender (aOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.49, 4.76) unknown HIV risk group (aOR 2.03; 95% CI 1.11, 2.74) and early HIV stage at diagnosis (aOR 4.59; 95% CI 2.33, 9.04) are associated with NLTC. Conclusion: In SC, almost ¼ of newly diagnosed HIV infected individuals from 2009-2011 were LTC late or NLTC. SDH were not associated with late LTC or NLTC. Living in a low income census tract was associated with a lower risk for late LTC. Male gender and earlier HIV stage had greatest association with late LTC and NLTC.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 131

Courson, Harris Lewis, Elise Personal Development: Outsourced
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Abstract Text

In my portfolio, you will find three key insights that are inspired by global practices and knowledge. The insights investigate language, community and progress and helped shape my understanding of how I can lead in a time desperate for realistic, focused leadership. I chose to pursue Graduating with Leadership Distinction because it allows me to delve into growth experiences. For example, in my language key insight, I describe how my time abroad where I was uncomfortable with Spanish helped me empathize with the thousands of immigrants who come to America, face xenophobia and persevere. In the community key insight explore the importance of culture to an identity by examining “Las Fallas”, the premier Valencian festival that shuts down the city and builds community. Finally, I look into a Japanese concept I learned in class called “Kaizen”, which means “constant improvement’. I discuss how all big results are built on many small improvements and that results are a sum of their means. These are lessons I have learned from people outside the United States – therefore it is outsourced. All three key insights have led me to develop personally and have inspired me to use this acquired knowledge to lead. As a twenty-two year old, a realistic way for me to lead is to set up a scholarship fund for underprivileged children to go to the summer camp I went to that annually has international campers. This is a practical way for underprivileged students gain global knowledge directly from international people.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 212

Dolgopolova, Ekaterina Shustova, Natalia Photophysics and Electronic Structure of Metal-Organic Frameworks
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The current landscape of technological and industrial related fields is looking for novel materials with enhanced performances, which will not only improve various fields in science, but also can ensure increased environmental safety. Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been shown as a promising type of material for a wide range of applications including gas storage and separation, sensing, and heterogeneous catalysis. The main advantages of MOFs rely on their modular structures as well as their porosity. Thus, these materials could be utilized as a tool to address the current need in enhancement of material performance. In our work, we demonstrated a new way to mimic the protein β-barrel structure by utilization of artificially engineered MOFs. We have developed three different approaches of chromophores integration inside porous scaffolds, resulting in emission maxima similar to those observed in natural fluorescent proteins As a result, we have engineered multi-chromophore scaffolds with significant chromophore coupling, which resulted in a high efficiency of ligand-to-ligand and guest-to-host energy transfer. Furthermore, highlighting the versatile nature of MOFs, we developed an integrated approach of tuning electronic properties of bimetallic MOFs while preserving their porosity. We control MOF electronic properties as a function of the presence of a second metal and/or unsaturated metal sites in the metal node as well as scaffold topology. Thus, my work shows the possibility of MOF engineering towards various applications ranging from photocatalysts to optoelectronic devices.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 38

Huff, Logan Holmes, Wendell Cadaveric Study of a Novel Anatomic Reinforced Arthroscopic Medial Meniscal Root Reconstruction with Gracilis Autograft
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Abstract Text

INTRODUCTION: Numerous techniques to repair medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT) have been presented in the literature. Failure to restore the normal anatomy and function of the meniscus root results in the progression of arthritis. Healing rates are variable and in a second look arthroscopy study, no MMPRT repair demonstrated complete healing. Reconstruction of MMPRT by the addition of graft tissue would be a logical and reasonable next step to improve the healing rates of MMPRTs. METHODS: A novel arthroscopic technique to reconstruct the medial meniscal posterior root was developed and tested in the cadaver lab. The arthroscopic technique consists of reconstruction of the meniscal root with gracilis autograft and reinforcement with collagen coated suture tape and mattress sutures. After arthroscopic reconstruction, the disarticulated knee was photographed and studied for anatomic graft placement and for biomechanical strength. Various arthroscopic guides were compared for their ability to reproduce the anatomic location of the tibial insertion. RESULTS Biomechanical testing on 3 cadavers showed average load to failure of 180 N which is similar to published techniques of meniscal root repairs. The procedure was found to be reproducible in the cadaver lab creating an anatomic attachment of the MMPRT. The best arthroscopic guide for locating the posterior meniscal root was a tip-to-tip guide originally designed for ACL reconstruction. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The healing rates of repairs and/or reconstructions of MMPRTs is suboptimal and current techniques need improvement. We believe that direct repair of the meniscus to bone without reconstructive tissue likely results in a non-anatomic and a biologically weak construct. The novel reconstruction technique described was found to be reproducible and creates an anatomic construct with suitable load to failure characteristics with greater potential for biologic healing.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 111

Cannizzo, Zachary Griffen, Blaine
Boggs, Carol
Habitat specific impacts of Hurricane Matthew on a range expanding species
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Abstract Text

As range-shifting species colonize new ecosystems they may experience novel conditions that may alter their ability to mitigate impacts of periodic disturbances. We explore how the impact of Hurricane Matthew on the mangrove tree crab (Aratus pisonii) differed between its historic and colonized habitats. As this species responds to flood waters by climbing structure, we predicted that structural differences between habitats would generate habitat dependent impacts. Through field surveys, we found that crabs in the historic mangrove habitat, where tall structure remained unsubmerged, showed no reduction in body size as a result of the hurricane. In contrast, crabs in the colonized salt marsh ecosystem, where all structure was submerged, exhibited a reduction in body size suggesting large crabs were disproportionately impacted. Further, crabs found on docks within the salt marsh exhibited a body size reduction in only one of three sites. Docks are more structurally similar to mangroves and may have provided more micro-habitat refuges for large crabs than marsh grasses. Thus, structural differences between habitats appear to have altered the hurricane impact experienced by this species. The ability to mitigate disturbance impacts under novel conditions could contribute to the success of range shifting species as they colonize new ecosystems.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 68

Clark, Gregory Cooper, Joshua Modeling Dark Net Markets
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From the beginning of ecommerce, the web has enabled and facilitated illicit trade. The exchange of pirated digital goods has been robust and well-studied. Similarly, non-digital goods have also found an outlet in ecommerce: counterfeits and diverted/stolen goods, particularly pharmaceuticals, have populated online marketplaces. Despite their growing presence today, black market transactions were most prevalently studied immediately after the Second World War. Since then, the field of mathematics, in particular graph theory, has flourished while the marketing tools requisite to understand these Dark Net Markets have gone undeveloped. We define a Dark Net Market to be a social network graph that arises from trade within an online market where the vertices are taken to be the users, which we will call consumers, and edges denote an interaction, specified when necessary, between two consumers. In this talk we present our advances in constructing a model of Dark Net Markets. This research was supported by a SPARC grant.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 1:45 

Gray, Stephanie Sklaroff, Lauren Restoring America: Historic Preservation and the New Deal
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While the Great Depression was a time of immense hardship, the New Deal initiated a period of cultural reinvention. One significant, yet overlooked, part of the New Deal’s cultural agenda is the restoration of historic landmarks. Politicians, architects, and preservationists across the nation, inspired by the Roosevelt administration’s unprecedented federal support of arts projects, went to work preserving and restoring the historic places that mattered to them as a method of refashioning America. A “restored” America – as evinced through its preserved historic architecture – celebrated past American achievements, ingenuity, and diverse local histories that gave the nation its distinctive multicultural character. Restoring the places that told the nation’s history in physical form sent a message of prosperity that combated current hardships the country faced. My dissertation, titled “Restoring America: Historic Preservation and the New Deal,” is comprised of three cases studies that explore this important story of historic preservation as a materialized method of cultural production and national recovery.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 9:35 

Dawson, Jared Testerman, Traci Identification and Characterization of Bacteria from Human Peritoneal Tumor
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Abstract Text

My project aims to identify and characterize recently cultured bacteria from four human peritoneal tumors. These bacteria will be characterized to answer several important questions. DNA Sequencing: The identities of the bacteria are currently unknown. Sequencing their DNA will reveal whether they are known or new species. Interaction with mammalian cells: During carcinogenesis, host cells undergo several changes, such as increased growth, altered shape, and abnormal interactions with neighboring cells. Some bacteria, such as Helicobacter, can induce these changes, but interactions between these new strains and host cells have not been tested. Biological properties of bacteria: Determining the properties of the bacteria will help to determine whether the bacteria are new species, are well-adapted to the tumor environment, and are able to resist commonly-used antibiotics.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 109

Montague-Farwell, Elizabeth Cook, James Are Women’s Perception of their BMI Consistent with their Actual BMI? Patient Survey of Attitudes toward Health and Weight.
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Abstract Text

Background and Significance: Obesity is a rapidly increasing problem that costs $147 billion to $210 billion per year in current health care costs. It is an epidemic affecting our country, with two-thirds of adults now classified as overweight or obese. South Carolina now has the 10th highest adult obesity rate in the nation. There are many known health risks associated with obesity. Providers in women’s health also see an increased risk of menstrual irregularities, infertility, endometrial and breast cancer and an increase in surgical and perinatal risks. From the annual exam to contraception, menstrual irregularities to cancer and prenatal care to evaluation for surgery, obesity can influence every type of patient visit and chief complaint in the OB/GYN office. Therefore, it is critical for women’s health care providers to have an understanding of how women perceive their weight in order to help educate and prevent the epidemic from worsening. Methods: Exempt Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. An anonymous survey was completed by women presenting for health care at Palmetto Health Women’s Center. To compare women’s actual weight with women’s perception of weight, the CDC’s definition of BMI was used with the following categories: Underweight: <18.5, Normal weight: 18.5-25, Overweight: 25-30, Obesity: 30-40, and Extreme Obesity: > 40. The data was then reviewed and processed as a descriptive analysis quantifying and qualifying the participants’ responses. Results: 117 patients were included in the study. Due to missing values in some of the characteristics, the sample size varies for different variables. A strong disagreement between women’s actual BMI category and their perception. was noted Specifically, it was found that women underestimate their weight category. Discussion: Women were found to underestimate their weight category and be unaware of the significant impacts to their health. Our data represents a single-center experience and is limited by race, socioeconomics, and education. However, these results are concerning and suggest further education for patients is warranted not only on how to lose weight, but also on an understanding of their current weight and the implications it has on their overall health and life.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 117

McClamrock, Kaitlin Epperly, Brad Informal Justice Systems and Civil Conflict Duration
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I examine informal justice systems (IJS), justice mechanisms that exist outside of the formal legal hierarchy of a state, to compare outcomes of peace duration post-conflict for states utilizing IJS. Testing the use of informal justice for reconciliation after civil war or genocide across 60 states and 45 peace agreements, I find that informal mechanisms and a focus on reconciliation lead to more enduring peace following conflict. These hypotheses on whether IJS usage in-state, in-agreement, or via reconciliation impact the longevity of peace are tested through a Weibull time series analysis, a Cox hazard model, and OLS regression. Normative work on IJS and reconciliation mechanisms show informal mechanisms are used by communities to promote coexistence among ethnic groups. Demonstrating this is also empirically supported, through fewer deaths and longer peace post-conflict helps explain the relationship between methods of conflict resolution and the peace process. Foregrounding peace processes and uses of IJS in Burundi, Rwanda, and Sudan, the study examines the relationship between formal measures of reconciliation such as military tribunals, international arbitration, and truth and reconciliation committees, and informal justice systems, post-conflict, in efforts to resolve deep-seated issues. Especially useful is consideration of alternative explanations for peace duration post-conflict in states with high degrees of ethnic fractionalization, such as re-institutionalized historic and culturally significant justice systems, that can be beneficial in transitional justice projects.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Carolina Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 1:15-1:25pm 

Kahler, Sophie Harrison, Conor A Neighborhood Transformed: Urban Renewal and University Expansion in Wheeler Hill
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Wheeler Hill, a small neighborhood located just south of the University of South Carolina’s campus, was a community of working-class African Americans for much of the 20th century. In 1959, as the University and the City of Columbia embarked on the city’s first urban renewal project, Wheeler Hill homes were targeted for purchase and demolition to make way for university expansion. In the years that followed, USC acquired the land on Wheeler Hill, as well as much of the land south and west of campus where the Greek Village and Coliseum stand today, which were also a low-income black communities. The acquisition of this land was shocking to residents, who found themselves displaced from their neighborhood and separated from their tight-knit community. In the mid-1970s, the university began demolishing the Wheeler Hill homes and opted to sell the land to private developers to construct high-end townhouses. Despite former residents’ pleas for public or mixed-income housing that would allow many to return to Wheeler Hill, the area became the upper-middle class white neighborhood seen today. My research of Wheeler Hill illustrates the power of institutions in shaping the urban landscape and the oppression of minorities in American cities. The landscape around us is not there by chance, and Wheeler Hill reveals an overlooked and intersecting history of power, class, and race between a university, city, and residents.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 4

Pilarzyk, Katy Kelly, Michy The Role Of PDE11A4 In Isolation-Induced Neuroinflammation
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Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) is an enzyme that degrades cyclic nucleotides and is the only PDE whose mRNA expression is restricted to the hippocampal formation. Previously, we showed that PDE11A4 regulates social preference and social memory formation. Further, we showed that, in adults, chronic social isolation decreases PDE11A4 signaling specifically within the membrane compartment of the ventral hippocampus (VHIPP) and that this isolation-induced decrease in PDE11A4 is sufficient to alter subsequent social behaviors. Although it appears that PDE11A4 regulates social behaviors and social experience, in turn, regulates PDE11A4, it remains unclear whether 1) social isolation decreases PDE11A4 expression in VHIPP of adolescent mice as it does in adults, 2) if acute social isolation decreases PDE11A4 expression in adult VHIPP as does chronic isolation, and 3) if isolation-induced decreases in PDE11A4 expression may drive isolation-induced increases in neuroinflammation that have previously been reported. We show that adolescent mice show no effect of chronic social isolation on PDE11A4 expression in VHIPP membrane. Chronic social isolation decreases PDE11A4 in adults but not adolescent mice which is reminiscent of the fact that deletion of PDE11A4 affects social preferences of adult but not adolescent mice. In addition to chronic social isolation, acute isolation also decreases PDE11A4 selectively in hippocampal membrane compartments. Unlike chronic social isolation that selectively decreases PDE11A4 expression in the VHIPP, however, acute social isolation decreases PDE11A4 in both the VHIPP and dorsal HIPP membrane fractions. The effect of social isolation on PDE11A4 expression appears to be specific, because it had no effect on PDE2A nor PDE10A. These isolation-induced decreases in PDE11A4 appear functional as measured by changes in relevant signal transduction cascades. We found that social isolation does increase IL-6 expression in the cytosol of the VHIPP, an effect that is mimicked by PDE11A deletion. Additionally, we found that deletion of PDE11A is sufficient to increase the infiltration and activation of microglia within the VHIPP. Together these data suggest that isolation-induced decreases in PDE11A4 signaling and likely driving increases in neuroinflammation.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 23

Kim, Hyunglok Lakshmi, Venkat Role of satellite observations and their limitations in current weather forecasting systems
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Recent findings regarding the role of water in the topsoil layer reveal that the average 8-mm thin layer of water covering all land surface plays a key role in the earth climate system. Specifically, the interaction between land and atmosphere is governed by the amount of moisture content on the topsoil layer, since the amount of soil moisture determines the partitioning of outgoing energy flux into latent and sensible heat fluxes. The latent and sensible heat fluxes, which are controlled by surface soil moisture and vegetation, have shown to be connected with extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, wildfires, and dust outbreaks; thus, knowing the amount and dynamics of the surface soil moisture and vegetation is of utmost importance for climate forecasting on short-term and seasonal timescales. Role of the satellite in determining soil moisture contents and the degree of vegetation present shows tremendous potential for observing large-scale patterns of hydrological changes. Despite its immense importance, the understanding of the physics of diurnal water and energy cycles on a global-scale still has many uncertainties. In particular, the coverage of satellite-based observations is not spatially and temporally continuous; this limitation hampers researchers in elucidating fundamental processes controlling the surface hydrologic cycle and land-atmosphere interaction, across both time and space domains. Consequently, a clear comprehension of the spatiotemporal variability of the diurnal surface hydrologic cycle and land-atmosphere interaction would give us a better understanding of the role of hydrometeorological factors on extreme natural disasters and help us to more accurately parameterize land surface variables in extreme weather forecasting. In this presentation, I will expound on the current state of satellite observation practices, the limits of those observations on making the prediction about weather events, and the possible solutions to overcome those limitations.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Congaree Meeting Room B (lower level)
Time: 1:25 

Rodgers, Jonathan Vieyra, Michelle The Effects of Caffeine and Sugar Consumption with and without Exercise on Muscle Growth and Bone Density in Rats
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The purpose of this study was to look into the effects of high sugar and caffeine diets with or without exercise on the development of muscles and bones in rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. These rats were randomly placed into one of 6 groups containing 5 rats each. These groups were designated the sugar, sugar + exercise, sugar and caffeine, sugar and caffeine + exercise, exercise, and control groups. After 16 weeks of caring for the rats, they were euthanized and the rear limbs were removed for testing to be performed on the muscles and bones to check for developmental differences between the groups.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 141

Mohammed, Amira Nagarkatti, Mitzi Role of miR-34a in Amelioration of SEB-induced Lung Injury Treated with Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
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Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a highly potent CDC select agent that can trigger acute lung injury. SEB induces immune dysregulation leading to robust T cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as massive cytokine and chemokine release. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a psychoactive ingredient found in Cannabis sativa. Shifting the society point view about THC, from criminal issue to medical issue came from that THC can minimize patient pain which gives THC the ethical and legal implication. In the current study, we investigated the effects of treatment with THC of SEB-induced acute lung injury. To this end, acute lung injury was induced by a dual dose of SEB in C3H/HeJ mice, which were treated with vehicle or THC. THC-treatment led to survival of all the SEB-administered mice, while all vehicle-treated mice were succumbed. THC treatment decreased the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NKT population and increased the number of MDSCs in the lungs. THC also induced a significant decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the BALF and in the levels of chemokines, CCL5 and MCP-1 in the sera and BALF as well. In order to determine the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the THC-induced beneficial effects, we performed high-throughput microRNA microarrays with lung-infiltrated mononuclear cells from vehicle and THC-treated mice. Pathway analysis demonstrated that THC treatment led to immune suppression through several mechanisms including downregulation of Let7a-5p that may be responsible for increased expression of IL-10, and downregulation of miR34-5p leading to increased FoxP3. Furthermore, Validation of the expression of miR-34a by RT-PCR with lung mononuclear cells confirmed our high throughput analysis and in silico findings. Together, THC plays a major role through epigenetic mechanisms to modulate immunological pathways that suppress SEB-induced acute lung injury.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 34

Alharris, Esraah Nagarkatti, Mitzi Resveratrol attenuates allergic asthma and associated inflammation in the lungs through microRNA regulation
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Abstract Text

Asthma is an allergic condition characterized by airway hyper-responsiveness and increased bronchial spasm, inflammation and mucous secretion. More than 25 million Americans suffer from asthma, with children constituting around 7 million. The inflammation in asthma is mediated by Th2 cell activation with increased levels of IL-4, -5, and -13. Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene)- a polyphenolic stilbene, has been shown to mediate anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated if resveratrol could suppress allergic asthma. To that end, we induced asthma in BALB/c mice by injecting ovalbumin (OVA) with aluminum hydroxide intraperitoneally followed by 7 days treatment with resveratrol (100mg/kg) by oral gavage. Intranasal ovalbumin was given on day 8 to induce asthma followed by 7 more days of treatment with resveratrol. We found that resveratrol significantly attenuated the allergic asthma in the lungs and caused reduction in CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ cell numbers in pulmonary tissue of sensitized mice when compared to vehicle controls. There was significant reduction in T-helper cells both in pulmonary tissue and BALF in resveratrol treated group with reduced levels of IL-5, IL-13, GM-CSF and TNF-α in BALF. Interestingly, miRNA-34a was downregulated in cells from the lungs of asthmatic mice treated with resveratrol. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) demonstrated that miRNA-34a was targeting FOXP3, the transcription factor for Tregs that are highly immunosuppressive. Moreover, our PCR results showed that resveratrol-treated OVA mice expressed higher levels of FOXP3 in lung-infiltrating mononuclear cells. Immunofluorescent staining of pulmonary tissue also showed higher expression levels of FOXP3-expressing mononuclear cells in resveratrol-treated asthmatic mice. We conclude that resveratrol-mediated downregulation of miR-34a leads to upregulation of FOXP3+ Tregs, thereby inhibiting Th2-mediated inflammatory response and attenuation of asthma (Supported by NIH grants P01AT003961, R01AT006888, R01AI123947, R01MH094755, P20GM103641, and R01AI129788 to MN and PN, as well as MOHESR to EA).

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 4

Chapman, Blake Sims, Kerry IMPLEMENTING A LAPAROSCOPIC TRAINING CURRICULUM
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Background and Significance: With the increasing demand for gynecological laparoscopic procedures, comes an increasing demand for laparoscopic training in residency. Although animal models have shown to be consistent and valid, there is considerable cost and setup time.1 An alternative to animal models are bench-top laboratory simulators for both training and assessment of surgical skill.2 Our residency program had no minimally invasive curriculum. We set out to implement and prospectively evaluate a simulator-based minimally invasive training curriculum at our residency program. Methods: All residents at the University of South Carolina OB/GYN Program were asked to participate in the minimally invasive curriculum. Only PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents in our OBGYN program were assessed in the laparoscopic tasks. Our curriculum consists of didactic modules from the Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology (CREOG), lectures given by faculty, simulation and demonstration of proficiency during live surgery in the operating room. Three laparoscopic tasks were used for assessment of PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents. There was an initial assessment at the beginning of the first month of the academic year to provide a baseline score. Residents were required to document at least four hours of practice per month. A senior resident or attending physician supervised and scored each resident on the task. The tasks were then reassessed the following Spring. Results: By participating in the Minimally Invasive Curriculum, all residents were able to develop and practice their skills in a safe environment. Task completion time was used as the principle outcome measure in this training curriculum. Improvements in times to completion of the three tasks were appreciated by spending time in the training room. Conclusion and Discussion: Based on the implementation of a minimally invasive curriculum and observing PGY1 and PGY2 residents using the curriculum, there was a decrease in the time to complete each task. Residents were also introduced and familiarized with instruments prior to the Operating Room. Further studies could consider utilizing a questionnaire for self-assessment as well as having faculty correlate improvement in times of the skills with skills in the operating room.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 110

Fryer, Lauren Estrada, Robin Palliative care: Knowledge and perceptions of undergraduate nursing students
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Abstract Text

Background and Significance: Palliative care is multidisciplinary care focused on relieving symptoms and pain intensity, as well as emotional and spiritual turmoil in patients suffering from a terminal illness. Despite its clear value, studies demonstrate healthcare professionals often feel uncomfortable or under-prepared in situations relating to palliative care. Because nurses are typically the healthcare professional with the most personal contact with the patient, it is imperative that nurses feel well-equipped to meet their patients’ palliative needs. However, BSN curricula often lack specific palliative care content. Objective: The purpose of this project was to examine USC upper division nursing students’ knowledge, experiences, and perceptions of palliative care. Methods: Junior and senior BSN students from USC Columbia, Lancaster, and Salkehatchie were surveyed using the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses, a reliable and valid scale evaluating palliative care knowledge, and the Thanatophobia Scale, which allows respondents to rank their feelings and self-perceptions of palliative care. Follow-up interviews were conducted to explore student experiences in more depth. Results: A total of 11 nursing students submitted completed surveys and 2 nursing students agreed to be interviewed. Surveys revealed a low to moderate knowledge of palliative care; the interviews revealed there is little educational coverage of palliative care, usually set in the context of older adult care. Conclusion: There is a need for more and earlier implementation of education on palliative care for nursing students. Discussion and Future Directions: This formative data will be used to direct further evaluation of BSN palliative care education, as well as inform educational interventions designed to improve students’ palliative care knowledge and clinical experiences. This work has the potential to not only affect nurses’ comfort in delivering palliative care, but also enhance patient and family outcomes.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 71

Boettcher, Marissa Hartstone-Rose, Adam The Ontogeny of Muscle Architecture in the Forearm Muscles of Microcebus murinus
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The changes observed in muscle architecture associated with age have been widely studied in humans. Furthermore, it has been accepted that humans experience sarcopenia—the progressive deterioration of skeletal muscle tissue with age. This phenomenon, though, has not been thoroughly studied in non-human primate species. One such species is the grey mouse lemur which has been previously indicated as an excellent model for the human system. Our aim in this study was to quantify the changes seen in various muscle architectural properties such as muscle mass, average fiber length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) in Microcebus murinus. During preliminary analysis, it was found that a correlation exists between age and each variable, as well as body mass and each variable. The oldest individuals in the sample appeared to maintain PCSA values similar to that of the adults’ due to an observed decrease in both fiber length and muscle mass. The youngest individuals possessed the smallest PCSA, muscle mass, and average fiber length values for the majority of the muscle groups, as was expected. The adult individuals encompassed a relatively large range which is likely due to individual variations. These findings suggest that force production capabilities increase with age, leveling off at maturity and ultimately remaining relatively constant despite the onset of senescence.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 137

Haynes, Venice Brandt, Heather
Friedman, Daniela
Exploring opportunities for cervical cancer health communication campaigns in Cusco, Peru: A case study
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Abstract Text

Project Purpose Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Peru is among the highest in the world. Cervical cancer educational efforts are minimal among local men and women, thus contributing to higher cervical cancer rates. A study was designed to examine existing health communication messages about cervical cancer and to identify opportunities for cervical cancer focused campaigns in Cusco, Peru. Structure/Method/Design Using case study methods, a study was conducted over a one-month period (June 2017) across urban and rural areas of Cusco, Peru. Mobile Pap test campaigns were provided by a local clinic that provides Pap tests to local women and mobilizes to rural locations to provide Pap tests to indigenous women who do not have access to Pap test services. Observations of 16 districts in the Cusco region were conducted to locate existing cervical cancer information or opportunities to display or provide information if none currently existed. Notes and photos were taken to document the presence of health messages related to cervical cancer as well as other topics regarding women’s health. Conversations with clinic staff were also conducted to understand the health communication landscape. Outcome/Evaluation Little to no information was available about cervical cancer absent of the information provided by the clinic that provides free or reduced Pap test to local women. Some locations where Pap tests were performed displayed information about other health issues such as tuberculosis, maternal and child health services, and domestic violence, yet information about regular cervical cancer screening was not included among these topics. Conversations with clinic staff revealed that literacy among indigenous women makes understanding written materials difficult and the sharing of health-related information often occurs through word-of-mouth. Going Forward Multiple opportunities exist for health communication campaigns focused on cervical cancer in the Cusco region. The literacy levels of the indigenous populations, language differences (Spanish vs Quetchua), and cultural beliefs need to be considered in the design of messages. A follow-up study will solicit community input on preferences for specific channels to be used and message content that is culturally appropriate and acceptable in the Peruvian population.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 78

Alimohamed, Saif Ram, Prahlad
Seviour, Elena
MET downregulation by miR-206 potentially implicated in reversing cisplatin-induced chemoresistance in ovarian cancer
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Adaptive resistance to chemotherapy represents 90% of unsuccessful treatment of advanced cancer patients. Several microRNAs have been shown to have differential expression values in chemo-resistant tumors and have been implicated as the cause of chemo-resistance in tumor samples. In this study, we used microRNA expression, gene expression, and RPPA data from TCGA patients to identify differentially expressed miRNA in TCGA ovarian cancer patients who were resistant to cisplatin treatment versus patients who were sensitive to cisplatin treatment. First, we stratified the two sets of patients into cisplatin resistant and cisplatin sensitive patients. Cisplatin resistant patients survived surgery and lived for less than 6 months post-surgery, while cisplatin sensitive patients survived surgery and lived for greater than 2 years post-surgery. After categorizing these two sets of patients, the expression distributions of each of the miRNA were compared in the chemo-resistant and chemo-sensitive groups, which revealed that miR-206 is up-regulated in chemo-resistant patients. The functional gene and protein targets of miR-206 were then identified which were PAX3, MET, KRAS, EGFR, ESR1, IRS1, IGF1, TSC2, HDAC4, and HMGB3. Ultimately, our network analysis showed that PAX3 is a known gene regulator of MET which interacts with EGFR and KRAS. Then, functional enrichment analysis showed that MET is involved in oncogenesis. MET was identified as a key component of this signal transduction pathway and Western Blot was used to validate that miR-206 reduced expression of MET. Cell proliferation assays in the H460 lung cancer cell line showed that miR-206 coupled with cisplatin may decrease cell proliferation. Overall, the implication of this research is that by miR-206 downregulating the downstream effector target MET, there could be potential reversal of chemoresistance to cisplatin in these ovarian cancer patients. Future experiments would involve reverse protein engineering MET to confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, future directions include determining the effect of miR-206 on migration and metastasis, while also exploring if miR-206 is implicated in other network signatures that play a role as chemosensitive targets.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 89

Adeluyi, Adewale Turner, Jill Microglial Activation and Associated NADPH Oxidase 2-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in the Nucleus Accumbens Contributes to Anxiety-like Behavior during Nicotine Withdrawal
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Abstract Text

Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality globally. Medical and behavioral interventions developed to reduce smoking-related diseases and deaths have been limited by smokers’ inability to quit smoking. Mounting evidences have suggested that withdrawal from nicotine, the additive compound in tobacco, during smoking cessation may lead to increased inflammatory responses and consequential oxidative load. While the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders is established, its contribution to the development of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, which drives smoking relapse, is unknown. To evaluate excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its contribution to the development of anxiety-like behavior during nicotine withdrawal, mice treated for two weeks with either saline or nicotine prior to withdrawal were injected intraperitoneally with either vehicle or 150mg/kg/day N-acetylcysteine (NAC), pre-withdrawal (X1day), during withdrawal (X1day), and post-withdrawal (X2days). Open field (OF) test and Marble-burying test (MB) were conducted on mice 30 minutes after receiving NAC injection on first and second post-withdrawal day, respectively. In this experiment, we used NAC as an antioxidant tool, and we found that excessive ROS production and upregulation of inflammatory markers in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal were attenuated by NAC treatment. A similar profile was observed specifically with NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) expression, implicating this molecule as the key producer of ROS during nicotine withdrawal. Further analysis suggested possible withdrawal-induced microglia activation, which previous studies have demonstrated to be associated with Nox2-induced ROS production. Finally, our behavioral studies showed that NAC-treated withdrawal mice displayed anxiolytic effects in both OF and MB task in contrast to untreated withdrawal mice. Altogether, our emerging evidence suggests that underlying microglial activation and associated Nox2-induced ROS in the nucleus accumbens drive anxiogenic behavior during nicotine withdrawal in mice. For the first time in nicotine addiction studies, we demonstrate that nicotine withdrawal induces oxidative stress, which may contribute to the development of anxiety-like behavior during smoking cessation, via activation of microglial-Nox2 pathway. Therefore, antioxidants targeting ROS production via this pathway may be promising compounds for smoking cessation therapeutics.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 1:20 

Larsen, Kristen Pena, Maria The Role of the Microbiome in 5-FluoroUracil Treatment of Colorectal Cancer
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths. It is reasonable to consider that diet and the gut microbiome may significantly dictate disease development and progression of CRC. Previous experiments have shown that a folate free (FF) diet can reduce tumor burden in the APCMIN/+ mouse model. Folate is an important metabolite for cancer cells to grow and divide; depleting this nutrient may hinder tumor cells from uncontrolled growth and improve patient prognosis. The goal of this study is to determine changes in the gut microbiome during disease progression of CRC using the APCMIN/+ mouse model. C57Bl/6 and APCMIN/+ mice were placed on rodent chow (RC), folate free (FF), and folate free + 6ppm folic acid (FF+FA) diets and treated with 5-FluoroUracil (5-FU) or control phosphate buffered saline (PBS). This comprehensive study demonstrates the impact of diet, the gut microbiome, and chemotherapy on tumor burden, the tumor microenvironment (TME), and disease outcome. Preliminary results indicate a dramatic change in the gut microbiome between RC and FF diets with more changes observed in the 5-FU treatment group. A FF diet reduced tumor burden in 5-FU treated mice compared to RC and FF+FA diets. In addition, flow cytometry indicates significant changes to the TME in response to 5-FU across all diets. Mice on a FF diet receiving 5-FU treatment also increased in weight during chemotherapy indicative of disease improvement. These preliminary findings suggest the importance of manipulating the gut microbiome during the treatment of CRC with 5-FU to improve patient outcome.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 28

Sligar, Jaclyn Durkin, Martin
Williams, Eric
Changes in the prevalence and severity of Mental Illness over time at a large, public University
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Abstract Text

Identifying and treating mental disorders in the college-age population is critical for future well-being. Many psychiatric conditions develop by the typical college years, ages 18-24 (Kessler et al., 2005). Untreated mental illness can have a significant impact on academic success, substance use, and relationships. According to the 2013 National Survey of College Counseling Centers, 95% of responding directors feel there is a recent trend towards greater numbers of students with severe psychological problems on their campuses. 73% of directors noted increases in crises requiring immediate response, and 66% noted increases in psychiatric medication side effects (Gallagher et al., 2013). Thus far, researchers have found conflicting results, with some suggesting an increase in severity of mental health problems on college campuses, while others have found no significant differences (Krumrei et al., 2010). Studies from general populations of adolescents and young adults suggests that the prevalence of mental disorders has remained steady over time. If there has been a substantial increase in the severity of mental health problems in college students it is important to determine the magnitude and contributing factors (Hunt et al., 2010). Consequences of the potential rise in the prevalence of severe mental health issues among college students include increased service utilizations, which has major implications on the needs of student counseling centers. Currently, the average ratio of counselors to students is just 1 to 1,604 (Gallagher et al., 2013). Also noteworthy is that many students with a mental health problem do not receive treatment. Few studies have examined how demographic differences influence health utilization among students. This information is critical to determine how to help all students have access to care. There have been few studies examining the change in psychiatric diagnoses over time in college student populations, making it difficult to objectively assess exactly how the overall prevalence and severity of mental illness at universities has changed. This study examines how mental health diagnoses have changed over time at a large, southern, public university, specifically the University of South Carolina. My hypothesis is that prevalence and severity of mental illness have increased.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 127

Wells, Derek Poston, Mary Beth Lurking Liver Lesion
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Introduction Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) are uncommon but the incidence is increasing. The etiology is usually related to peritonitis, biliary infection, hematogenous seeding and possibly colonic carcinoma. The microbiology of these infections is broad, likely due to the many different etiologies that causes PLA. The clinical presentation of PLA is fairly nonspecific with fever, right upper quadrant pain and chills being the most common symptoms. The most common lab abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, leukocytosis, elevated alkaline phosphates and alanine aminotransferase. Diagnosis is usually made via CT. Treatment is usually a combination of extended antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of the abscess if possible. Case A 36 yo white male with a history significant for AIDS complicated by cryptococcal meningitis presented with a week of headache, fevers, chills and malaise. On ROS he also describes periumbical abdominal pain occurred right before eating. Also has a nonproductive cough that had been more indolent. On exam, T = 38°C, HR = 107, BP = 138/77, RR = 18, SaO2 = 100% on room air. He was alert and oriented, lungs were clear, abdomen was soft but with mild tenderness to palpation in the right upper quadrant. There was initially concern for meningitis given his history and LP was obtained and proved to be unremarkable as was the MRI of his head. His chest xray was unremarkable but there was still concern for early PCP infection. A CT was obtained to further characterize his lung parenchyma, and an incidental 4 cm liver lesion was found. His admission LFTs were normal except for a mild elevated alk phos of 127. He continued to have fevers up to 103 during this time. Dedicated abdominal imaging showed a 7.5 cm hepatic abscess. This was drained and grew Strep intermedius. He continued to improve clinically and was discharged with oral moxifloxacin and outpatient follow up with Infectious Disease. Conclusion In conclusion, PLA usually have nonspecific presentations with a wide variety of clinical and microbiologic causes. They are best treated with percutaneous drainage, antibiotic therapy and close follow up.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 117

YASMEEN, FARZANA SUTTON, MICHAEL Sensitivity of in-plane strain measurement to calibration parameter for out-of-plane specimen rotations
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Abstract Text

In practice, out-of-plane motions usually are not avoidable during experiments. Since 2D-DIC measurements are vulnerable to parasitic deformations due to out-of-plane specimen motions, three-dimensional digital image correlation (StereoDIC or 3D-DIC) oftentimes is employed. The StereoDIC method is known to be capable of accurate deformation measurements for specimens subjected to general three-dimensional motions, including out-of-plane rotations and displacements. As a result, there has been limited study of the deformation measurements obtained when using StereoDIC to measure the displacement and strain fields for a specimen subjected only to out-of-plane rotation. To assess the accuracy of strain measurements obtained using stereovision systems and StereoDIC when a specimen undergoes appreciable out of plane rotation, rigid body out-of-plane rotation experiments are performed in the range using a two-camera stereovision system. Results indicate that (a) for what would normally be considered “small angle” calibration processes, the measured normal strain in the foreshortened specimen direction due to specimen rotation increases in a non-linear manner with rotation angle, with measurement errors exceeding and (b) for what would normally be considered “large angle” calibration processes, the magnitude of the errors in the strain are reduced to . To theoretically assess the effect of calibration parameters on the measurements, two separate analyses are performed. First, theoretical strains due to out-of-plane rigid body rotation are determined using a pinhole camera model to project a series of three-dimensional object points into the image plane using large angle calibration parameters and then re-project the corresponding sensor plane coordinates back into the plane using small angle calibration parameters. Secondly, the entire imaging process is also simulated in order to remove experimental error sources and to further validate the theory. Results from both approaches confirmed the same strain error trends as the experimental strain measurements, providing confidence that the source of the errors is the calibration process. Finally, variance-based sensitivity analyses show that inaccuracy in the calibrated stereo angle parameter is the most significant factor affecting the accuracy of the measured strain.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 37

Hall, Katherine Fu, Zhengqing The role of ribosomal protein L12 in plant defense
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Abstract Text

Ribosomal proteins play an essential role in systemic defense against non-host pathogens in plants, however little is known of how they do so and raises the question of whether RPL12s are involved in pathogen-induced systemic and basal resistance of other plant types and the exact function of RPs in relation to plant immunity. The initiation of SAR involves massive transcriptional reprogramming that relies on the function of transcription co-factor NPR1. It has been shown that NPR1 is a master regulator of systemic acquired resistance in plants. The upsurge of salicylic acid at the site of infection causes NPR1 to be degraded and HR to be induced, however the surrounding cells have less SA and thus more NPR1 is present in order to induce SAR for the whole plant. When infection occurs, NPR1, which is usually located in the cytoplasm by disulfide bonds, is released into the nucleus where it acts as a co-factor to transcription factors in order to induce the production of defense related genes. It has already been shown in this lab that NPR1 interacts with RPL12 thus it can be hypothesized that based on their interaction, RPL12 plays a specific role in plant immunity. The function could be post-translational modification or possibly de novo protein synthesis in the cell. Since NPR1 is related to transcription factors, the RPs could be the other half of the equation that involves translational modification and successful downstream gene expression involved in plant immunity.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 145

Li, Guangfang Wang, Hui Selective Electrocatalytic Glucose Oxidation on Dealloyed Nanosponge Particles
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Abstract Text

We demonstrate the colloidal Au@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles undergo stepwise structural transformations to sequentially evolve into Au@Cu core-shell nanoparticles, alloy nanoparticles with compositional gradient (Alloy-G), and homogeneous alloy nanoparticles (Alloy-H) upon thermal heating in polyol solution. By varying the reaction temperatures, we can maneuver the reactions kinetics to control the intraparticle compositional gradient. Upon percolation dealloying, the Alloy-G bimetallic nanoparticles gradually evolve into nanoparticles with solid Au cores surrounded by nanoporous shells, whereas Alloy-H nanoparticles transform into spongy nanoparticles that are nanoporous throughout the entire particles. The dealloyed nanoparticles possess different surface atomic undercoordinations, which result in their selectively catalytic behaviors toward an important electrocatalytic reaction. This provides a unique way of achieving catalytic selectivity optimization of Au nanocatalysts through deliberate control over the percolation dealloying of bimetallic nanoparticles with interior compositionally gradients.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 10:00 

Alattabi, Zaid Voulgaris, George
Cahl, Douglas
Leonard, Lynn
Evaluation of using high frequency beam-forming radars to extract wave spectra
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Abstract Text

Although High Frequency (HF) radars are used routinely for measuring ocean surface currents, their utilization for estimating ocean wave spectra is still limited. They require empirical algorithm calibration and a large received signal with a large signal to noise ratio in the frequency range of the second order Doppler spectra. In this study, Doppler spectra collected using two beam-forming (WERA) HF radar systems operating at 8.3 MHz are presented. The data were collected from measurements taken at 30-minute intervals over a period of six months (July 2016 to January 2017) in Long Bay, SC, an embayment located on the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The radar-estimated second order spectra are compared against in-situ measurements of surface wave spectra and root mean square wave height (Hrms) obtained at three locations over the radar coverage area. The locations correspond to radar radial beam angles from 4 to 52 degrees with respect to radar boresight and radial ranges from 19 to 131 km. The calibration analysis included fitting a spectral form of Heron and Heron’s (1998) empirical equation and estimating coefficients as a function of ocean wave frequency. The coefficients were found to have variability based on wave frequency, radar site, instrument location. Using Doppler spectra with high signal to noise ratios improved wave estimates. For signals with lower signal to noise ratios, averaging of the spectra both in the time series domain (over a period of 2.5 hrs, five consequence points on time domain) and in the frequency domain (averaging over five consequence points on frequency domain) improved the predictions significantly. Our analysis based on single station solutions has revealed that using results from two stations could deteriorate wave estimates, as one unit might have a low signal to noise ratio while the other has a very high signal to noise ratio

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 64

Tahiyat, Malik Farouk, Tanvir DC driven low pressure glow discharge in high water vapor content: A characterization study
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Abstract Text

In recent days, plasma discharge in the liquid medium has been a topic of immense interest. Theoretical efforts have been pursued to get insight on physicochemical processes being influenced due to trace water vapor either present as residual or provided at a known concentration. However, studies on discharge at high vapor content is limited. In this study discharge characteristics of plasma in high water concentration (>90%) is investigated experimentally for a maximum pressure range of 15 Torr to maximize vapor loading without condensation. Voltage-current characteristics was obtained over 0-14 mA of current for each operating pressure; concurrently, the current density was determined to ensure normal glow regime of operation. A value for normal cathode potential drop for water vapor was experimentally determined and proposed. Spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy was also conducted to determine OH, O, H2 and H distribution in the inter-electrode separation. The normalized intensities of OH and O emission lines are found to be more prominent in the positive column, whereas the emission lines of H are most intense in cathode glow region. The electric field distribution along the discharge gap was also measured. We envision that data obtained from this characterization study will also provide valuable data for validation of plasma kinetic schemes associated with water vapor.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 9:45 

Powers, Daniel
Irastorza, Laura
Holloway, Jeffrey Title: Who is my doctor? A quality improvement project assessing patient/caregiver awareness of physician-specific information in the academic hospital setting
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Abstract Text

The majority of children’s hospitals also serve as teaching hospitals to pediatric residents. The physician team that takes care of children who are admitted usually consist of a group of residents and attendings. For those unfamiliar with the structure of a teaching hospital, it can be difficult to identify who each member of the team is and their role. The aim of this study is to improve patient and caregiver knowledge of who the physicians caring for them are and which roles/responsibilities each physician will fulfill. In doing so, a secondary aim of this project is to increase patient/caregiver satisfaction with the care provided to them during their stay. The study was conducted at Palmetto Health Children’s Hospital and involved using a survey to assess patient/caregiver knowledge and satisfaction. Baseline data was collected and then 2 separate changes/PDSA cycles were implemented. PDSA Cycle 1 consisted of writing the names of the residents and attendings in the patient rooms and PDSA Cycle 2 was providing a face sheet of the residents in each room included their name and photo. We found that at baseline, only 30% correctly identified the attending/resident while 44% knew who was in charge. After PDSA Cycle 1, knowledge of who was in charge improved to 56.6%, while 60% correctly identified their resident/attending. Finally, PDSA Cycle 2 improved knowledge of who was in charge to 63.6% and 72.7% correctly identified their resident/attending. Patient satisfaction with their care did not change significantly regardless of how well they knew their physician team. In conclusion, providing patients and their caregivers with the names and photos of their physician team does improve knowledge and identification of each provider and their role. Overall, the residents and attendings provide quality care and patients feel satisfied regardless of knowing the exact name of their physician.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 118

Denner, Karlye Goodman, Christopher Diabetic Care in the Latino Community
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Abstract Text

There is a large number of Latino Americans living in the greater Columbia area. Many of these people suffer from health issues based on risk conditions, risk factors, and lifestyle; one of these main issues is diabetes. To determine how we can better help these people, we distributed a survey to the patients at the Good Samaritan Clinic. With the results we receive, we are striving to engage the patients more and focus on co-design; specifically we are focusing on improving the patient voice and helping them see both the problems and solutions in a way that can enhance their care experience. By surveying the patients at the Good Samaritan Clinic and having them reflect on the services they have received for their diabetes, we are able to see how we can continue to improve the quality of treatment we provide.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 107

Washington, Clorissa Outten, F. Wayne Nickel Exposure Reduces Siderophore Production in Escherichia coli
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Abstract Text

Escherichia coli is a well-studied bacterium that can be found in many niches, such as industrial wastewater, where the concentration of nickel can rise to low millimolar levels (Ansari and Malik, 2010). Recent studies show that nickel exposure can repress pyochelin or induce pyoverdine siderophore production in Pseudomonas aueroginosa (Braud et al., 2010). Understanding the molecular crosstalk between siderophore production, metal homeostasis, and metal toxicity in microorganisms is critical for designing bioremediation strategies for metal-contaminated sites (Dixit et al., 2015). Here we show that high nickel exposure prolongs lag phase duration as a result of low intracellular iron levels in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Although E. coli cells respond to low intracellular iron during nickel stress by maintaining high expression of iron uptake systems such as fepA, the demand for iron is not met due to a lack of siderophores in the extracellular medium during nickel stress. Taken together, these results indicate that nickel inhibits iron accumulation in E. coli by reducing the presence of enterobactin in the extracellular medium.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 29

Schmelz, Rachael Shorter, Kimberly Does high folic acid alongside a gene knockdown of MTHFR induce histone modifications and altered neurobiology in a human neuronal cell line?
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Abstract Text

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by epigenetic changes and changes to neuromorphology (e.g. increased dendritic spine density). Epigenetic modifications such as DNA/histone methylation are accomplished through dietary folic acid (FA); FA is metabolized to methyl groups that are added to DNA and/or histones. This pathway involves the synthesis of 5-methlytetrahydrofolate and is promoted by 5-methylenetetrahdydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Pregnant women with an MTHFR mutation are told to consume FA supplements up to 10x the regular FDA recommended daily amount to prevent neural tube defects, a mechanism that is not understood. We question if FA overconsumption is linked to the rise in ASD rates. Previous experiments in our lab indicate an MTHFR knockdown with 10x FA supplementation decreases MECP2 expression, which is linked to increased dendritic spine density. We knocked-down MTHFR in a human neuronal cell line (SHSY5Y) and exposed cells to 10x FA. We isolated histones and used an ELISA histone modification array to test for specific histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation. We stained cells with vibrant DiI stain and DAPI to visualize the dendritic spines. Our results indicate changes to histone modifications and dendritic spine densities in the knockdown with 10x FA in comparison to controls.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 107

Spead, Olivia Poulain, Fabienne E. Specific Roles of Glypican3 in Axon Sorting and Topographic Map Formation in the Developing Visual System
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Brain connectivity and function depend on the precise formation of neuronal connections during development. In the central nervous system, most axonal projections are organized into topographic maps according to the spatial organization of the neurons they originate from or the type of stimulus they respond to. Interestingly, axons are often organized and sorted en route to their destination. A salient example is the visual system, where retinal axons are topographically sorted along the dorso-ventral axis along the optic tract before reaching the optic tectum (in fish) or superior colliculus (in mammals). While optic tract sorting may contribute to the topographic fidelity of retinotectal connections, little is known about how it is established. Our previous studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS), a type of sugar chains carried by core proteins known as heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), regulates retinal axon sorting non-cell-autonomously by promoting the degeneration of missorted dorsal axons. Here, we sought to determine whether a specific core protein might regulate that process. Among the ten glypicans expressed in zebrafish, we identified Glypican-3 (Gpc3) as the only core protein specifically expressed in the ventral retina throughout development. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we generated two gpc3 mutant alleles encoding a truncated, non-functional protein. We are currently analyzing retinal axon sorting and retinotopy in gpc3 mutants using topographic injections of lipophilic fluorescent dyes in the dorsal and ventral parts of the retina. Our preliminary experiments indicate that dorsal retinal axons are missorted along the optic tract in gpc3 mutants, suggesting a novel function for this core protein in nervous system development.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 30

Davis, Eleanor Dow, Kirstin
Carbone, Gregory
Wang, Cuizhen (Susan)
What’s salt got to do with it? Responses, Barriers, and Opportunities for Agricultural Adaptation to Soil Salinization in Hyde County, NC
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Abstract Text

By the end of the century, intermediate sea level rise scenarios project approximately 1.3 meters (4.2 feet) of sea level rise along the coast of the southeastern United States. One of the most vulnerable areas is the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula in North Carolina, where 56 percent of the land is below 1.5 meters. Such a rise of 1.3 meters would endanger 4,200 people, 440 square miles, and 40 million dollars of property in Hyde County, which occupies the southeastern point of the peninsula. Agriculture covers a substantial portion of the peninsula, and farmers depend on fertile soil to maintain their way of life. As sea level rise increases soil salinity and reduces the arability of their soil, some of these farmers have already begun to plant salt resistant cotton varieties and apply salt-mitigating chemicals. Major hurricanes and subsequent flooding events such as Hurricane Matthew in 2016 exacerbate the gradual sea level rise and salinization problems. This research draws on a combination of landowner interviews, remote sensing, and soil sampling in order to map the extent of salinization, identify farmer’s current adaptation responses and barriers to address salinity changes, and categorize areas of intervention to overcome barriers in Hyde County, NC. By presenting concrete evidence of salinity changes and identifying barriers to adaptation, this research aims to identify specific interventions to facilitate adaptation in the coastal Carolinas.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 10:25 

Parada, Anais Feliciano-Santos, Sherina The Puruhá Fashion Entrepreneurs of Ecuador: Creating and Contesting the Boundaries of Indigenous Identities Through Dress
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This dissertation investigates the social, economic, and political impact of emergent Puruhá dress styles in Ecuador as it contributes to larger global discourse on cultural heritage, appropriation, and the boundaries of cultural citizenship, primarily for minority creative producers. Through fieldwork in both Quito and Riobamba, Ecuador, data has been gathered from designers, sellers, and consumers of this unique dress style, which roots itself in a historical past while simultaneously speaking to the future of indigenous identities. Critical discourse analysis will be employed to parse apart the racial, ethnic, gendered, and classed distinctions that arise in talking about dress, and how individuals exhibit agency by using these same styles to complicate and contradict political and social categorizations of belonging. Moreover, dress itself will be analyzed as material culture that can be read as an intertextual discourse between mestizo and indigenous Ecuadorians, as well as between Ecuador and the global community. This research suggests that female entrepreneurs and consumers in particular are negotiating ideals of femininity and indigeneity from within their own indigenous community, as well as national and global societies. As indigenous women worldwide continue to fight for rights to cultural heritage, based in part on the ability to align with a particular community, exploring how identity is crafted on a daily basis through material culture like dress is absolutely necessary to understanding the shifting legal and political boundaries of citizenship.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Congaree Meeting Room B (lower level)
Time: 1:40 

O'Brien, G. Patrick Holton, Woody Unknown and Unlamented”: Loyalist Women in Exile and Repatriation, 1775-1800
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In late April, 1775, an angry mob of rebellious Americans chased the Robie family from their home in Marblehead, Massachusetts. Fearing continuing violence, the family boarded a transport and sailed north for Halifax, Nova Scotia on May 5th. Of her early impressions of her new home Mrs. Mary Robie Sr. wrote, “So much for Halifax, I wish I had never seen it.” Despite her unhappiness, over the next eight years of exile Mary Robie Sr. and her teenage daughters, Mary and Hetty, worked diligently to transform a transient population of refugees into a recognizable loyalist community. When marriage brought the younger Mary back to New England in 1788, she lamented leaving the city of captivity. While she believed marriage would bring her happiness, she also mourned the loss of her friends in Halifax who she described as having “too much hold on my heart.” My research investigates the experiences of refugee women in Halifax, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution and the role they played in organizing and creating the loyalist community. While historians have examined how loyalist men grew increasingly frustrated with a less than generous imperial British government, their wives and daughters worked to unite the diverse refugee population. Through private visiting practices and public service to the broader community, loyalist women transformed a suffering and grieving refugee population into a network of loyalists. These connections survived long after many families migrated to other regions of the empire or, even more surprisingly, back to the United States.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 10:20 

Goff, Tanisha Camp, Lisa Equity in Education
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During spring semester, I completed an internship at the Cutler Jewish Day School in Richland County School District One. CJDS is accredited by the National Association of Education for Young Children and has served in the community for over twenty-five years. The four pillars CJDS is grounded upon are active nurturing, academic rigor, social justice, and Jewish life skills. I worked in a kindergarten class to deepen my understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy in the classroom. Additionally, I became aware of the necessary skills an effective and professional classroom teacher must obtain such as organization, passion, and instructing skills. As an Early Childhood Education major, this internship provided me with first-hand experience in working with underrepresented children. While conducting my internship, I had the opportunity to implement integrated lesson plans, research educational theories, and evaluate assessments. Specifically, I supported the students in conducting a school-wide protest, after discussing the history of racism towards Jews and African-Americans. The kindergarteners formulated a list of changes they would like to see in their own school and community before carrying out the protest. I found that all children have the ability to succeed when given the proper resources and support. Overall from this experience I have made a commitment to promote equity and diversity in all educational settings using the skills I have obtained from the University of South Carolina. I look forward to working with marginalized groups of children in my future classroom and motivating them to utilize their full potential.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 184

Vath, Madeleine Pou, Jay Modern-Day Storytelling
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Abstract Text

This presentation details the college experiences I've had that built my storytelling knowledge and skills, from writing web stories for USC's Darla Moore School of Business to telling a veteran's story through an audio podcast to compiling a photo story for the Lord Mayor of Dachau, Germany. By working and exploring in these and other leadership roles, I gained experience in a multitude of journalistic areas including the basics — how to craft a lead — and the more advanced — how to conduct a meaningful interview in English with someone who speaks a different language. Through completing the professional and civic engagement GLD pathway, I reflected on my college leadership experiences in order to share my own story about telling other people's stories.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 308

Lim, Mihyun Sen, Souvik
Redd, Kolby
Change in Antiplatelet Therapy in Prevention of Secondary Stroke (CAPS2) study
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Introduction and Hypothesis: Approximately a third of stroke/TIA events occur in patients taking daily Aspirin prior to the index event. In this study, we studied the comparative effectiveness of three FDA approved antiplatelet agents (Aspirin, Clopidogrel, and Aspirin-dipyridamole or ASA+DP) in prevention of recurrent vascular events in stroke/TIA patients on Aspirin. Methods: Consecutive patients identified as having stroke or TIA were screened and enrolled into this prospective longitudinal registry. Patients on dual antiplatelet therapy and oral anticoagulants were excluded. At baseline, patient's etiological stroke subtype, medication history, medication compliance and effectiveness of Aspirin. Changes in antiplatelet regimen including Aspirin dose, Clopidogrel, ASA+DP, changes in Statin therapy, at discharge were recorded. Patients were followed with a 6 and 12 months phone visit to assess primary outcomes (secondary stroke/TIA, MI, death)subsequently adjudicated by hospital chart review. Results: A total of 183 subjects (mean age 68+12, 58% males, 50% white, 44% African-American and 6% other races) were enrolled over a 24 months period on Aspirin. Majority (63%) had ischemic stroke (NIHSS: 0-21) and remaining (37%) had TIA (ABCD2: 2-7). Ischemic strokes were attributed to penetrating artery disease (41%), large artery atherosclerosis (35%), other/undetermined (18%) and cardiogenic (6%). At the end of 12-month interview, 4.9% of participants on Clopidogrel, 15.1% of participants on aspirin and 35.3% of participants on ASA+DP had a primary outcome (Log rank p=0.006) as depicted in the Kaplan-Meier curve. Changes in Aspirin dose from 81mg to 325mg, or statin therapy regimen did not appear to impact primary outcome. Conclusions: Results from this study showed that there are significant differences in secondary vascular event within 12-months of index stroke/TIA that occurred while patients were taking Aspirin, based on whether the patients are discharged on Aspirin, Clopidogrel, or ASA+DP. The results may guide clinicians in choice of secondary stroke prevention strategy.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 103

Byrd, Destiny Lomicka, Laura Advocating for a Healthy Campus
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As a Changing Carolina Peer Leader (CCPL) at the University of South Carolina, I have influenced the health status of my peers through meaningful health education events, campaigns, and programs. CCPLs impact the Carolina community as advocates of Student Health Services through a holistic approach to health, including physical, mental, social, and environmental health. We strive to fulfill the vision of Student Health Services by collaborating with campus and community partners and empowering students to be well-informed and aware of the available resources to reduce academic impediments. My most influential experiences resulted from working closely with campus dietitians, assisting with Get Yourself Tested (GYT), facilitating University 101 presentations, and facilitating a small group workshop called Body Project. As a public health major, I was able to utilize the public health program planning skills and other knowledge to plan, implement, and evaluate programs through these experiences. Ultimately, this experience allowed me to explore different areas of public health and has led me to focus my career on women’s health and preventative practice. My presentation will discuss the key insights gained from this experience and how they have shaped me professionally and personally.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 270

Paris, Morgan Bulusu, Subra Identifying the linkage between upstream Agulhas Current and Agulhas Leakage
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Abstract Text

The Agulhas Current, a western boundary current, is a limb of the wind driven anti-cyclonic circulation of the south Indian Ocean. Near the tip of Africa, the current retroflects shedding warm saline waters into the Atlantic Ocean. This phenomenon, referred to Agulhas leakage, feeds the upper arm of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Fluctuations in this highly dynamic system impact the strength of overturning sequentially altering climate patterns. This study explores the connection between Agulhas leakage and upstream controls to establish a connection between the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Ocean basins. Ultimately, this connection can be used to relate anomalous Agulhas leakage events to an ENSO signal. A combination of sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and altimetry data is used to identify features involved in signal transmission including eddies and Rossby waves. The subsurface features are also explored to better understand the magnitude of influence and energy transferred by these systems. Specifically, the Mozambique Channel and East Madagascar Current release eddies that interact with the Agulhas Current. Further upstream, Rossby waves identified at 25°S and 12°S, coupled with tropical wind stress curl, and signal transmission carried by the Indonesian throughflow and the South Equatorial Current are all considered to be apart of the upstream dynamics influencing Agulhas leakage events. Our results suggest that changes to upstream dynamics directly influence Agulhas leakage, and these changes are anomalous in response to ENSO events.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 67

Allen, Ashley Angel, S. Michael SPATIAL HETERODYNE SPECTROMETER FOR REMOTE LIBS AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY USING FRESNEL COLLECTION OPTICS
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Abstract Text

A combined laser-induced breakdown (LIBS) and Raman spatial heterodyne spectrometer is described for remote measurements using Fresnel collection optics. The spatial heterodyne LIBS and Raman spectrometer (SHLS and SHRS) is based on a fixed diffraction grating interferometer with no moving parts that offers a very large field of view, high light throughput, and high spectral resolution in a small package. The field of view of the SHS spectrometer is ~1° in remote LIBS and Raman measurements making it very forgiving of collection optics alignment and image quality. In the SHLS/SHRS system described here, a ~100-mm diameter, f/1.25 Fresnel lens is used for light collection and compared to a high quality ~100-mm aperture Questar long distance microscope. LIBS and Raman measurements were made at 10 meters for a variety of organic and mineral samples including materials from deep ocean hydrothermal vents. The overall quality of the spectra as indicated by fringe visibility in the interferograms is the same using each type of lens. However, spectral intensities are reduced by about a factor of 4 for the Fresnel lens, likely due to scattering and reflection losses as well as aberrations in the Fresnel optic. The results are encouraging, suggesting that Fresnel optics might be useful in applications where size and weight are restricted, such as in instruments designed for spacecraft and planetary landers.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 1:25 

Karakchi, Rasha Bakos, Jason A Dynamically Reconfigurable Automata Processor Overlay
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Datasets comprised of symbolic data, such as genomic sequences, item sets, and graph edges, are growing rapidly in both size and importance. Computing with such data, such as performing tasks such as approximate string matching, edit distance, and association rule mining, is often algorithmically reducible to evaluating a deterministic or non-deterministic automaton. When evaluating automata for large datasets, general purpose CPU architectures suffer from poor memory system performance, which has motivated recent efforts to develop special-purpose automata processing architectures that exploit both fine-grain parallelism and specialized on-chip memory structures. These efforts have revealed a fundamental design tradeoff between the design’s flexibility to adapt to arbitrary types of workloads versus the overheads required to reconfigure the processor for a new workload. The Micron Automata Processor represents one end of this spectrum, in that it is specialized for specific types of workloads but may be reconfigured quickly, while FPGA-based approaches may be optimized for a specific workload but suffer from long reconfiguration times. Our approach strikes a balance between these competing goals by implementing a reusable overlay architecture on top of an FPGA, allowing for both flexibility and fast reconfiguration.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 9:45 

Davis, Anthony Sawyer, Roger Duplication and Divergence of Multiple Loricrin Orthologs in Birds has Accompanied the Evolution of Novel and Morphologically Diverse Phenotypes
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The adaptation of novel and mechanically resistant skin appendages is the major event that allowed amniotes to adapt to a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Epidermal appendages form via the cornification of keratinocytes which involves the covalent crosslinking of distinct structural proteins. This results in the formation of a specialized cornified envelope (CE) that replaces the plasma membrane. In mammals, many of the genes involved in the cornification process including Loricrin, the main protein component of the CE, are located in the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC). A homologous locus has been identified in birds and reptiles which also contains Loricrin. In the chicken, there are three differentially expressed Loricrin genes. We screened the genomes of 48 phylogenetically distinct bird species for Loricrin and confirmed the conservation of three Loricrin genes across birds and provided evidence for their continued lineage specific evolution. We also demonstrate that the evolution of the avian specific Loricrin1 (LOR1) coincided with the innovation of the avian scutate scale, which supports the hypothesis that avian scutes evolved independently from the scales of other reptiles. Together with the finding that Loricrin genes vary significantly in the length of their repeat domains, even among closely related species, we provide evidence that the evolution of diverse Loricrin proteins were key events in the appearance of novel skin appendages such as feathers and scales in birds.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 10:05 

Quarles, Bradley Hickey, Patrick A healthier Columbia
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Abstract Text

As I began the process of drafting my GLD, I decided to reflect on the experiences that I’ve obtained throughout my time at the University of South Carolina. One of my greatest experiences can be seen in my key insight titled “Diversity enhances productivity”. This key insight focuses on my role as President of Men in Nursing as it relates to recruiting members, the strategies that I used and some of our successes. For the purpose of this abstract, I will discuss my beyond the classroom experience which was our Men in Nursing brochure. Our main resource and attraction point was the brochure that we created, which consisted of every single nursing course a student in the College of Nursing would take with tips on how to be successful in those courses. What I learned was to recruit members, you have to have a major selling point as to why they should join my organization. We offered all members free membership upon joining as either a mentor or mentee depending on your status within the College of Nursing and a leadership position for those that are mentors. Within days we had over one hundred members due to the brochure which attracted those that were underclassmen and many mentors because they could claim on their resume that they’re a leader for those that were once like them. In conclusion, my experience as President of Men in Nursing along with the brochure we used to recruit members matters because in advertising a product or business you have to have a selling point that makes you stand out from your competition. We were the only organization to offer free membership and leadership positions to those that weren’t elected which caught many students by surprise. I plan on using the lessons I learned as President of Men in Nursing to create an organization that focuses on bringing community health leaders together in an effort to improve the health of the citizens of all ages in Columbia, SC.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 268

Saha, Sudipta Farouk, Tanvir Evaporation boosted cooling under laminar flow condition
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Abstract Text

This study describes a numerical investigation of the effect of evaporative cooling on forced convective heat transfer in a combined heat and mass transfer system. In recent years, as an attempt to emulate the perspiration process of mammals, on-demand sweating boosted cooling has drawn major interest where convective heat transfer is augmented/aided by evaporative heat and mass transfer. This dual mode (convection and evaporation) cooling method can drastically enhance the heat transfer coefficient where conventional convective cooling has already reached its maximum value and dry cooling is a desired objective. A multi-dimensional mathematical model has been developed to conduct simulations over a range of operating parameters to obtain insight into the ‘hybrid’ system where evaporation and convection both contribute to the heat transfer process. The system being modeled consists of a thin liquid water film that undergoes evaporation as a result of being exposed to a prescribed heat flux and laminar convective flow condition. Predictions from the simulations indicate that under convective-evaporative conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient increases significantly approaching a factor of five higher, in comparison to the purely forced convection scenario. For a fixed heat flux, an increase in Reynolds number was found to increase the heat transfer coefficient and vice versa for film thickness. A critical Reynolds number is identified beyond which no significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient is observed. The aim of the work is to identify the role of the key parameters that has a dominant influence on the heat transfer process. This hybrid system has direct implementation in many practical applications. For instance, thermal power plants hit a roadblock to achieve high heat transfer coefficients in air/fin-side with the dry cooling strategy. Sweating-boosted cooling holds the promise to overcome the trade-offs between dry and wet cooling methods with affordable cost. This work proposes and develops a comprehensive model that has a strong coupling among momentum, heat and mass transfer for a multiphase convective environment configuration that is capable of simulating heat transfer effect as a result of both phase change and convection.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 39

Grout, Vanessa Easley, Elizabeth
Sellhorst, Sarah
Riner, William
Relationship among screentime, body fat percentage, and measured physical activity in college student populations
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Abstract Text

Purpose: To determine if there is a relationship among screen time, body fat percentage (BF%), and measured physical activity in traditional aged college students. Methods: Anthropometric data were collected on 100 traditional aged college students (18-25y). BF% was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar iDXA). Average minutes per day (weekdays and weekend days) spent on screen time including computer and videogame use as well as television use were self-reported using an Activity Questionnaire. Time spent on televisions and computers/videogames were assessed separately. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured with use of accelerometers (Acti-Graph-GT3X, Pensacola, FL). Results: Pearson correlational analyses were used to determine the association among screen time, body fat percentage, and physical activity. There were no statistically significant correlations between screen time and the following variables: body fat percentage (r = -0.50, p = 0.619), MVPA (r = -0.124, p = 0.258), and average steps (r = -0.154, p = 0.176) when evaluating the total group. However, male screen time to steps showed significant correlation (r = -0.450, p = 0.010) between weekend and weekday averages. Overall, there were no significant correlations among body fat percentage, average steps, BMI, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in either sex. Discussion: The study emphasizes limitations on effective screen time monitoring due to the accuracy of self-report. It is also possible the questionnaire used may be out of date in regards to use of technology that is considered “screen-time”. Reporting of cell phone use was not included in this study. Conclusion: This study did not take into account factors such as the impact of diet, lifestyle, and genetics. However, our study concludes that there is a minimal impact in males. Additional research is suggested to further our findings.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 89

Melton, Molly Easley, Elizabeth
Sellhorst, Sarah
Riner, William
Differences Among Body Fat Percentage Prediction Equations in a College Age Population
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Abstract Text

Body mass index (BMI) is known to misclassify obesity status according to body fat percentage (BF%). Purpose: To determine if body adiposity index (BAI) and the Deurenberg equation can predict BF% in traditional aged college students. Methods: Anthropometric data were collected on 172 college students (18 25y). BF% was measured using dual energy x ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar iDXA, Waukesha, WI). Paired t tests were used to determine group mean differences in BF% between measured and predicted values. In addition, Pearson’s correlation and intraclass coefficient correlations (ICC) were used to examine the association and reliability between the values, respectively. Results: BAI predicted BF% (27.35 ± 5.04%) and Deurenberg predicted BF% (23.48 ± 7.78%) were significantly lower than DXA measured BF% (28.64 ± 9.10 %), p = .004 and p < .001, respectively. BAI (r = .817) and Deurenberg (r = .847) predicted BF% were strongly correlated to DXA measured BF%, p < .001. ICC demonstrated strong reliability between DXA measured BF% and the BAI predicted measured BF% (ICC = .812, p <.001) and Deurenberg measured BF% (.828, p < .001). Discussion: While statistical significance was noted, the difference of 1% between DXA measured BF% and BAI predicted BF% lacks clinical significance. However, our study concludes that the use of both equations is warranted in this population. Additional research is suggested to further elucidate our findings.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 76

Comer, Michael
Hardee, Brad
Hall, Jeff Hypertension medication adherence survey at rural Nicaraguan outreach clinics
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Abstract Text

Hypertension, is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and is especially prevalent in the Americas affecting approximately 20-40% of the population. In order to gain insight into how previously diagnosed hypertensive patients in rural Nicaragua acquire and take their medications, we conducted a survey in mobile outreach clinics outside of Sébaco, Nicaragua during a five day period in March of 2017. The survey included seven questions that were modified from similar instruments used in evaluating antiretroviral therapy in PEPFAR-funded projects. We obtained 70 surveys from patients with known diagnoses of hypertension, to identify where patients obtain medications and reasons why they miss doses or stop taking the medicine. This information on barriers and adherence can be used to develop strategies and patient educational strategies to improve therapeutic adherence. Learning Objectives: 1. Recognize potential challenges of obtaining medications for chronic conditions such as hypertension in Nicaragua 2. List some of the reasons identified for antihypertensive medication non-adherence identified in a rural Low-Moderate Income Country population 3. Review the methodology used in medication adherence studies for HIV and how this can be applied to non-communicable disease therapy. . Knowledge, competency or performance gaps: The Pan American Health Organization has been implementing strategies for improving care of Non-communicable diseases in several countries in Central and South America. Little information on patient adherence or barriers is available for this region in Nicaragua. This pilot study can help to inform strategies for improving adherence to medication therapy and overall cardiovascular care in this region. Citations: 1. Alicea-Planas J, Greiner L, Greiner PA. Hypertension and related lifestyle factors among persons living in rural Nicaragua. Appl Nurs Res. 2016 Feb;29:43-6. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2015.05.010. PubMed PMID: 26856487. 2. World Health Organization: Global Status Report on Non-communicable Diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. 3. Nicaragua, Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo (INIDE). Estimaciones y proyecciones de población nacional, departamental y municipal (revisión 2007). Managua: INIDE; 2007.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 89

Kopp, Megan Xiao, Shuo Multidrug resistance protein 1 deficiency promotes doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity in female mice
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Abstract Text

Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), a phase III drug transporter that exports substrates out of cells, has been discovered in both cancerous and normal tissues. The over expression of MDR1 in cancer cells contributes to multiple drug resistance, whereas the MDR1 in normal tissues protects them from chemical-induced toxicity. Currently, the role of MDR1 in the ovary has not been entirely understood. Our objective is to determine the function of MDR1 in protecting against chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity. Using both the in vivo transgenic mouse model and in vitro follicle culture model, we investigated the expression of MDR1 in the ovary, the effect of MDR1 deficiency on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced ovarian toxicity, and the ovarian steroid hormonal regulation of MDR1. Results showed that the MDR1 was expressed in the ovarian epithelial cells, stroma cells, theca cell layers, endothelial cells, and luteal cells. The lack of MDR1 did not affect female ovarian function and fertility, however, its deficiency significantly exacerbated the DOX-induced ovarian toxicity in both in vivo and in vitro models. The MDR1 showed significantly higher expression levels in the ovaries at estrus and metestrus stages than those at proestrus and diestrus stages. However, this dynamic expression pattern was not regulated by the ovarian steroid hormones of estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) but correlated to the number and status of corpus luteum (CL). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the lack of MDR1 promotes DOX-induced ovarian toxicity, suggesting the critical role of MDR1 in protecting female ovarian functions during chemotherapy.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 116

Winstead, James Burch, Jim
Ginsberg, Jay
Shiftwork and Heart Rate Variability Coherence among Nurses
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Abstract Text

Abstract: This study used an ambient heart rate monitoring protocol among health care workers to test the hypothesis that heart rate variability (HRV), sleep disturbances, fatigue, or cognitive performance differed among non-rotating night nurses relative to those on permanent day shifts. Continuous ambulatory HRV monitoring was performed among non-rotating night nurses (n=11), and a comparison group of permanent day nurses (n=7), over a 36-hour period coinciding with the last two 12-hour shifts of each participant’s work week. Symptoms and psychomotor vigilance were assessed at the end of the ambient HRV monitoring period, and no differences between shifts were observed. This study was the first to quantify patterns of the HRV Coherence Ratio, an indicator of cardio-respiratory phase coupling that occurs naturally during deep sleep, in a non-experimental (work/home) setting, and to compare hourly HRV Coherence Ratios with a standard HRV measure of vagal tone. Day nurses had a clear circadian pattern of HRV Coherence coinciding with their sleep period, whereas night nurses had no increase in hourly mean HRV Coherence Ratios during their sleep period. The results suggest a pattern of autonomic dysregulation among night workers during their sleep period relative to those on day shifts. HRV Coherence may serve as a novel indicator of HRV dysregulation among shiftworkers.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Congaree Meeting Room B (lower level)
Time: 10:10 

Vaughan, Andrew Shepard, Staci
Hall, Jeff
Prenatal Care Matters: A Review of the Good Samaritan Clinic Prenatal Outreach Program
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Abstract Text

The PHUSC Department of Family and Preventative Medicine has worked to institute a prenatal outreach program designed specifically to reach uninsured, primarily Spanish-speaking families. Several barriers to prenatal care impact this ever-growing population in Columbia, SC including language barriers, cultural barriers, health care literacy, and financial barriers. This program is designed to overcome those barriers using interpreters, trusted established visits, group prenatal classes, and specific payment plans. We hypothesize that this outreach program will improve prenatal follow-up and patient health literacy and in doing so, produce results in maternal-fetal outcomes comparable to regional standards. Using a model of group prenatal visits designed by the March-of-Dimes, the goal of this outreach program is designed to reach women at earlier stages of pregnancy, promote strong follow-up, educate women and families, and to ultimately result in healthy, safe deliveries. Specific areas of interest included: 1) baseline characteristics of our target population 2) prenatal visit attendance 3) prenatal outcomes/complications 4) delivery outcomes/complications. We have gathered the data for the first 30 mother/infant couplets to complete this program. Our data includes gestational age at the time of enrollment in the program; number of prenatal visits attended, whether prenatal labs and ultrasound evaluations were obtained during the pregnancy, and estimated gestational age of pregnancy when labs and ultrasounds were completed. Birth outcome data was also gathered including: birth weight of infant at delivery, gestational age at delivery, birth outcome (SVD v C/S), and any delivery complications. We concluded that this program provided access to prenatal care for patients in our target demographic including prenatal labs, and anatomy US; that prenatal issues such as infection, glucose intolerance, and other high risk prenatal disorders were identified early and referred as needed; and that this program increased access to post-partum care. Furthermore we identified several future goals to improve upon this existing program.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 127

Wolfe, Ashton Fairey, MS, CGC, Jessica
Hill-Chapman, PhD, LP, NCSP, ABPP, Crystal
DiBattisto, Caroline
The Impact of Communication in Sexual Development in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
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Abstract Text

Transitioning into a sexually mature adult is a challenging time for both an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their family. More specifically, sexual development begets challenges due to the demands it places on the social and communication skills needed to explore developmental changes that are occurring physically, emotionally and hormonally. It is during adolescence when individuals form relationships and learn about puberty and sexual development primarily through peer-to-peer interactions. A diagnosis of ASD is partially established by quantifying impediments in social and communication skills through observation. As this is the chief feature of ASD, it is safe to assume that social and communication difficulties can create obstacles in the sexual development of affected individuals. Our research surveyed parents of adolescents, ages 10-18, with a diagnosis of ASD, and interviewed a portion of these parents in order to determine how the severity of their child’s social communication skills correlate with his or her sexual development. Preliminary results (n = 39) reveal adolescents with poorer social communication skills had a higher association with displaying inappropriate sexualized behaviors (r = -0.32, p = 0.06). Additionally, stronger social communication skills were associated with adolescent’s understanding of appropriate sexual behavior in romantic relationships (r = -0.407, p = 0.012). Furthermore, 64% of the sample indicated that their child had been provided with some form of sexual education. Provision of sexual education was inversely associated with displayed atypical sexual behaviors (r = -0.05, p < 0.01). While these results are not representative of the entirety of our data analysis, they are strongly suggestive of the direct impact social communication has on sexual development in adolescents with ASD.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 63

Eekhoff, Lauren Edwards, Janice Assessing the Barriers to Cardiac Care in Carriers of Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy
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Abstract Text

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy are X-linked conditions due to mutations within the dystrophin gene that cause progressive muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, and cardiomyopathy in affected males. Approximately two-thirds of women who have a son with DBMD are carriers of the condition. Carriers typically do not manifest muscular symptoms but are at risk for cardiac abnormalities such as ventricular dilation and dilated cardiomyopathies. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that carriers of DBMD receive a complete cardiac evaluation by a cardiologist that includes echocardiogram and electrocardiogram. Re-evaluation should happen every five years. According to a recent study, as many as 35.6% of carriers are not adhering to the recommendations despite having knowledge of their carrier status. To date, limited research has been conducted into the barriers that carriers face in accessing recommended cardiac screening. We surveyed 65 carriers of either DMD or BMD and conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 11 carriers who in the last five years had not seen a cardiologist, had an echocardiogram, had an EKG, or a combination to determine the perceived challenges that carriers face in obtaining appropriate cardiac care. From the interviews, major themes emerged: 1) A lack of awareness exists among healthcare providers in general about the cardiac risks associated with being a carrier as well as the AAP recommendations for carriers 2) Carriers are left to take initiative for their own healthcare needs and must be their own advocates 3) Carriers don’t feel they are at risk for cardiac problems because of a lack of family history or because they lead healthy lives 4) Carriers put the needs of their children and families before their own healthcare needs. Our research is the first to attempt to gain insight into the barriers that carriers of muscular dystrophy experience in obtaining cardiac care so as to address the needs of this population.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 56

McGowan, Patrick
Watson, Nick
Adams, Morgan Implementation of a Diabetic Action Plan within the USC Family Medicine Clinic
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Abstract Text

Background: Diabetes mellitus type II (DM II) is a prominent, long-term health disorder affecting the daily lives of almost 20% of the 12,000 patients treated at the USC Family Medicine Clinic. DM II is one of the most frequently treated diseases in the Family Medicine setting. Significant portions of diabetic patients at our clinic are not well controlled with 30% having a hemoglobin A1c (Hg A1c) > 9.0 in the fall of 2017. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels significantly increases all cause morbidity and mortality of patients diagnosed with DM II. Reduction of Hg A1c levels by as little as 1% can drastically reduce morbidity and mortality. Identification of poorly controlled diabetic patients at the USC Family Medicine Clinic, with subsequent intervention through diabetic action plans, will attempt to reduce the percentage of patients with poorly controlled DM II. The aim of the project is to improve the communication of therapy plans to patients by implementation of a diabetic action plan. Methods: This quality improvement project has been approved by the Palmetto Health IRB. The clinic has two sides, East and West, in which resident physicians practice. Patients who meet inclusion criteria on the East side will be provided a diabetic action plan. Patients will be included if they are an adult aged 18-75 years with uncontrolled diabetes defined as having a Hg A1c > 9.0. Patients are to be established at USC Family Medicine Clinic, defined as 2 visits at the clinic within the past year. Patients are to be on at least one form of glucose lowering agent in an attempt to control their DM II. Providers and nurses on the East side of clinic will identify patients who meet inclusion criteria. These patients will be given a diabetic action plan and registered in the project. All patients will receive the standard of care treatment as this quality improvement project only seeks to improve communication of therapy plans with patients. The results will be compared to a randomized group of patients on the West side of the clinic who meet inclusion criteria and are of similar demographics.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 119

Boutté, Alycia Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle
Wilcox, Sara
Liu, Jihong
Eberth, Jan
Kaczynski, Andrew
Examining associations between baseline stress, depressive symptoms, and diet quality among diverse pregnant women
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Background: Optimal diet quality during pregnancy is important for increasing the chances of successful birth outcomes. During pregnancy, women have increased risk of experiencing stress and depressive symptoms, both of which have been associated with poor diet quality. Few studies have examined racial differences in these factors among women who begin pregnancy overweight or obese. Our purpose was to examine the associations between baseline stress, depressive symptoms, and diet quality among women enrolled in the Health in Pregnancy and Postpartum (HIPP) study. Methods: HIPP is a randomized controlled trial targeting excess gestational weight gain (GWG) among overweight and obese pregnant women in South Carolina (N=133 enrolled to date). Baseline demographic and psychosocial data were collected through self-report surveys. Participants completed two ASA24 diet recalls. Pearson correlations, t-tests, and linear regression models were used to summarize the data. Results: At baseline, participants were racially-diverse (65% White, 34% African-American (AA)), young (mean age=30), and generally well-educated (60% college graduates). Participants had low levels of stress (mean Perceived Stress Scale score= 4.7+/-3.2 points, max=16 points) and depressive symptoms (mean Edinburgh Prenatal/Postnatal Depression Scale score= 5.7+/-3.9 points, max=30 points). Participants had poor diet quality (mean Healthy Eating Index (HEI)score = 50.5+/-12.6; max score=100). Stress had a weak negative relationship with total HEI scores (r=-0.20; P=0.02), while depressive symptoms were not significantly related to total HEI scores (r=-0.11; P=0.19). There were no differences in stress, depressive symptoms, or overall HEI scores by race (P’s all >0.05). AA participants had significantly higher refined grain consumption (6.6+/-3.18 oz.) compared to their White counterparts (5.3+/-3.4 oz.; P=0.04). There were no racial differences in the other HEI diet components. Perceived stress significantly predicted lower HEI scores (b=-0.80+/-0.34, P=0.02), while depressive symptoms did not significantly predict HEI scores (b=-0.37+/-0.28, P=0.19). Race did not moderate the relationship between stress and HEI scores (b=0.10+/-0.69, P=0.88). Conclusions: Overall, higher stress significantly predicted lower diet quality among HIPP participants and overall diet quality was poor; however, race was not a moderator. Future research should examine if stress management interventions can improve diet quality in pregnancy.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 74

Gillman, Emily Gay, Sarah Cupid Crew
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Did you know that over 15 million seniors in the United States are isolated, living alone? For many elderly individuals this is often a result of a loss of a spouse. During my internship at Lighthouse Hospice Group, I have had seen this problem first hand. Wish of a Lifetime, a nonprofit that grants wishes to deserving seniors. In an attempt to limit isolation, in the elderly population, Wish of a Lifetime conducts and annual event, on Valentines Day, “Cupid Crews”, from all over the world, deliver roses to elderly communities. Unfortunately, Wish of a Lifetime did not have a registered Cupid Crew in the state of South Carolina. This needed to change! In response, I contacted Wish of a Lifetime immediately. After a few months of planning and finding funding, South Carolina successfully had a Cupid Crew! This past year on Valentines Day, six different retirement communities received a visit from The South Carolina Cupid Crew. To some, this may have been seen as an unconventional Valentines Day, but to me it was another way to express my love. While sharing my passion for the geriatric community, a group of around one hundred volunteers and I handed out around eight hundred roses to deserving seniors in the Columbia, South Carolina area. The day was full of wonderful stories, beautiful smiles, and an overwhelming amount of love. In coming years, I hope to continue this fulfilling tradition in South Carolina and eventually begin a Cupid Crew in my home state, Maryland.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 301

Miller, Kailey Easley, Elizabeth
Sellhorst, Sarah
Riner, William
Impact of Body Composition on Global Esteem on College age Women
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Previous research has shown that women tend to score lower on surveys regarding their physical self-concept. There is much speculation regarding reasons for decline of physical self-concept with age. Purpose: To determine if the classification of BF% impacts global esteem in women. Methods: Forty-two traditional-aged (18-25y) women participated in this study. Anthropometric data were recorded and BF% was measured using an iDXA (GE Lunar iDXA, Waukesha, WI). Each participant completed the PSDQ survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine whether a difference between groups existed in global esteem, a global component of physical self-concept. The women were divided into two categories based on BF% (Healthy  32%, n=19; Overfat >32%, n=23). Results: There were no significant differences in the global esteem indicators based on body fat, Wilks’ Lambda=.865, F (5, 36)= 1.120, p=.367. Discussion: The lack of significant differences in the global esteem measures may be attributed to an outward appearance in line with societal norms associated with beauty, further strengthened by waist hip ratio and waist circumference data. Additional research is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms associated with physical self-concept in young women

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 71

Huynh, Sammy Handy, George Servant Leading: How I Discovered My Purpose by Leading for Others
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My greatest contribution to the University of South Carolina has been serving as a member and leader of Alpha Epsilon Delta, a national pre-health professional honor society. Becoming a member of this on-campus organization was a pivotal point in my undergraduate pre-health journey and has provided me with a system of lifelong friends and mentors including our faculty advisor, Dr. George Handy. Through my role as Chapter President, I have been able to learn valuable lessons in collaboration, gain confidence in my leadership abilities, and have acquired a tremendous amount of knowledge to propel me into my professional goals in dentistry. Understanding the influence that being a member had on me, I strive to lead by serving others. Leading for others empowers members and develops leaders within the organization, multiplying the positive output of the organization. This is key to setting up for a successful future. The AED executive board consists of 16 board members and hosts a chapter size of 184 active pre-professional students. This past year alone, we kick-started a mentorship program called VITP to pair our members with medical students at the USC School of Medicine, organized a Physicians Mixer where we gathered health professionals from the Columbia area to mingle and network with our members, and pushed for record breaking philanthropic support for the Children’s Miracle Network. My presentation will showcase the significance that serving as a leader has had on shaping me as an individual, the impact of servant leading, and the rewards of being involved with a professional organization.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 251

Robinette, Lizzy Creech, Erin
Dodson, Cortney
Impact of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
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Abstract Text

Purpose/Background: Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are at an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Development of VTE can lead to increased length of stay, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, sepsis and cerebral vasospasm, all of which contribute to poor outcomes in this patient population. The Neurocritical Care Society released guidelines for the prophylaxis of venous thrombosis in neurocritical care patients in 2016 which included prevention of VTE in patients with aSAH. The authors recommend initiating unfractionated heparin at least 24 hours after an aneurysm has been secured. There is a paucity of data for outcomes relating to the timing of initiation of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis in patients with aSAH. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the timing of initiation of VTE prophylaxis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients as it relates to clinical and safety outcomes. Methodology: This is a retrospective, observational, single-center cohort study where the incidence of VTE (defined as pulmonary embolism or venous thrombosis < 2 cm from deep venous system) and incidence of re-bleed following initiation of VTE prophylaxis (defined as expansion of hemorrhage on head CT or clinician-determined stability) after the diagnosis of aSAH will be assessed. Medical records will be reviewed for patients who were diagnosed with aSAH based on ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes and who received at least one dose of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis following neurosurgical intervention. Patients will be stratified into three groups according to when VTE prophylaxis was initiated following securing of the aneurysm. Group One will consist of patients initiated on VTE prophylaxis < 48 hours following intervention, Group Two will include patients initiated 48 to 72 hours later, and Group Three will include those initiated ≥ 72 hours following intervention. Results: To be determined Conclusion: To be determined

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 141

Hersey, Melinda Reagan, Lawrence
Hashemi, Parastoo
A Multifaceted Approach to Analyze Serotonin’s Role in Comorbid Depression and Obesity
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Epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese. There is a growing appreciation that the complications of obesity extend to the central nervous system (CNS) and result in increased risk for neurological co-morbidities like depressive illness. Given the hypothesized role of serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis of depression, it is possible that decreases in brain 5-HT efflux induces depressive illness in obesity. We previously demonstrated that rodents with a phenotype that is consistent with features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit depressive-like behaviors as shown by the sucrose preference test and forced swim test. To identify the potential underlying mechanistic mediators of these behavioral changes in vivo microdialysis and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry were used to determine changes in hippocampal 5-HT levels following administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Results suggest fundamental changes in the serotonergic system of obese animals. Plasma cytokine analysis revealed that the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) and plasma C-reactive protein levels were increased in obese rats. Neurochemical analyses determined that MetS animals exhibited decreased basal 5-HT and diminished hippocampal 5-HT efflux following SSRI administration. Collectively, these data support studies indicating that obesity and MetS increase the risk for mood disorders and suggest that changes in 5-HT levels may be a shared feature between depressive illness and metabolic disorders. Additionally, results identify pharmacological differences that provide a mechanistic basis for the decreased efficacy of SSRIs in the treatment of depressive illness in obese individuals. Changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory markers could also be an important mediator of comorbid obesity and depression.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 31

Nguyen, Kenny Thompson, Raymond Does Exercise Affect Executive Function Immediately Post-Exercise?
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Introduction: First responders and Tactical Units make critical decisions during or immediately following strenuous physical exertion. Executive function improves several minutes post-exercise.1 However, no data is available about executive function at the cessation of exercise when sensory feedback from physiological responses to exercise – such as increased heart rate (HR) and increased ventilation (VE) – remain elevated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether executive function was altered immediately post-exercise. Methods: 25 male and female subjects completed 1 maximal and 2 submaximal treadmill tests. Immediately before (Pre-), immediately post (Im), and 5 minutes post (5min) exercise, subjects completed a Trail Making Test B (TMT-B). Subjects also completed 2 submaximal isocaloric bouts at 50% and 85% of VO2max with the TMT-B administered Pre-, Im, and 5min. Results: The time to complete the TMT-B following the VO2max test increased significantly at Im and then decreased significantly at 5min (Pre-: 25.9±1.4, Im: 30.0±2.5, 5min: 24.0±1.5 sec, p≤.05). HR also increased at Im and then decreased at 5min (Pre-: 87.7±3.1, Im: 192.6±3.2, 5min: 131.1±4.2, p≤.05). Following submaximal exercise, there were no differences in the TMT-B time at 50% VO2max (Pre-: 28.5±2.6, Im: 24.8±1.7, 5min: 24.8±1.8 sec, p≤.05) and 85% VO2max (Pre-: 27.2±2.2, Im: 24.8±1.6, 5min: 23.4±1.1 sec, p≤.05) even though HR changed significantly at 50% (Pre-: 87.6±4.8, Im: 127.5±6.0, 5min: 96.1±4.8 sec, p≤.05) and 85% (Pre-: 80.9±3.7, Im: 158.2±6.1, 5min: 93.0±3.4 sec, p≤.05) VO2max. Conclusion: Executive function decreases immediate post-high intensity exercise that may induce fatigue, but non-fatiguing, low and moderately-high intensity exercise has no effect. Afferent feedback has apparently little effect on executive function.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 73

Reza, Abigail Andersen, Tia
Isom, Deena
The Association between Perceptions of Anti-White Bias and Violent Offending
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Abstract Text

Previous research indicates that white Americans, particularly men, believe that they are victims of progressive attacks on white privilege and the patriarchy, and as a result feel that they are heavily discriminated against. This perception of anti-white oppression existed before the manifestation of the political climate under President Donald Trump, and now we have reason to believe that the relationship between perceptions of anti-white bias and violence will, in fact, be amplified by the increasing tensions caused by this political and social climate. The first part of this study will comprise of a survey which examines the prevalence of perceptions of discrimination and attitudes about race relations. This survey will be administered by KnowledgePanel to a nationally representative sample of 1,000 adults in the U.S. Currently, no nationally representative data has been collected on the impact of perceived reverse racism. Results from this portion of the study will provide a comprehensive understanding of whites' perception of reverse racism and anti-white bias, which will later connect to how these perceptions contribute to violent criminal offending.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 19

Moulton, Karah Hancock, C. Nathan miRNA-Induced Gene Silencing Tagging in Arabidopsis thaliana
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Gene silencing is an important tool used to determine gene function. There are many different methods to decrease gene expression, including RNAi, Cas9 mutagenesis, and microRNA induced silencing. miRNA-induced gene silencing involves attaching a microRNA target sequence to an mRNA sequence, inducing the production of tasiRNAs and subsequent degradation of homologous sequences, including redundant genes. We have used a naturally occurring miRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana, called miR173, driven by the 35S promoter to induce silencing of random sequences in the genome. In this effort, we identified a mutant that exhibits altered leaf shape, delayed flowering, and reduced seed set in a dominant manner. We are documenting the development of the mutant in detail and working to clone the transgene location. Together these results indicate the feasibility of our silencing tagging strategy and its ability to produce novel phenotypes that were not discovered by other mutagenesis strategies.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 112

Booth, Alexandria Camp, Lisa Salkehatchie Summer Service
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Abstract Text

Salkehatchie Summer Service is an organization that has been the most influential experience of my life ever since I first attended the week-long summer service camp nine years ago. In the years since, I have become more involved with Salkehatchie's service both during the summer and in preparation for each camp. In the summer of 2016, I was the bookkeeper for the home I was serving by managing receipts for purchases throughout the week, leading as a mentor for the young adolescents on my site, and attending planning meetings each night in preparation for the next day's work. Last year, I had the honor of serving as a co-site leader, leading a group of young adolescents through the process of rebuilding a home that had no running water or electricity. I am currently a member of the Salkehatchie Summer Service Steering Committee, and in January of 2017 and 2018, I attended the Directors' Retreat in Santee, SC as a representative for the Piedmont camp. At these annual meetings, I was a part of the statewide camps' budgets, safety plans, spiritual development, and more. I was elected to co-lead a presentation of Piedmont Salkehatchie's growth and achievements over the years at an upcoming 50th Anniversary Celebration. Through this presentation, this year's camp in June, and my service in the years to come, I look forward to growing as a site leader and board member. In the future, I hope to play an even larger leadership role in this organization that is so close to my heart. Salkehatchie Summer Service has taught me more than I ever thought I would know about selflessness, devotion, and leadership. The countless lives that have been touched as a result of Salkehatchie inspire me to live a giving life not only at my camp every summer but in every decision I make. As an educator, I look forward to showing my passion for community service through my career, and I hope to inspire my students to show that same dedication for the community they call home.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 278

Booth, Alexandria Camp, Lisa Sandhills Middle School
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As a senior Middle Level Education major, I have had the honor of being placed at Sandhills Middle School in Lexington School District 4 for EDML 599: Internship B in the Middle School. Through this experience, I have learned what it means to be a leader, servant, community member, and educator. As a lifelong resident of Swansea, SC, it has been an honor to serve the community I call home for this internship experience. While I always knew that I wanted to work in a rural school, this experience has confirmed that passion, and I am fortunate that I will be teaching at Sandhills Middle School for the 2018-2019 school year. This experience has helped me grow as an educator through building professional relationships with students, faculty, staff, and administration. Along with establishing these relationships, I have also grown in my instructional abilities through the teaching opportunities I have had daily. By planning and implementing English/Language Arts lessons for my seventh and eighth grade Montessori students, I have learned the importance of literacy, student interest and, therefore, engagement, and purposeful planning. I have analyzed student data from pre-assessments to compare their data to post-assessments, and I have learned the importance of personalizing and differentiating instruction to meet every student's individual needs. While teaching at a rural school has its challenges, including planning culturally relevant lessons for diverse students and managing student behavior, I am looking forward to continuing to grow as an educator at SMS. SMS is in the process of becoming a Professional Development School as well as becoming certified to offer a Project-Based Learning certificate add-on. As a lifelong learner, I look forward to being a part of these advances and devoting my career to foster the growth of young adolescents. Along with fostering my students' growth academically, I will devote my time to fostering their beyond-the-classroom experiences, including volunteering to help with BETA Club, yearbook staff, sports concessions, afterschool tutoring, and more. I will model my love of service and learning to teach my students to be lifelong learners themselves.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 279

AlSayed, Rahaf Shorter, Kimberly An Investigation of the Effects of Folic Acid on Histone Modifications and Dendritic Spine Density in a Human Neuronal Cell Line.
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social interactions and increased repetitive behaviors due to abnormal neuromorphology (increased dendritic spines). Previous studies have shown autism is epigenetic in origin. Epigenetic modifications including DNA/histone methylation are altered through the folic acid (FA) metabolic pathway. FA consumption and ASD rates have both increased in recent decades; therefore, we questioned if excess FA consumption is linked to ASD. In our research, we investigated the effects of a 2x FA dose on histone modifications at histone 3 and on dendritic spine density in a human neuronal cell line. We treated SHSY5Y cells with a 2x FA dose or water (control). We isolated histones and determined histone 3 modifications using ELISA format array plates to determine levels of various histone 3 methylation and acetylation marks. We stained control and FA treated neurons with Dil stain to determine the dendritic spine density. Results showed a decrease in active histone methylation and acetylation marks (a pattern associated with decreased gene expression and with ASD) and a significant increase in dendritic spine density in FA treated cells. Our results indicate excess FA could be linked to increases in ASD-related neuromorphology changes and histone modification changes.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 130

Mehrabi, Amir Myat, Khin Disparities in Medical Imaging Procedure Volume Amongst Cancer Patients Attributable to the Presence of Performance Regulated Payment Systems
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Medical imaging techniques are among the preliminary approaches used in the screening and diagnosis of cancer cases. They allow for a noninvasive way for clinicians to assess the patient for potential abnormalities. Major imaging procedures for cancer patients include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiography (X-ray), and computed tomography (CT) scanning, in addition to other alternative techniques. In accordance with the literature, it has not been sufficiently established whether variations in the provision of these procedures exist based on the influence of performance enhanced systems, and incentivized physician payment models. To determine how performance and quality metric enhanced physician compensation schemes influence the provision of MRI scans among cancer afflicted patients, aggregated NAMCS data from 2011 to 2015 containing 236,117 patients (n=236,117) was used, with a descriptive statistics and frequency analysis, alongside a logistic regression approach. Within the sample, 17,835 subjects had cancer, with 408 (2.3%) experiencing MRI, 933 (5.2%) experiencing X-ray imaging, 992 (5.6%) experiencing CT scanning, and 228 (1.3%) experiencing an alternative medical imaging procedure. Correspondingly, 6,169 (34.6%) physicians within the cancer afflicted patient subgroup were regulated by a performance measure or quality metric enhanced compensation scheme. The statistically significant odds ratio (OR) values in descending order for different medical imaging procedures performed for patients afflicted by cancer were X-rays (OR=12.7), computed tomography scan (OR=17.6), and alternative medical imaging (OR=5.2). For performance-based physician compensation schemes, the odds of a cancer patient being provided an MRI scan was 5.92 times greater as compared to a physician not regulated by performance standards, with 95% CI [4.6,7.6]. The frequency of medical imaging procedures among cancer afflicted subjects was diverse and varied with respect to each imaging technique. Significant heterogeneity existed, with differences between MRI rates, and CT scanning and X-ray imaging being the most prominent. The likelihood of a cancer patient being exposed to MRI was greater when performance metrics were implemented, indicating that physician payment systems that involve performance measure criteria may be promoting greater medical imaging procedure rates for cancer patients, particularly in relation to MRI frequency. Future policies and research should focus on examining factors impacting this issue.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 42

Kumte, Nabihah Oskeritzian, Carole Could Mast Cells Be Early Diagnostic Markers of Colorectal Cancer?
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the three most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Mast cells (MC) function as initiators and immunomodulators of many inflammatory disorders such as allergic reactions, and cancer initiation and progression. Once MC reach the tissues where they inhabit during homeostasis, they differentiate into one of two possible phenotypes defined by specific proteases stored inside cytoplasmic granules that characterize MC. In mice, MC that express tryptase, the most abundant serine proteinase, are identified as mucosal (M)MC, while MC that express both tryptase and chymase, another serine proteinase, are identified as connective tissue (CT)MC. In addition to inflammation, genetics may contribute to cancer. Previous research has found that nearly 85% of sporadic colon cancer has been linked to the inactivation of adenomatosis polyposis coli (Apc) gene, a critical tumor suppressor gene which prevents colon malignancies in humans. Families who carry a mutation in one copy of this gene suffer from multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) due to the loss of the remaining wildtype (WT) gene. Similarly in mice heterozygous for the Apc gene (Apc Min/+ ), Apc-deficient cells appear due to the heterozygosity loss. Screening for CRC is invasive and often avoided by at-risk patients. It’s hypothesized that MC slough off in the colonic lumen of sick mice, and can therefore be collected using a rectal swab. The rectal swab would be less invasive than a colonoscopy and could allow CRC diagnosis based off of MC presence in the swab. Staining of samples revealed lesions and transformation among Apc Min/+ colonic tissue, reasoning that MC may be sloughing off into the lumen of Apc Min/+ mice but not WT mice. These findings suggest that premalignant stages of CRC are associated with MC phenoconversion from MMC to CTMC. Staining of the rectal swabs suggest that MC slough off in the lumen of the Apc Min/+ group but not the WT group, and that they can be collected through a minimally invasive swab. These findings suggest that MC collected through rectal swabs may aid in acting as an early diagnostic marker for CRC.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 117

Brady, Caroline Brown, Heather Injury Patterns of Patients Presenting to a Non-Government Hospital in Western Uganda
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Abstract Text

Background: Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally and disproportionately affects low-income countries. Most injury data from low-income countries come from studies performed in large tertiary care centers in urban settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns and severity of injury in patients presenting to a small hospital in a more rural setting. Methods: This is a retrospective review of a paper trauma registry implemented at Masindi-Kitara Medical Center (MKMC) in March of 2017. Run by a non-government organization, MKMC is a 40 bed hospital with 24 hour services located in Northwest Uganda. Data was extracted from trauma registry forms which were completed over nine months by clinicians upon initial presentation of all injury patients to MKMC, regardless of age or severity of injury. Results: A total of 260 patients were entered into the registry. Most patients were male (70.7%) and the average age was 27.5 with a range from 2 months to 85 years. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) accounted for the majority of trauma patients (60.1%). Motorcycle crashes were the most common mechanism of injury accounting for 46.2% of all trauma patients and 76.9% of RTAs. This was followed by car crashes (10.3% of all trauma patients and 17.1% of RTAs) and falls from height (7.5% of all patients). The majority of patients (59.9%) were treated in the outpatient department and discharged. Forty-eight patients (19.8%) were admitted and eight patients (3.3%) were taken directly to the operating theater after initial stabilization. Analgesics (71.1%) and antibiotics (49.2%) were the most common treatments administered. 6.9 % of patients received intravenous fluids and only three (1.1%) received blood. Forty-one patients (16.9%) required transfer to another facility. The majority of transferred patients were isolated orthopedic injuries (68.3%), followed by head injuries (14.6%), and ENT injuries (7.3%). Conclusion: RTAs were the leading cause of injury in this setting and motorcycle crashes were the predominant mechanism. Soft tissue injury was the most common diagnosis and most patients were discharged from the outpatient department.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 128

Levitt, Jamie DiPietro, Robin An Analysis of Perceptions of Restaurant Authenticity at Food Tourism Destinations in the Southeastern U.S.
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The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive scale, containing multiple restaurant attributes and authenticity conceptualizations, to measure restaurant authenticity; to test a model examining the mediators and outcomes of restaurant authenticity at independent, full service Southern-style restaurants at food tourism destinations in the Southeastern U.S.; and to determine if the influences of restaurant authenticity differ between food tourists, general tourists, and locals. A four-step approach adapted from Netemeyer et al. (2003) was used to develop the restaurant authenticity scale (RAS). Ultimately, the RAS contained six authenticity conceptualizations, 20 items and three dimensions: restaurant heritage and environment, food and beverage, and restaurant diners. A conceptual model based on social cognitive theory, Mehrabian-Russell model, congruence theory, the consumer-based model of authenticity, and associative network theory was then tested. Overall, the model contained 10 hypotheses and each was confirmed. By confirming these hypothesis, it was determined that relationships between restaurant authenticity and satisfaction and restaurant authenticity and restaurant loyalty were both partially mediated, while a relationship between restaurant authenticity and place attachment was fully mediated. Lastly, perceptions of food tourists, general tourists, and locals were compared via multigroup moderation analysis and MANOVA. Findings suggested that restaurant authenticity has the strongest influence on locals. This study contributed to both theory and practice. For theory, it determined which items, authenticity conceptualizations, and dimensions were included in the RAS. By testing the conceptual model, the efficacy of several theories and models were confirmed in the foodservice and food tourism context. Restaurant authenticity’s influence on relevant mediating and outcome variables was also confirmed. Lastly, results from the multigroup moderation analysis and MANOVA tests determined that some differences exist between the food tourists, general tourists, and locals with regard to authenticity. For restaurant practitioners, the structure of the RAS should call attention to certain restaurant attributes with regards to authenticity. Also, the multigroup moderation analysis and MANOVA tests determined that local restaurants should actively reach out to locals. For tourism practitioners, results from the conceptual model suggest that authentic local restaurants may serve as effective venues to engage tourists with certain travel promotions.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 1:40 

Zhang, Jingsheng Van Fleit, Krista Re-reading the Intellectual Turn in 1980s’ Chinese Poetry Field: A Study of Unofficial Poetry Journals after 1985
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This presentation will focus on my research in the summer of 2017 at Leiden University Library in the Netherlands. I will show the self-printed and unofficial poetry journals by three avant-garde literary groups that I found in the special collection of the library. I will demonstrate how the horizontal reading of these journals enabled me to see the original tasks and appeals of the avant-garde poets in the second half of the 1980s before their poems were canonized. Their common anxiety in looking for a new subjectivity mirrors the great transition of Chinese society in the late 1980s from socialist revolution to commercial economy. The study of these primary materials contributed to one of my dissertation chapters. I presented a part of the research outcome in AAS regional conference in January.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 1:15 

Culbertson, Robyn Arnot, Cathy
Fritz, Stacy
Mathews, Harvey
Handlery, Kaci
Malcom, Joanna
Herter, Troy
KinesioTape® Has No Effect on Shoulder Proprioception, Strength, or Control of Movement When Using Robotic Assessment
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Abstract Text

Introduction: KinesioTape® (KT) is widely used clinically due to its purported muscular, joint, articular, and cutaneous effects, but evidence for those benefits is limited. Purpose: To determine if KT produces significant increases in upper extremity (UE) proprioception, strength, or movement control compared to sham tape when using robotic assessments, and to determine if a larger effect would be seen in subjects symptomatic for subacromial impingement compared to asymptomatic subjects. Subjects: 41 subjects [82 shoulders, mean age 25 (3.4) years]. Inclusion criteria: 100 degrees bilateral shoulder flexion/abduction, full cognitive abilities and ability to see visual stimuli. Exclusion criteria: contraindications to tape application or history of shoulder condition that would affect task performance. Neer, Hawkins Kennedy, and Internal Rotation Resisted Strength tests were employed to screen for shoulder impingement [symptomatic n=8]. Methods: Study was a prospective, double-blinded, cross-sectional, randomized control trial with a cross-over design. Subjects were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment-order groups. Facilitative taping, using 5-cm Kinesio Tex Gold Tape or Cover-Roll Stretch tape, was applied to the deltoid by a trained PT. Subjects and outcome assessors were blinded to tape condition. Subjects performed 3 trials per arm (no tape, tape condition 1, tape condition 2) on tasks designed to assess UE proprioception (KINARM Arm Position Matching, Biodex Joint Angle Matching), movement control (KINARM Visually Guided Reaching), and strength (Biodex Isometric Strength). Proprioception was measured with Absolute Error and Active Joint Position Difference. Movement control was measured with Movement Time. Strength was measured with Maximal Torque. Differences between baseline and tape conditions were calculated for each variable. Distributions of differences were assessed for normality then analyzed for significant differences. Results: No significant differences were observed for any dependent variable for either tape condition (p>.05). Analysis of presence of impingement revealed no significant differences (p>.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that facilitative taping of the deltoid with KT does not improve UE proprioception, strength or movement control compared to sham.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 51

Turnbull, Victoria Herter, Troy
Anprasertporn, Becky
Examining the Roles of Visual Processing and Eye-Hand Coordination in Parkinson's Disease Disability
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Abstract Text

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is typically associated with tremor, slower movements, and difficulties initiating movements. It is less well recognized that PD often includes visual, cognitive, and eye movement deficits, and these impairments may contribute to difficulties performing activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that impairments of visual processing, decision-making, eye movements, and eye-hand coordination independently contribute to difficulties performing visuomotor tasks and daily activities in patients with PD. We are collecting data from 20 patients with mild Parkinson's disease, who are using an upper-limb robotic device to perform an Object Hit and Avoid (OHA) task within a virtual environment. In this task, subjects use virtual paddles attached to their hands to hit away 200 target objects (e.g., circle, rectangle) and avoid hitting 100 distractor objects (e.g., square, triangle) that move towards the subjects in the virtual environment. We are using an integrated eye tracking system to measure visual processing speed, decision-making accuracy, eye movement efficiency, and eye-hand coordination during the OHA task, and we will compare these measures with normative data from healthy, age-matched controls to establish the presence of impairments in individual patients. We are also examining task performance during OHA to measure difficulties performing visuomotor tasks, and we are using standardized clinical assessments to measure difficulties performing daily activities. We will perform multiple regression analyses to test if impairments of visual processing speed, decision-making accuracy, eye movement efficiency, and eye-hand coordination independently contribute to difficulties performing visuomotor tasks and daily activities. If the findings support our hypothesis, this study will demonstrate that individual impairments of these functions can be used as additional biomarkers for tracking progression of PD. Furthermore, this study will foster the development of novel interventions designed to improve quality of life in patients with PD.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 96

Slane, Amelia McGee, Karen Behavior Issues in Frail Elders with Dementia
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Research Question: How strong is the correlation between a diagnosis of dementia and behavior issues, and which behavior issues are most prevalent among this population according to caregivers? In addition, what has been found to alleviate those behavior issues most consistently? Study Design: Multi-center, case-control survey. Methods: Patients aged 65 and older with classification of mild to severe dementia at the four locations of Palmetto SeniorCare (PSC), an adult day care facility, as of May 1st, 2017 were included in this survey. A RedCap survey was designed with various questions in regards to behavior issues including; agitation, anxiety, anger, aggression, and restlessness/wandering, along with questions regarding activities targeted at improving these behaviors. Some of the activities included in the survey are utilizing music, aroma-therapy, baths, and winding down before bedtime. The ability of caregivers to maintain their loved ones in a community outpatient setting were also assessed. Patients attending PSC, but residing in long term care facilities were not to be included in this study. Results: Overall, 78 patients at PSC with a diagnosis of mild to severe dementia have been included. It is unclear how long dementia has been present before a diagnosis was documented, however, 76 (97.4%) participants began exhibiting behavior issues after or around time of documented diagnosis. Behavior issues expressed included restlessness/wandering (39.7%), agitation (84.6%), anger (52.6%), hitting/aggression (41%), and anxiety (78.2%). As for methods of reducing behaviors, utilizing music to soothe and winding down before bedtime were found to be most helpful. Surprisingly, watching TV before bedtime was used successfully to help with behavior issues by many of the caregivers. Conclusion: Data shows, there is a strong presence of behavioral issues in this population, not present prior to documented diagnosis of dementia. The promotion of activities helping with winding down at night and music therapy is important when targeting night time behavior issues. Providing loved ones with a routine throughout the week, such as PSC, was also found to be helpful in reducing behavior issues. As a result of this survey, educational programs will be offered to caregivers at Palmetto SeniorCare.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 91

Eicher, Emily Elk, Ronit Bridging the Gap: The Role of Nurses in Facilitating Communication between Patients, Families and Physicians at the End of Life
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The African American culture finds importance in family involvement and religion in important decisions, such as those presenting themselves at the end of a person’s life. When patients and their families are facing these issues, they look to physicians to provide comfort and reassurance. The purpose of this project is to investigate the current communication approaches utilized by physicians when discussing end of life care practices to African Americans, gaps that have resulted from such communication not backed by best practice research, and suggestions for potential improvement utilizing the nurse as a facilitator of communication and mediator of change for such discussions. The utilization of focus groups involving African American pastors, patients and caregivers will identify key inadequacies and areas requiring improvement regarding healthcare communication provided to African Americans at the end of life in the rural south. The use of questionnaires would prove beneficial to this project, as they will implore nurses regarding barriers to acquiring the role of facilitator, as well as, tools and resources that should be provided in order for the nurse to effectively take on this role. Ten nurses who provide end of life care in the rural south will be questioned to obtain this data. This information will be presented in the following format: barriers to facilitation of the role, factors that would allow facilitation of the role, and suggestions of solutions that would close the communication gap, with nurses at the center.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 93

Eicher, Emily Milling, Stephanie Senior Nursing Capstone Experience - University Hospital ED, Augusta, GA
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This semester, I performed my clinical rotation requirement for the College of Nursing in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital in Augusta, GA. I was challenged daily, and found myself often overwhelmed. However, I am thankful for this opportunity, as I grew as a person, and as a nurse. I feel prepared for the challenges that await me in my future career, and cannot wait to face them head-on.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 283

Hanna, Sara Walden Fridriksson, Julius
Basilakos, Alexandra
Stark, Brielle
Examining the Relationship Between Brain Lesion Site and Naming and Comprehension Ability Post-Stroke: A Dual Stream Model Investigation
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Abstract Text

Rationale: Advances in neuroimaging have allowed us to identify regions of post-stroke damage that relate to language impairments in aphasia. The dual stream model identifies two neural streams that process speech and language information: a ventral stream that networks with speech comprehension systems and a dorsal stream that networks with speech production systems (Hickok & Poeppel, 2004). However, research involving large numbers of participants with stroke damage to these two neural pathways is lacking. Therefore, in considering the dual stream model, this study investigated the relationship between the location and size of brain lesions in a large population of stroke survivors with naming and comprehension ability on the Western Aphasia Battery diagnostic assessment to allow for the future prediction of specific deficits based on lesion site. Methods: 176 participants (65 female, 111 male) were included in this study. Participant behavioral and neuroimaging data was obtained retrospectively from the University of South Carolina (USC) and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Criteria for participant inclusion in this study involved past experience of a left-hemisphere stroke, completion of the Western Aphasia Battery, and an MRI scan. Results: Participants had varying degrees of naming and comprehension deficits. We analyzed the brain damage associated with naming and comprehension deficits. Results show as expected. Comprehension deficits were associated with ventral stream damage, specifically the anterior and posterior temporal cortex. Naming deficits were associated with both dorsal and ventral streams, particularly in the angular gyrus, in the temporal parietal junction, and extending through the insula. Conclusion: These results show that damage associated with naming and comprehension deficits, as measured by the Western Aphasia Battery, map onto dorsal and ventral stream regions. Results facilitate the clinical management of aphasia by facilitating the prediction of post-stroke language deficits. These findings also aid in the development of effective treatments for aphasia.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 75

Adams, Maria Fallucca, Amber The Power of Education
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Education is something that we as college students often take for granted. Our entire lives we have been going to school with the goal of attending college and getting our dream job. There are millions of children around the world that do not have the opportunity to receive an education at all, let alone attend college. During my time at the University of South Carolina, I was elected to serve as a representative for an organization called Circle of Sisterhood. Circle of Sisterhood is a non-profit organization founded and powered by sorority women on a mission to raise financial resources to remove education barriers for girls facing poverty and oppression. Myself and twelve other women have worked for two years to raise awareness and funds to build a school in Senegal in December 2018. One school build at time, we will help break the cycle of poverty by providing young women with the opportunity to receive an education. When a woman receives an education, she has the power to change the world. Through my experience of working with such a diverse group of women, I have learned not only learned how to be a servant leader, but also the importance of diversity. I have grown in my communication, leadership, and problem solving skills. My presentation will discuss the importance of education and diversity and also highlight the leadership and personal skills I have gained while serving this organization.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 229

Manna, Uttam AUSTIN, JAMES Blockchain in Trade Finance
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Abstract Text

Blockchain based Trading platform not only for private and public equities but also for other trading of goods and services. These platforms can also embody embedded contracts. Using Blockchain technology, individuals and firms can produce and exchange financial contracts. This peer-to-peer contract creation and settlement means that all transactions are cleared on the private or inter-ledger Blockchain with no intermediary involved. Use of blockchain here will streamline financial record keeping along with executable and legally binding contracts – making it cheaper and more accurate.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Congaree Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 1:45 

Brown, Michael Williams, Sarah Delphine Ugalde: Defying Gender Norms both On- and Off-Stage in 19th Century Paris
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The social and professional networks that grew out of Paris’ vibrant theatrical and salon culture in the late 19th century supported a number of female artists in somewhat “non-traditional” roles. While the careers and influence of artists such as the sculptor Hélene Bertaux and singer-composer Pauline Viardot have been thoroughly researched in recent years, little attention has been paid to the life and work of the coloratura soprano, actor, pedagogue, and composer Delphine Ugalde. During her performing career, Ugalde was highly regarded for her ability to portray both male and female characters. After retiring from the stage, she engaged in many musical pursuits which were traditionally male-dominated such as composing and directing. Utilizing digitized historical records and archival materials obtained during my recent SPARC-supported trip to Paris, my research establishes a more complete biographical sketch of Ugalde’s life and career and shows how her work paved the way for such figures as renowned 20th century composer-pedagogues Nadia and Lili Boulanger.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 1:35 

Metcalf, Erin Gay, Sarah Studying Abroad: Anxious but Able
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During the Spring of 2017, I studied abroad in Dublin, Ireland. I learned more about my capabilities in those five months than I had in the last ten years. Spending a semester in another country with people you don't know is stressful for anyone, but for someone with diagnosed general anxiety disorder? It was even worse. Studying abroad seemed three times as difficult for someone with a mental health concern. Not only did I have to think about how to pay for my trip, but also how to get access to my medications and whether or not I would be able to stay healthy 2,000 miles away from my support system. My anxiety generally manifests itself in the need to make rigid plans that I struggle to deviate from. But, my desire to explore outweighed my fear of being incapable - and I'm so lucky it did. During my time in Europe, I learned just how independent I can be. I can travel alone through three different airports with a flight cancellation and two delays without breaking down. I can find myself in a room with 20 people I don't know and make enough friends to go to the pub on a Friday night. When my plans inevitably go awry, I can execute Plan B. I am flexible and entirely capable of enjoying travel despite my mental health concern. The first few months were scary for me, and I have the journal entries to prove it. But doing the research and planning ahead kept me going. I was able to find methods that worked for me and I handled situations as they came. The self-confidence my semester in Ireland gave me is something I've kept with me here in the States. My attitude is different because I know that I am capable.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 330

Kerfonta, Caroline Bulusu, Subrahmanyam Estimation of Freshwater Fluxes from the Arctic Ocean using Satellite Observations and Climate Forecast System
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In recent decades we have seen major changes in Arctic Ocean circulation, salinity, and temperature and associated declines in sea ice coverage and mass balance. There is evidence of connections of these changes with climate indices, and the changes arguably affect climate by changing the radiative heat balance at high latitude, impacting the strength of the global overturning circulation. The Arctic Ocean is a mixing basin for freshwater and an ice factory. Since 1990 we have seen major changes in the Arctic Ocean. Given the possible role of Arctic Ocean outflow in controlling global overturning circulation, there have been extensive efforts to monitor fluxes between the sub-Arctic seas and the Arctic Ocean in recent years. The change of climate has become more obvious in the last few decades. Due to limited in situ monitoring of sea surface salinity (SSS), particularly, over the Arctic region, its temporal and spatial scale distribution was not well known until recent satellite measurements resolved this limitation. This Arctic ice melt has led to an influx of freshwater into the Arctic environment, a process that can be observed in SSS. Comparisons of model and observed SSS will help assess the realism of the simulated Arctic circulation, as well as the freshening of the Arctic waters due to ice melt. In this study we will use salinity derived from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), and Coupled model simulations using NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2).

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Carolina Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 10:00-10:10am 

Rahman, Md Anisur Tang, Chuanbing Facial Amphiphilic Antimicrobial Polymers based on Bile Acid Multicyclic Terpenoids
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Bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance, particularly by Gram-negative pathogens, have become a global healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Cationic peptides and cationic polymers are widely developed as antibacterial agents. However, many of them suffer higher cytotoxicity against mammalian cells and are ineffective particularly against the multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. New antimicrobial agents with enhanced activity and lower cytotoxicity are urgently needed to prevent the inception of a post-antibiotic era. We have developed multiple cationic charge-containing facial amphiphilic polymers based on derivatives (cholic, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid) of a multicyclic terpenoid, a bile acid. These derivatives bear one, two and three quaternary ammoniums as head groups. Our results indicated that cholic acid polymers containing three cationic head groups showed significantly better antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species, especially, Gram-negative bacteria than deoxycholic acid with two cationic head groups and lithocholic acid with a single cationic head group. The cytotoxicity study on mammalian cells exhibited a similar trend. This is due to the presence of facially oriented hydrophilic cationic head groups and hydrophobicity of the multicyclic fused rings, which could provide better interactions with bacterial cells.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 28

Adams, Hope Weed, Keri Math Anxiety May Be Reduced With Awareness And A Positive Interpretation
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The purpose of this study is to see if reinterpreting anxiety in a positive way is equally effective for math anxious students with different levels of mindfulness. A 2 (mindfulness: high or low) by 2 (condition: anxiety reappraisal, no anxiety reappraisal) between subjects design was used. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two reappraisal condition. The experimental group watched a video that focused on reappraising anxiety within three performance domains: karaoke, public speaking, and math. This video explains that interpreting anxiety positively improves performance in all three domains. The control group watched a promotional video of college students enjoying a winter karaoke gathering. The sample will include 60 undergraduate women. Surveys measured math anxiety and mindfulness (in general and math specific); a median split was used to classify participants into high and low mindfulness groups. Electrodermal activity was measured while participants completed a computerized arithmetic verification task. We expect to find that participants with high mindfulness combined with anxiety reappraisal will result in optimal performance (i.e., better accuracy, faster reaction time, and greater EDA reactivity) and the group with high mindfulness without anxiety reappraisal will perform the worst, because they are aware of their bodily sensations but may interpret them negatively. A pilot of this study found that math anxiety was related to judgmental attitudes. Our goal for research is to allow math anxious individuals to reappraise their anxiety positively, and in turn, perform better. Data will be analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS when data collection is complete. Keywords: anxiety reappraisal, mindfulness, skin conductance, math anxiety

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 46

Weber, Christine Wedell, Douglas Evaluative Conditioning of Preferences: An Eye Movement Perspective
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In evaluative conditioning, the affective response toward a neutral stimulus is altered by pairing it with a positive or negative stimulus. We investigated how evaluative conditioning operates on consumer preferences by pairing products with valenced music in an eye tracker, using many test trials in order to evaluate effects at the individual level. Conditioning resulted in predicted effects for 12 participants, effects in the opposite direction for 7 participants, and no significant effects for 18 participants. Eye movement measures showed that participants tended to look longer and more frequently at products they preferred. More time was also spent looking at attributes of negatively paired products. Multivariate pattern analyses conducted on eye movements during conditioning showed that valence could be decoded from looking behavior. These results indicate stable individual differences in the effects of evaluative conditioning, and that preferences are reflected by eye movements.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 54

Swiecki, Allison Hancock, C. Nathan
DeLaurier, April
Analyzing a Tol2-Based activation tag construct in zebrafish and yeast
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Transposable elements, are segments of DNA that can move from one region to another within the genome when induced. The Tol2 transposon from Medaka fish has successfully been adapted for transgenesis, integrating foreign DNA, in a wide variety of vertebrates. Our goal is to develop the Tol2 element into a mutagenesis tool for gene discovery. Activation tagging, a form of transposon tagging, is when a strong enhancer is positioned within the element. Activation tags can induce overexpression of genes, allowing us to learn about the function of genes that may otherwise be hard to study because of lethality or redundancy. Zebrafish are a model for vertebrate development, therefore activation tagging within zebrafish will allow for the discovery of developmental-related genes. A Tol2-based activation tag construct was engineered by PCR, digestion, and sequence analysis. The construct consists of the Tol2 terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) flanking the enhancer region of the Beta-actin promoter. This activation tag was cloned next to the remainder of the Beta-actin promoter, and a mCherry reporter gene to indicate if transposition has occurred. A Tol2 transposase construct was previously engineered to provide transposase, which is necessary to induce transposition of the activation tag in zebrafish. These constructs were coinjected into zebrafish embryos to create a population for measuring transposition rates and look for altered phenotypes. Concurrently, yeast transposition studies are being performed in order to identify methods which increase Tol2 transposition rates. We are testing if removal of a Nuclear Export Signal (NES) from the Tol2 transposase will allow for more efficient transposition.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 120

Mele, Emily Vieyra, Michelle Measuring the effects of caffeine and exercise on metabolic disturbances in rats fed a sucrose solutions
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The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial metabolic effects caffeine and exercise have in rats who consume excess amounts of sugar. Over 38% of the US population is obese, primarily from excessive consumption of additive sugars found in soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages. Excess sugar consumption has been linked to an increase in type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and metabolic syndrome. Exercise and caffeine have been shown to prevent weight gain, reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, and promote lipolysis in rat models. Rats were used during this experiment to simulate the metabolic effects caffeine and exercise have on consuming sugar at a level similar to the average American. Rats were randomly divided into six groups; sugar only, sugar + exercise, sugar + caffeine, sugar + caffeine + exercise, exercise only, and control. After 15 weeks rats were subjected to blood glucose testing, weighting, and euthanasia. Dissections were performed after rats were euthanized and visceral fat and livers were extracted and weighted. A modified Folch procedures was used to extract liver lipid content. Results indicated that the sugar only group accumulated a higher amount of visceral fat, followed by the sugar + caffeine group. This was reflected in the total amount of weight gained. The remaining groups were similar in weight gain and visceral fat content and will need further statistical analysis. Normalization of liver weight is needed to reduce the amount of variance in size and the Folch procedure is underway.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 122

Reese, Miles Pokharna, Renu
Sen, Souvik
Effect of Vitamin D on Multiple Sclerosis Relapse
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Abstract Text

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease that affects 400,000 people in the United States. Prior research has shown equivocal results with regards to vitamin D lowering MS relapse rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between vitamin D and MS relapse. It was hypothesized that MS patients who were taking vitamin D would have a lower recurrence of relapse when compared to MS patients who were not taking vitamin D. A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients presenting to the neurology clinic with an ICD-9/ICD-10 diagnosis of MS between the period of January 2015 and March 2017. The abstracted data included whether or not the patient was on vitamin D, whether or not the patient had a relapse and the number of relapses the patient had. The group taking Vitamin D and the group not taking Vitamin D were compared for occurrence of MS relapse using a χ2 test and Odds Ratio (OR) analysis. Their number of MS relapses were also compared using a Mann-Whitney test. We identified 100 MS patients (mean age ± SD = 36.34 ± 11.24 years; 72% females, 46% white, 47% black, 7% others). The cross sectional analysis showed that 38 were on vitamin D (6 of whom had a relapse) and 62 were not on vitamin D (19 of whom had a relapse). The chi-square test showed an association between vitamin D and MS relapses that was not statistically significant χ2 (1, N = 100) = 2.04, p =.15, odds ratio= 0.42, 95% CI [0.15 to 1.19]. The Mann-Whitney test indicated that the number of relapses were not significantly different for patients on vitamin D (median relapse(s) = 0, range = 0-4) than for patients not on vitamin D (median relapse(s) = 0, range = 0-7) U=1006.0, p = 0.11. Our retrospective study shows a lower proportion of relapse in the vitamin D group compared to the non-vitamin D group, which did not reach statistical significance. This study helps us estimate the needed sample size for a future prospective study adjusting for potential confounders.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 104

Waters, James Weed, Keri The Effects of Induced Anxiety on Executive Functions Among Athletes Measured by the P3 Wave in a Go/NoGo Task
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An elite athlete employs complex skills during a competition that have been learned and perfected over long periods of training. Skills such as kicking, throwing, and hitting are complicated and require heightened motor control, focus, and attention. Attention allocation and motor control can be evaluated by the P3 wave. The P3 represents a neurophysiological measure of cognitive control. The Go/Nogo is used to study executive functions by averaging electroencephalogram readings for Go and Nogo stimuli, in which the latency and amplitude are compared between the Go and Nogo conditions. Latency is a measure of how fast attention is allocated, while amplitude measures how strong the attention allocation is. EEG readings of this wave represent the active decision-making by athletes during competition and the cognitive functions carried out as a result. Performance anxiety is another factor that can affect performance, which can be confirmed through skin conductance and electrodermal activity. This study combined the use of EDA and anxiety induction with EEG and the P3 wave to show whether executive functions are positively or negatively influenced by anxiety, as well as whether athletes or novices are better equipped to perform under anxious conditions. We had a total of 50 participants, 25 athletes, and 25 novices. Each participant completed the Go/NoGo task once in a resting state and once after anxiety induction. The EDA and STAI were used to confirm that anxiety has been induced. Half of the participants received stress induction before the first EEG task, and the other half of participants established the baseline before the first task. Due to the drive theory, which suggests motivation to compete creates heightened arousal and allows people to perform at a higher skill level, we expect that subjects will perform better when anxious, and athletes will perform better than novices when anxious.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 60

Lindsay, Sean Quinlan, William Applicability of Theory-Based Learning
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Abstract Text

I interned with the John Buck Company, a commercial real estate development company based in Chicago, over the 2016 and 2017 summers. The John Buck Company develops and invests in properties across the United States, but focuses primarily on the Chicago market. The company develops office and apartment buildings. I worked within the Investments group, which analyzes any potential development deals that the Company considers. While at the John Buck Company, I underwrote potential deals. Utilizing assumptions that the Company had amassed from previous developments, I estimated the costs of potential developments. I measured the costs across the lifespan of each development, which is typically five years. Using market research that I gathered, I forecasted each development’s rents over the same period. Using all the inputs, I calculated the expected returns for each project. If the expected return of a deal exceeded the Company’s required return, I passed the deal on to an analyst. During my time at the John Buck Company, I took the theories that I had learned in FINA 490 (Global Real Estate Capital Markets) and put them into practice. FINA 490 taught me the concepts that drive the formulation of a deal’s expected return, and the relationship between expected and required returns. Calculating the expected return and comparing it to the Company’s required return allowed me to see the applicability of the theory that I had learned in FINA 490. As I start my career, I will continue to expand this framework when I underwriting deals.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 248

Cassidy, Devon Twiss, Jeff Stoichiometry of HuD to KHSRP: A key determinant for “go and stop” signaling in axon growth
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Abstract Text

Development of the nervous system follows a sequential pattern of gene expression in a precise spatiotemporal manner. There are a number of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that control these elaborate gene networks. Of particular importance is the mechanism that modulates mRNA stability, since expression of many neuronal genes is controlled by changes in rates of mRNA decay. HuD and KHSRP, two AU-rich elements (ARE) RNA binding proteins, exert opposite effects on mRNA stability, with HuD stabilizing and KHSRP destabilizing bound mRNA. Ongoing work from our lab implicates these HuD and KHSRP interactions with target mRNAs for regulating rates of axon outgrowth and dendritic spine formation. HuD is highly expressed in early development, while KHSRP expression is low early and rises later as HuD levels fall. Thus, we are asking if this switch from HuD to KHSRP predominance signals the neuron to stop growing its axon and form a synapse. If so, does this stop signal correlate with a fall in axonal levels of target mRNA shared by HuD and KHSRP. The ratio of HuD to KHSRP in developing neurons is critical for controlling Gap-43 and Cdc42 mRNA levels, which are in turn critical factors for axon growth. Uncovering the precise timing for the switch of HuD:KHSRP stoichiometry in developing neurons will bring new knowledge for how mRNA-protein interactions impact normal and pathological brain development.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 114

James, Alicia
Jansen, Erika
Shen-Wagner, Joy Increasing chlamydia screening among 16-24 year old females at Palmetto Health-USC Family Medicine Center.
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Abstract Text

Chlamydia infection is the most common STI among women in the U.S. The incidence of chlamydia is reported to be 1.5 million diagnoses annually, with an estimated 27,500 new diagnoses in South Carolina. 1Chlamydia infections are 10x more prevalent than gonococcal infections in women aged 18 to 26 years. 1 The USPSTF and AAFP recommend chlamydia screening for sexually active females aged 24 years old and younger and older women at increased risk for infection. Other risk factors include women with new or multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with concurrent partners, a partner with an STI, inconsistent condom use among those not in a monogamous relationship, and exchanging sex for money or drugs. This recommendation has been given a Grade B, which means USPSTF recommends the service to eligible patients. 3 The USPSTF has found adequate direct evidence that screening reduces complications of chlamydia infections. 2 Untreated chlamydia can lead to serious complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, fertility complications, ectopic pregnancy, and increased incidence of STIs including HIV. The special population under consideration is sexually active adolescents and adults between the ages of 16 to 24 years old. This population is at increased risk as age is a strong predictor of risk for chlamydial infections. The AAFP recommends for clinicians to provide screening to those at increased risk with understanding of the community they serve to identify those at risk. 2 This quality improvement project will assess the rate of chlamydia screening using urine collection on females ages 16-24 years of age in the at risk population within the Palmetto Health Family Medicine Center before and after intervention designed to increase clinician and patient awareness of importance of screening and goals of early treatment.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 129

Muniz-Gonzalez, Mariela Lance, Stacey
Ramstad, Kristina
Examining the effects of natural and environmental stressors on Ambystoma opacum
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Abstract Text

Amphibian populations have suffered declines in recent years resulting from habitat loss, contamination, and diseases. Namely, organic pesticides have gained widespread use as part of agricultural practices and studies have suggested detrimental effects of these substances on amphibian populations subsequent to aerial drift, stormwater runoff, or direct application. One specific compound found in various herbicide types, glyphosate, has been linked to reduced growth and development and immune compromise of some amphibian species. Agricultural industries recently introduced a new formulation of glyphosate called AquaNeat that is registered for wetland use and recommended to be mixed with a nonionic surfactant such as Cide-Kick II. Although both have been approved for usage in wetlands, no studies have examined the effects of either product on amphibians. Additionally, not much is known concerning effects of contaminant exposure on pathogen susceptibility even though some emerging pathogens have been linked to global die-offs of amphibian populations. One such pathogen is ranavirus, an emerging disease of ectothermic vertebrates that can cause systemic infection and acute mortality. On the Savannah River Site ranavirus is known to occur in multiple species of amphibians and across wetlands. In addition, AquaNeat and Cide-Kick II are used regularly. We examined the effects of both products on ranavirus susceptibility in larvae of the marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum. We exposed larvae to differing concentrations of AquaNeat and Cide-Kick II alone and in combination and then exposed them to ranavirus or a sham bath 48 hours later. Five days later we sacrificed the larvae, extracted DNA and quantified viral loads via qPCR. Data are still being collected and analyzed. Our results will help determine if these wetland-approved herbicides are safe for amphibians and contribute to the understanding of the interactions of multiple stressors on amphibian populations.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 153

Fox, Michaela Kretschmar, Allison My Time in Valencia
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Abstract Text

This past summer, I studied abroad in Valencia, Spain at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. I have been studying Spanish since elementary school and had always dreamed of one day traveling to Spain and immersing myself in the language and culture in order to achieve the academic, professional and personal goals I had set for myself. As a Spanish minor, I was proficient before studying abroad, but I wanted to become fluent. I pushed myself out of my comfort zone by staying with a house mom instead of in an apartment with other students, which helped me practice my Spanish language every day. I also had the opportunity to volunteer weekly at an elementary school teaching English, which has always been a dream of mine. In the future, I hope to pursue this further through various scholarships. During my time in Valencia, I discovered more about myself and what sort of life I want to pursue. I feel much more confident in my Spanish language skills as well as my competency of the Spanish culture, as I travelled throughout the country while there. I will always treasure the time I spent in Spain and the knowledge I gained while there.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 215

Neamah, Wurood n, Mitzi 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces immune tolerance by altering the gut microbiome
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Abstract Text

The compound 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) belongs to the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and is known to act as an immunosuppressant for humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the current study, we investigated TCDD-mediated mechanisms related to immunosuppression. Gut microbiota serves an important role in immune function and development of disease, and it has been shown that changes in host microbiota is not only a marker of disease, but also actively contributes to disease pathogenesis. We, therefore, investigated how 3 days of TCDD exposure in mice could alter the gut microbiome compared to control groups. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing on bacterial DNA isolated from fecal samples from the experimental groups. We found separate clustering of the bacterial composition in TCDD versus the vehicle treated groups based on principal coordinate analysis. Interestingly, we found that TCDD-treated mice showed significant decrease in Sutterella, a bacterium belonging to Proteobacteria phylum, Betaproteobacteria class, Burkholderiales order and Alcaligenaceae family. Moreover, Sutterella is present normally in gut flora and elevated in some inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, We found that fecal transplantation (FMT) from TCDD-treated mice to germ free (GF) mice induce MDSCs and T-reg percentage as well as reduce the gut microbial dysbiosis. Collectively, our data suggest that TCDD induces immune tolerance by inducing dysbiosis in gut microbiome. (Supported in part by NIH grants P01AT003961,R01AT006888, R01AI123947, R01AI129788, R01MH094755 and P20GM103641.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 7

Ducharme, Kaileigh Miller, Bridget A Semester in Scotland
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As I reflect on my time at the University of South Carolina, I recognize the many opportunities that have shaped my learning and perspective. One of the greatest opportunities my time here has given me is the opportunity to study a semester abroad at the University of Dundee in Dundee, Scotland. Growing up as a military child instilled a certain love for adventure and travel. By the age of ten I already had a leg up on most of my peers by getting the opportunity to live and travel across a lot of Europe and Asia. When I entered the University of South Carolina, I always knew I was going to study abroad, the only question left was to decide where to go. After extensive research of different programs and locations, I determined that Scotland would provide the opportunity to explore another part of the world and would present little to no language barrier. During my six months in Scotland, through my studies and travels, I learned the importance of being independent and adaptable. To be successful you need to be adaptable to situations and people. Plans change, people differ, and it is important to be flexible, and stand back and really evaluate what is important in moments and readjust accordingly. Studying abroad has also emphasized the importance of being independent. Through classes I learned it was my responsibility to ensure my own success. The same applied to experiences abroad. It was up to me to do and see what I wanted, in the way I wanted, with the people I wanted. While I love company, I am not afraid to be alone, I am not afraid to handle problems independently. My time at the University of South Carolina has given me the opportunity to further my traveling and has taught me valuable lessons I can take forward as I learn to adapt and transition to a new city and post-graduation life.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 213

McKenna, Grace Hull, Kevin Multimedia Journalism: Trends in Local Newsgathering and Reporting
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The landscape of broadcast journalism is shifting. In recent years, many local news stations have transitioned from the use of traditional reporter/photographer teams to the use of “multimedia” journalists (Farhi, 2008). Instead of focusing on just the reporting elements of news packages, these “MMJ’s” write, shoot and edit their own content. In one study, researchers found that 81% of journalists say they are working differently than they were a few years ago (Reinardy, 2015). Additionally, broadcast journalists are now required to have comprehensive web/multimedia and editing skills (Wenger, 2012). As news organizations adapt, they also must reinvent the role of their reporters. The premise of this study is to examine news practices in South Carolina newsrooms and determine what measures they are taking to adjust to the multimedia trend. An anonymous open-ended survey was sent to a selection of news directors from local news stations in South Carolina. The survey questions examined basic characteristics of each station’s newsgathering practices, such as how many reporters versus MMJ’s they employ and how many stories per newscast reporters or MMJ’s produced. Additionally, the news directors were asked subjective questions about the quality of the news content produced by reporters and MMJ’s and the vision they have for the future of local journalism. From the responses, two very different types of stations appeared: traditional or multimedia. One “traditional” news director indicated a strong preference for reporter/photographer teams. He or she cited a focus on “quality control” over video content as the reasoning for employing photographers. The multimedia stations reported a strong emphasis on the utilization of MMJ’s, indicating that multimedia journalists produced the majority of the stories in their newscasts. In multimedia newsrooms, financial motivation was an important reason for employing MMJ’s. It appears that newsrooms that focus on MMJ’s are changing their practices not just in response to economic pressures, but because of the new technological skills of their journalists. The results of this study give an inside look at hiring practices in South Carolina television stations and what skills journalists need when entering the workforce.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 29

Shi, Dexin Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto Fitting Ordinal Factor Analysis Models with Missing Data: A Comparison between Pairwise Deletion and Multiple Imputation
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Abstract Text

This study compares two missing data procedures, pairwise deletion (PD; the default setting in Mplus) and multiple imputation (MI) in the context of ordinal factor analysis models. We examine which procedure, PD or MI, tends to show parameter estimates and model fit indices closer to those from analysis of the hypothetical complete data. The performance of PD and MI are compared under a wide range of conditions, including sample size, percent of missingness, and degree of model misfit. Results indicate that both PD and MI yield parameter estimates similar to those from analysis of complete data under conditions where the data are missing completely at random (MCAR). When the data are missing at random (MAR), the PD parameter estimates could be severely different from those obtained from the complete data analysis; given the percentage of missingness is low (< 50%), the MI procedure could yield parameter estimates that are similar to the results using complete data. However, when applying the MI procedure, the fit indices (i.e., χ2, CFI, TLI, RMSEA, and WRMR) tend to yield estimates that suggested a worse fit than the counterparts which would have been obtained using complete data. Implications and recommendations for applied researchers are also provided.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 161

Chabot, Claire Pittman, Douglas Cellular Localization of RAD51D
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Abstract Text

Studies show that at least fifty percent of patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer have mutations in DNA repair genes. The protein encoded by the RAD51D gene is vital for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) through the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. These mutations are associated with increased susceptibility to ovarian cancer and the RAD51D lysine substitutions display a high sensitivity to cell damage and with this came a decrease in cellular survival. Cells that do not express RAD51D are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents, particularly DNA interstrand crosslinking (ICL) agents. Previous work in the Pittman laboratory identified a direct interaction between RAD51D and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF138. RNF138 mediates ubiquitination of RAD51D, a modification that occurs at lysine residues. Lysine to arginine substitution were introduced at all thirteen lysine residues along RAD51D and these constructs were expressed in Rad51d-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts that were treated with the DNA ICL agent, mitomycin C. These mutants eventually lead to cell instability through damaged inter-strand cross-link repair. A potential mechanism for this increased sensitivity is disruption of nuclear localization of the RAD51D protein. By using a fluorescent tagged vector (EGFP) it can be observed whether or not these lysines are required for nuclear localization provides a potential target site to block RAD51D function and sensitize cells to chemotherapeutics. The goal of this project is to determine if substituting a lysine with an arginine at residue 235 or 298 will prevent nuclear localization of the RAD51D protein.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 108

Cook, Anna Booze, Rosemarie Use of the Modified Hole Board Task in Examining Anxiolytic Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Treated with Escitalopram
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Abstract Text

HIV infection is a serious condition affecting over 1 million people in the US and more than 36 million people worldwide as of 2015. Despite the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), detrimental neurocognitive effects such as dementia and cognitive impairment are readily observed in HIV seropositive patients. Moreover, 30-60% of infected individuals develop clinical depression. Individuals suffering from comorbid HIV infection and clinical depression are roughly five times more likely to commit suicide than patients suffering from clinical depression alone. In studies with HIV-1 Transgenic rats, significant impairment in both serotonergic and dopaminergic function has been observed. These particular neurotransmitters have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of clinical depression. This study seeks to attenuate deficits in neurochemical function in HIV-1 transgenic rodents via treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Escitalopram. A 2X2X2 factorial design is utilized to examine the effects of sex (male/female), drug treatment (Escitalopram/placebo), and genotype (HIV-1 Tg/F344 controls) upon anxiolytic/depressive behavior. The modified hole board task directly measures behavior related to anxiety and depressive behavior in rodents by gauging levels of exploration. A 16 hole custom hole board was placed into a standard 40cm3 locomotor chamber. The number of nose pokes into holes (novel exploratory behavior) was recorded with photocells placed below the hole board. Total hole pokes were recorded by FlexField software (San Diego Instruments). Animals were habituated to the testing room for a period of ten minutes prior to each trial. Following habituation, animals were tested in the apparatus for an interval of ten minutes in the presence of infrared light and background noise. Testing occurred for seven consecutive days. The modified hole board provides a well -documented and flexible method of gauging anxiety/depressive behavior in rodents. Thus, the present study uses a modified hole board task to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Escitalopram in reducing anxiety and depressive behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic rats.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 32

Haynie, Annastasia Rodney, Steve Photometry of High Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae
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Abstract Text

Out of more than 1200 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa), only ~10 have z>1.5. Detection of these distant SNIa is improved by taking advantage of gravitational lensing; objects in the background of massive galaxy clusters become magnified and are therefore easier to find. Studying SNIa at high redshifts is the first step towards developing cosmological models that can describe dark energy in the early universe. SN Nebra (z=~1.75), magnified by cluster Abell 1763, was discovered in observations during the RELICS project, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. Recent work on Nebra has focused on improving photometry and building and fitting preliminary light curves.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 151

Heugh, Rebecca Shustova, Natalia
Rice, Allison
Corannulene-Based Hybrid Materials
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Abstract Text

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer the unique opportunity for material engineering due to the almost limitless choices of metals or organic linkers. The first example of a crystalline corannulene-based material, which merges the intrinsic properties of MOFs and π-bowls was prepared. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of the first examples of corannulene-based MOFs have been investigated, highlighting the potential to move past solely synthetic studies of corannulene-based derivatives towards investigations of their properties. The corresponding novel corannulene-based derivatives are accessible on a gram scale, allowing for the comprehensive analysis of the prepared materials to be possible. The first example of a crystalline donor (corannulene)-acceptor material with a high ligand-to-ligand energy transfer efficiency was also explored. This work show that it can be possible to extend MOF dimensionality through the π-bowl curvature, along with studies of corannulene-based material photophysics in the solid state, in which both facets could lead to advancements in optoelectronics. The prepared hybrid corannulene-based materials have undergone comprehensive characterization by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, time-resolved photoluminescence, absolute quantum yield measurements, Fourier transformed infrared, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, and cyclic voltammetry. Upon further advancement, these studies not only demonstrate the possibility to merge the intrinsic properties of π-bowls with the versatility of hierarchical scaffolds, but could also foreshadow the engineering of a novel class of corannulene-based hybrid materials.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 157

Bam, Marpe Nagarkatti, Mitzi Dysregulated WNT signaling in PTSD patients correlates with altered epigenetic marks and elevated inflammation.
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Abstract Text

It is now known that PTSD patients exhibit chronic systemic inflammation characterized by upregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ and IL12. However, the mechanism of regulation of these genes and the cells producing these cytokines is inadequately understood. In this context, WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway is critical for the proliferation, differentiation, polarization and survival of mature T cells. We have reported that T cells (Th1 and Th17) are increased in number in the PBMCs of PTSD patients which also correlated with the increased expression of IFNγ. However, it is not yet reported which regulatory pathway is involved in the increased T cells in PTSD patients. In this report, we provide compelling evidence that WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway could be dysregulated and responsible for the increased T cells and thereby elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our RNAseq results clearly indicate that WNT10A and WNT10B expression is significantly higher in PTSD patients. We further show that there are altered epigenetic marks (histone H3 K4 trimethylation) and miRNA expression profiles in PTSD compared to healthy controls. Our data suggest that presence of higher H3K4me3 mark in PTSD could be the reason for higher WNT10A expression. On the other hand, we observed several downregulated miRNAs in PTSD patients which are predicted to target WNT10B implying that the higher expression of WNT10B could be the result of altered miRNA expression in PTSD. All the above mentioned data, in addition to the expression of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway associated genes in PTSD samples, strongly suggest that indeed there is dysregulation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in PTSD which might be the reason for the elevated inflammation. The study provides further evidence that inflammation in PTSD is epigenetically regulated and this pathway could be useful for PTSD diagnosis and combating the inflammation. (This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants P01AT003961, R01AT006888, R01AI123947, R01AI129788, R01MH094755, and P20GM103641).

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 156

DeMarco, Grace Jackson, J. Benjamin Teriparatide Use in Anterior Diaphyseal Tibial Stress Fracture Healing: A Case Report
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Abstract Text

Bone stress injuries are one of the most common injuries affecting both athletes and military recruits (6,10). These injuries are associated significant economic and social cost, and often lead to delayed return to sports time (RTST) for high-performance athletes. Anterior diaphyseal tibial stress fractures (DTSF) are high-risk, often difficult to manage, and can require surgical intervention (1). Increasing evidence over the past two decades suggests that Teriparatide, recombinant parathyroid hormone PTH (1-34), may be efficacious in enhancing stress fracture healing as a non-operative treatment for DTSFs (2-5). We present a patient with an anterior DTSF who was treated with teriparatide. With the use of teriparatide, the patient demonstrated a RTST of 2.5 months, lower than the average 7 months reported RTST for anterior DTSFs (7,16). These findings suggest that teriparatide may be beneficial in the acceleration of DTSF healing in high-performance athletes. Additional controlled studies are necessary in order to support these anecdotal findings.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 112

Busbee, Philip Nagarkatti, Mitzi Indole-3-carbinol ameliorates murine colitis symptoms by regulating the release of colonic anti-microbial peptides which prevents disease-associated microbial dysbiosis
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Abstract Text

Colitis is a debilitating disease characterized by acute or chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract, often in the colon. Currently ineffective treatments using immunosuppressive drugs that can have adverse side-effects lead to surgical intervention options, thus highlighting the need for alternative therapies. In our previous work, we showed that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally-occurring plant product found in a number of cruciferous vegetables, was able to ameliorate symptoms in murine models of colitis. In particular, I3C reduced the accumulation of potential pathogenic gram-negative bacteria while increasing anti-inflammatory gram-positive butyrate-producing species, which lead to a shift in a pro-inflammatory T cell response (Th17) to an anti-inflammatory one (Treg). In the current study, we further defined the mechanisms by which I3C and butyrate production, via treating with sodium butyrate (NaB), were able to prevent colitis-associated microbial dysbiosis. I3C or NaB treatment were able to effectively maintain the protective mucus layer of the gut by increasing Muc2 levels, thus preventing the translocation of bacteria into or near the colonic epithelial surface. In addition, both I3C and NaB lead to an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression in the colon, which is known to reduce the inflammatory response in colitis. Lastly, treatment with I3C or NaB increased the expression of colonic anti-microbial peptides (e.g. mCRAMP, mBD1-3, BPI) and enzymes (Lyz1, Lyz2, sPLA2). Collectively, these data suggest that I3C, through increases in butyrate, is able to ameliorate colitis by preventing pathogenic gut microbial dysbiosis via altering intestinal regulatory mechanisms to include mucus production, PPAR-γ activation, and release of anti-microbial peptides/enzymes. The studies were supported in part by NIH grants P01AT003961, R01AT006888, R01AI123947, R01AI129788, R01MH094755, and P20GM103641.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 154

King, Reese Hancock, C. Nathan Investigating the mPing Transposition Complex Through Overexpression of ORF1 and Transposase Proteins
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Abstract Text

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA segments found throughout many organisms' genomes. While most TEs exist in low numbers and are relatively inactive, some regularly relocate to new genomic locations. For these "jumping genes" to be mobilized, proteins must interact with the element's ends and catalyze DNA cleavage. This project studied mPing, a highly active rice transposon that is mobilized by two proteins, ORF1 and Transposase. Understanding the ratio and organization of these proteins in the transposition complex sheds light on the transposition mechanism. Previous results indicate that ORF1 forms oligomers and binds to Transposase. To consider the number and function of these proteins in the transposition complex, we tested the effects of ORF1 and Transposase overexpression on transposition rates in yeast. Overexpression of ORF1 increased transposition, while overexpression of Transposase negligibly effected transposition. We thus determined that ORF1 is the limiting factor governing transposition. Subsequently, we tested whether overexpression of partial ORF1 and Transposase proteins would disrupt transposition. We hypothesized that partial proteins having the ability to interact with the complex will disrupt transposition, resulting in a dominant-negative effect. Yeast transposition assays were conducted with the addition of N-terminal and C-terminal halves of the ORF1 and Transposase proteins. The strongest dominant-negative effects (lowest transposition rates) were observed in constructs with overexpression of the ORF1 C-Terminal and Transposase C-Terminal, suggesting that these regions of the proteins contain domains important in transposition complex binding. Of these, the ORF1 C-Terminal domains appear to be more important for transposition complex activation.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 133

Chitrala, Kumaraswamy Naidu Nagarkatti, Mitzi Impact of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms in Catechol O-Methyltransferase conferring risk to Post-traumatic stress disorder
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Abstract Text

One of the prevalent neurological disorders includes Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which is drawing attention over the past few decades. It occurs as a consequence of a life-threatening event such as physical or sexual assault, combat, car accident or natural disaster. Some of the risk factors for PTSD include environmental and genetic factors. Among the genetic risk factors, polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene have been associated with risk for PTSD. In the present study, we aim to analyze the impact of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in COMT conferring risk to PTSD using computational based screening and molecular dynamic simulations. The data on the COMT gene associated with PTSD were collected from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and PubMed search. The SNP datasets were downloaded from the dbSNP database. The amino acid sequence of the COMT protein was retrieved from the Uniprot database and its three-dimensional structure was downloaded from protein databank. To study the structural and dynamic effects of COMT wild type and mutant forms we have performed molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) at a time scale of 300 ns. Results from computational screening using the computational tools SIFT and Polyphen-2 showed that the SNP, rs4680 (V158M) in COMT is deleterious with a phenotype in PTSD. Results from MDS showed some major fluctuations in the structural features such as root mean square deviation (RMSD), radius of gyration (Rg), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) and secondary structural elements including α-helices, sheets and turns between wild-type and mutant forms of COMT protein. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into the deleterious effects of the V158M mutation on the COMT structure.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 162

Shidal, Chris Nagarkatti, Mitzi MicroRNA-92 expression in CD133+ melanoma stem cells regulates immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment through integrin-dependent TGF-β activation
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Abstract Text

The existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) accounts for the high degree of chemoresistance and heterogeneity characterizing refractory melanomas. Yet, the degree to which CSCs modulate immune cells in the tumor microenvironment has yet to be revealed. The present study aims to establish a novel role for miR-92 and its associated gene networks in immunomodulation. We employed syngeneic mouse models utilizing B16-F10 melanoma cells to observe primary tumor and metastatic growth. CSCs were isolated from the parental line based on expression of the putative CSC marker, CD133. CD133+ cells were functionally distinct from CD133- cells with CD133+ cells showing increased proliferation in vitro and enhanced tumorigenesis when administered subcutaneously. Our data indicated that compared to CD133- cells, CD133+ CSCs had a greater capacity to recruit immunosuppressive cell types during tumor formation. Using microarray technology in order to expose disparities in microRNA expression between CSC and non-CSC compartments, we identified several miRs that were significantly downregulated in CD133+ cells including miR-92. We hypothesized that lower levels of miR-92 in CSCs led to higher expression of integrin subunits as predicted by gene alignment software and confirmed using qRT-PCR. Flow cytometry analysis of dissociated tumors demonstrated that tumors initiated by CD133+ cells displayed significantly higher levels of TGF-β compared to CD133- cells. Additionally, qRT-PCR for TGF-β associated genes confirmed a significant increase in expression in CD133+ cells. These data suggest that CSCs efficiently induce intratumoral immunosuppression which is potentially regulated by a miR-92 driven axis involving integrin activation of TGF-β.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 160

Nguyen, Thai
Crowder, Daniel
Horani, Tariq Lethal Diarrhea: Neuroendocrine Tumor
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Abstract Text

Neuroendocrine tumors arise from hormone producing cells within the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine cells are defined as "production of neurotransmitter, neuromodulator or neuropeptide hormone; the presence of dense-core secretory granules from which hormones are released by exocytosis" and can be found in the lungs or GI tract. Patient is a 56 year old African American male who presented with a chief complaint of syncope at work. Patient was found to be orthostatic with anasarca present. Syncope work up was negative except new onset atrial fibrillation. Patient also endorsed a history of diarrhea for a few years which was attributed to IBS. Further work up resulted in a CT scan showing multiple liver lesions concerning for metastases, MRI with a spiculated mass in the small bowel, and highly elevated chromogranin A. Liver biopsy obtained that confirmed low grade neuroendocrine tumor or carcinoid tumor. Patient was started on Lanreotide IV monthly based on slow mitotic rate. The overall incidence and prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors have increased 6-fold between 1973 and 2012, likely due to early detection. However, patients are commonly misdiagnosed with IBS after an initial negative GI work up, often delaying diagnosis 5-7 years from onset of symptoms. From this delay, patient's mortality and morbidity often increase. Fortunately, the overall survival rate for neuroendocrine tumors has increased mainly due to improved therapies and ease of palliation. Therefore, it is imperative patients are diagnosed correctly and started on the correct treatment early. With quality history taking and effort, physicians can drastically improve these patients' quality of life and even survival.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 97

Dickerson, Shelby Wiskur, Sheryl Investigating the Photophysical Properties of Silicon Phthalocyanines for Photocatalytic Organic Transformations
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Abstract Text

Photocatalysis has become a major focus as a sustainable pathway for chemical reactions with visible light photocatalysts performing a large range of reactions such as redox reactions, cyclization reactions, and energy transfer reactions. Silicon pthalocyanines (SiPcs) (Figure 1) have been largely ignored as photosensitizers in photocatalytic reactions, despite their low energy excitation, long triplet lifetimes, and their ability to form singlet oxygen. Using cyclic voltammetry and Stern Volmer quenching studies, we have shown SiPcs are capable of acting as electron donors or acceptors with appropriate substrates. We have successfully used a SiPc catalyst in a reductive quenching reaction where Hünig’s base served as a sacrificial electron donor. In addition to being redox-active, our preliminary data also shows SiPcs are capable of performing energy transfer reactions, by performing a reaction that utilizes singlet oxygen as a reactant. These reactions, as well as the photophysical and electrochemical experiments will be presented.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 32

DeLoughry, Emma Scott, Geoff An analysis of the pesticide and PCB levels in Different Life History Stages of the Atlantic Sharpnose Shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) in Coastal South Carolina
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Abstract Text

Sharks are top-level predators in coastal waters, which may accumulate high concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Very few studies have examined the differences of POPs levels between males and female during different life history stages, particularly in maternal transfer during pregnancy to pups, as this offloading of chemical contaminants is a natural route of both detoxification for the mother and pollutant exposure for the pup. A total of 66 Atlantic sharpnose sharks (35 males and 31 females) were collected by using baited longlines off the coast of Georgetown, SC and were sexed (male versus female) and then divided into 3 age classes – pups, juveniles and adults (Harrie, 2002). All sharks were measured for total length, weight, and percent lipid, and levels of pesticides and PCBs were measured for each combination of sex and life history stage. A total of 5 pregnant females were collected and lipid/pesticide levels in 2 pups/pregnant female were also examined. Results indicated that annual lipid levels in males were comparable to females as there were no significant differences between sex and life history stages. A total of 84% of male adult sharks had detectable pesticide levels for four pesticides (Mirex, Methoxychlor, 4,4’-DDE and Trans-nonachlor) and PCBs. Similarly adult females, 92%, had measurable levels of 3 pesticides (Mirex, Cis-nonachlor and 4,4’ DDE) and PCBs but at much lower concentrations than males. There were also significant correlations between percent lipid and total pesticides in adult males (r2=0.52, p=0.02) and females (r2=0.56, p=0.005), and between the amount of lipid percent and the total PCBs for adult males (r2=0.46, p=0.02), but slightly lower correlation in adult females (r2=0.36). Pups had much lower lipid levels than their mothers (19.05% pups versus 40.3% mothers) but much higher POPs levels than their mothers as 80% of the pups had detectable levels of pesticides (1,035 ng/g of lipid pups versus 501.4 ng/g of lipid mothers) and PCBs (9,161.2 ng/g of lipid pups versus 5,100.8 ng/g of lipid mothers) which was highly correlated with percent lipid (r2=0.92, p=0.0001).

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 146

Fisher, Miranda Turner, Jill Disruption of Hippocampal NRG3-ErbB4 Signaling Ablates Nicotine Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety-like Behaviors
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Abstract Text

Addiction to nicotine and the ability to quit smoking are influenced by genetic factors. Identifying altered gene networks and how those networks contribute to nicotine dependence and withdrawal will only accelerate therapeutic development of new smoking cessation aids. Previous work from our lab and that of our collaborators demonstrate that SNPs across the Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) gene and its cognate receptor, ERBB4, are associated with smoking cessation outcomes. Significance. Our aim is to interrogate the functionality of this signaling pathway during nicotine and withdrawal, and examine how nicotine-induced changes in NRG3-ErbB4 signaling may contribute to affective withdrawal phenotypes in mice. Methods. Our current studies show that both mRNA and protein levels of NRG3 and ErbB4 are upregulated selectively in the hippocampus during nicotine and withdrawal, suggesting that aberrant NRG3 signaling in this structure may underlie select nicotine withdrawal phenotypes. To evaluate the role of hippocampal NRG3-ErbB4 signaling in mediating affective withdrawal phenotypes, we disrupted this pathway via conditional hippocampal ErbB4 deletion in ErbB4-floxed mice and evaluated nicotine withdrawal anxiety-like behaviors. Results. We found that ErbB4 deletion results in the ablation of withdrawal-induced anxiety-related behaviors as measured by both the novelty-induced hypophagia test and the open field exploration task, demonstrating a potential role of this signaling pathway in mediating affective withdrawal phenotypes. Ongoing studies are utilizing single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with immunofluorescence to identify the underlying cell type and circuit-specific modulation of NRG3 signaling by nicotine within the hippocampus of these animals. Conclusion. Collectively, these data will provide insight into NRG3-ErbB4 dependent mechanisms underlying nicotine withdrawal-induced phenotypes.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballroom C (upper level)
Time: 10:20 

Patel, Karan
Pizzuti, Adam
Wease, Heather
Reeder, Eugene Accuracy for Medicare Part B influenza vaccination billing amongst urban and rural SC pharmacies in 2014
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Abstract Text

In 2010, the South Carolina Pharmacy Practice Act was amended to authorize Pharmacists to administer influenza immunizations to patients aged 12 and older without a prescription.5 While this protocol expansion increased patient access to influenza vaccinations, it also increased revenue opportunities for community pharmacies by administering and billing for vaccines. Billing for immunizations occurs in two steps. The first, is to bill for the vaccine itself; the second, is to bill an administration fee.6 This study focuses on the billing accuracy amongst rural and urban community pharmacies in South Carolina that administer influenza vaccinations to the Medicare Part B population. Our urban and rural designations were based on the zip code of the pharmacies. The United States Postal Services (USPS) designates zip codes in each state as rural.9 Everything else is presumed to be urban. In South Carolina, the geographic distribution of pharmacies per the USPS zip code designations shows that there are 566 urban pharmacies and 133 rural pharmacies according to the USPS. Extracting influenza immunization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and statistical analysis performed by SAS provided the necessary data. The results of the study show that South Carolina pharmacies billed more frequently for the administration fee alone than both the administration fee and vaccine. Results show that vaccines were billed 136,237 times and administration fees were billed for 140,311 times. Fourteen pharmacies billed more for the vaccine than the administration fee. Regardless of which component the pharmacy failed to bill, it resulted in lost revenue. Our analysis shows that urban South Carolina pharmacies failed to collect $92,731.21 in revenue and rural pharmacies failed to collect $17,797.84 in revenue resulting for a total of $110,529.04 in lost revenue. The implications of improper immunization billing are vast but the most immediate one is lower revenue for pharmacies. As the Medicare population continues to grow in South Carolina, these improper billing practices may continue to grow and cause pharmacies to lose money if gone unnoticed. Care should be taken to ensure that both the administration fee and the vaccine are properly recorded and billed.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 64

Taylor, Matthew Ray, Swapan Role of autophagy in combating radio and chemoresistance in glioblastoma
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Abstract Text

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic cellular maintenance mechanism that has a primary role of degrading existing cellular structures in order to reuse amino acids aiming to maintain regular protein synthesis. In times of stress, such as nutrient starvation or hypoxia, autophagic degradation can be used to provide nutrients that become essential for survival. This is called protective autophagy. However, when autophagy is prolonged in a cell, the excess intracellular degradation can lead to cell death. This is termed autophagic cell death. In recent years, utilizing this stress-induced degradation pathway has become a target for cancer therapy. In Glioblastoma, the primary chemotherapeutic drug, Temozolomide, is a known autophagy-inducing agent. Downregulating protective autophagy has been shown to increase the therapeutic capabilities of various cancer treatments. On the other hand, over-activation of autophagy can also lead to additional cell death through an alternative death pathway. This literature review discusses the situational role of autophagy inhibition vs. degradation in Glioblastoma, and how it can best be used to enhance current therapies.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 90

Zyck, Amaelia Chambers, Christopher Coupled effects of CO2 and dissolved oxygen on early life stages of Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia
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Abstract Text

With the rapid increase in atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, ocean acidification (OA) has become a major concern for marine ecosystem health. OA can affect the phenotypes and survival of marine organisms including embryonic and larval fish that are still developing crucial physiological capabilities for handling high CO2 levels. Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, is a key forage fish distributed along the Atlantic Coast of North American, an environment that exhibits large seasonal and daily fluctuations in CO2 and dissolved oxygen (DO). The combined effects of CO2 and DO on coastal marine organisms are poorly understood and motivated the experiment reported here. We used a single-replicate, response-surface approach for an initial assessment of the plasticity of embryonic and larval silverside when exposed to each of seven CO2 levels (range: 611 to 2403 µatm pCO2) at two DO levels (3 and 8 mg/L), resulting in 14 unique CO2 × DO environments. Adult silversides were spawned into each of the 14 environments, their embryonic and larval developmental stages maintained through hatching and to 14 d post-hatching (dph), and key early life characteristics scored. Survival to hatch varied from 0.75 to 0.94 with highest survival at intermediate CO2 levels (p<0.05), and trending lower at low DO levels, especially at the higher CO2 levels. Embryonic period duration was shortest at intermediate CO2 levels and significantly longer at low DO levels irrespective of CO2 levels. Size (length) at hatching was also maximal at intermediate CO2 levels and larvae were shorter overall at low DO levels (p<0.01). Survival of larvae to 14 dph tended to be maximal at intermediate CO2 levels and was lower at low DO levels (p<0.01). Size (length) at 14 dph was independent of both treatments. Our response-surface approach identified significant effects from CO2 and DO, and a high potential for their interactions especially at high CO2 levels and low DO levels.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 164

Bice, Briana Prinz, Ron
Hatton, Rachal
Parent and Family Research Center Independent Study
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Abstract Text

The Parent and Family Research Center at USC is focusing on a clinical trial of the parenting intervention, the Positive Parenting Program. This study takes families with children, ages 3-7, experiencing behavioral issues and is reviewing differences in outcomes from online versus in person delivery. Triple P is a globally developed and implemented intervention and in an increasingly digital world, it is important to test the validity of the online delivery of such a widely used therapy. In the past, Triple P has been studied and proven to improve parental satisfaction, and improvement of child behavior. This study reviews parents’ interaction with their children at three different time points, before beginning, at completion of intervention (roughly 4 months from beginning), and roughly eight months after delivery of the intervention (this is about one year after beginning). Though results have yet to be analyzed, through my observations in assisting through independent study, the study will review the differences in outcomes for children and parents between the families randomly selected to receive the delivery of Triple P online versus in person with a specialist. My role in the study was primarily to assist with recruitment of families, facilitate the collection and cleaning of specific data, observe some of the intervention sessions. This study has the potential to add to the global wealth of knowledge about the Positive Parenting Program and to refine its practice. In an age where digital intervention may be considered a necessary viable or cheap resource to parents, it is important to determine its effectiveness.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 40

Deal, Morgan Qiao, Shan Perceptions and Impacts of HIV-Specific Criminal Laws
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Abstract Text

Using the power of criminal law is a heavily debated strategy used to curb the HIV epidemic in the United States. HIV-specific criminal laws in South Carolina were introduced in 1988, during a time when advanced HIV treatment and prevention measures such as anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) were unavailable. The laws in South Carolina criminalize a person living with HIV (PLWH) not disclosing their status to a sex or needle-sharing partner, and donating bodily tissues or fluids. The laws also criminalize behaviors that carry negligible risk for transmission such as biting and spitting. Despite significant advances in HIV care, the HIV-specific criminal laws in the state have not been amended. Few studies have investigated how these laws have been implemented in South Carolina, or the level of awareness and knowledge of these laws. This study, which is still in progress, is one effort to comprehensively examine the implementation of HIV-specific criminal laws in South Carolina, assess their alignment with current evidence regarding HIV transmission risk, and provide potential policy implications in the adjustment of the laws so they can be the best vehicle to achieve their intended purpose. Through literature reviews, case studies and in-depth interviews, this study seeks to understand how these laws fit into a larger context of HIV care in the state. So far, the literature review has shown conflicting research of the knowledge and potential impacts of these laws, indicating that the current laws may be ineffective. Going forward, structured in-depth interviews with PLWH and other stakeholders will guide the formation of a survey for larger-scale dissemination, which will give us further insight about HIV-criminalization laws in the state.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 22

Bennion, Matthew Ruppel, Joshua Synthesis and characterization of beta- and meso- functionalized carbohydrate-porphyrin conjugates (CPCs)
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Abstract Text

Researchers have examined the utility of porphyrin-based photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy due to their desirable activation wavelengths, however many challenges remain to develop an effective and highly selective porphyrin based PDT therapy. The use of “click” chemistry has emerged as one possible approach to address the synthetic challenge of creating porphyrin-based photosensitizers. The term ‘click reaction’ refers to reactions that are high yielding (limiting the need to perform extensive purifications), wide in scope, and can be conducted in easily removable or benign solvents. One type of “click reaction” is the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction which creates a 1,2,3-triazole from an azide and terminal alkyne. Using alkynylated derivatives of porphyrins in combination with azido-carbohydrates, we have demonstrated the use of these so-called “click reactions” to a produce a series of meso- (mono and di) and beta- functionalized carbohydrate-porphyrin conjugates (CPCs). Conjugation is successful with mono- and di-saccharides with excellent yields while undergoing the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction to create the desired carbohydrate-porphyrin conjugate. The spectral data obtained from the carbohydrate-porphyrin conjugates will be directly compared along with the analogous aryl-conjugates previously synthesized to determine which position (aryl-, meso-, beta-) provides the most desirable spectral properties for use as a photosensitizer in PDT.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 165

Alghetaa, Hasan Nagarkatti, Mitzi Resveratrol inhibits metabolism of SEB-activated T lymphocytes by epigenetic dysregulation
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Abstract Text

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a Center of Disease Control designated select agent of bioterrorism. It is also a superantigen activating Vβ8 specific T cells, inducing massive T cell proliferation & cytokine production as well as changes in the metabolic status of naïve T cells from normal quiescent state to metabolic energetic, glycolytic cells. Resveratrol, RES, a phytoalexin produced by various plants, mainly grapes & berries has a well-known role as anti-oxidant & anti-inflammatory agent. In addition, it has been shown to be an inhibitor of cancer cell metabolism through suppression of pyruvate kinase. In our previous studies, we found that RES has an ameliorative effect in mice with SEB-induced acute lung injury which led to the survival of the mice while vehicle-treated mice succumbed. In the current study, we examined the effects of resveratrol treatment on cell metabolism of the SEB-activated T cells, specifically following activation of isolated splenocytes with SEB along with treatment with vehicle or RES. Seahorse Realtime metabolic analyzer was used to study the metabolic changes of RES- & Vehicle-treated cells. The data generated showed that RES-treated T cells reverted toward quiescent phase, underwent cell cycle arrest when compared with vehicle-treated cells which were more energetic as demonstrated by increase in the glycolytic activity represented by extracellular acidification rate, which started to increase after 3 hours of SEB exposure. Moreover, RES treatment shifted the cell metabolism of SEB-activated T cells from glycolysis to totally mitochondrial phosphorylation which was due to probably upregulation of upto 3-fold change of microRNA-100 that targets a key enzyme, pyruvate kinase & prevents transformation of phosphoenol pyruvate into pyruvate, the main precursor of Acetyl CoA before entering the mitochondria for oxidation to ATP molecules. Using RT-PCR, we found that PKM gene was significantly suppressed, while expression of TOB, a T cell anti-proliferative gene & DEPTOR, an mToR suppressor were statistically elevated in RES-treated cells. mToR quantity was found in lower amount in RES-treated cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells. Together, RES treatment has significant impact on SEB-activated T cells through effects on the metabolic pathways.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 153

Lucas, Nicole Jordon, Emily
Jones, Julie
Corning, Ken
Parental response to Whole Exome Sequencing reanalysis and its impact on the diagnostic odyssey
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Abstract Text

Advances in genomic technology and increase in the number of gene-disease associations have worked to reduce the number of individuals living without a diagnosis. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) analyzes the entire human exome to determine a molecular etiology for individuals who remain undiagnosed after other clinical or molecular investigations. Still, WES leaves most individuals undiagnosed, resulting in feelings of disappointment and uncertainty. Patients who remain undiagnosed after WES can subsequently undergo WES reanalysis at a later date due to improvements in bioinformatics, software updates, and increase in known gene-disease associations. Recent studies have found the diagnostic yield of reanalysis to be up to 10%, therefore many remain undiagnosed. This is the first study, to the investigator’s knowledge, which investigates parental perspective of those undergoing the most current genetic testing available. This study recruited parents of undiagnosed individuals who have completed WES and subsequent reanalysis through Greenwood Genetic Center in order to investigate response to and impact of WES reanalysis on their diagnostic odyssey. Six semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory and assigned codes to meaningful segments of text. Preliminary results show most participants expected less from reanalysis compared to the initial WES and felt it would not lead to a diagnosis. Participants responded to reanalysis with feelings of disappointment and worry about the future. Some exhibited resilience through remaining hopeful of finding a diagnosis. Most participants recognized that reanalysis has been unhelpful for their child but expressed willingness to contribute to future research. Despite feelings that reanalysis was unhelpful, 5/6 participants would consider reanalysis again for their child. In light of the apparent comprehensive nature of genomic testing, these results show there is a need to balance hope while offering realistic expectations during counseling and consent of WES reanalysis.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 60

Bowser, Matthew
hollm, Justin
Privette, Troy Improved recognition and management of patients presenting with sepsis in the PHR ED
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Abstract Text

Background: Sepsis is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Early recognition and intervention leads to improved survivability. CMS has implemented an “all or nothing” benchmark for providers treating patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock. Palmetto Health has implemented a sepsis treatment power plan into our EMR. An analysis of ED provider powerplan utilization was made before and after enrolling the EM residency in a QI project. At the completion, a comparison of usage from FY2016 was compared to usage from FY2017 as well as mortality of power plan vs no power plan. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the PHR ED meeting SIRS criteria from 5/1/2016 -8/5/2016 was compared to patients from 10/1/2016 – 1/5/2017 (post power plan development). The initial cohort, 49 patients met SIRS criteria; 75 in the post QI group. The two groups were compared on powerplan usage. All patients dx with sepsis at PHR for FY16 and FY17 was obtained as well mortality outcomes. Patients with sepsis using the power plan vs not were analyzed for RR and NNTR using mortality as outcome. Results: Of 49 patients meeting SIRS criteria, 16 patients (32%) utilized the powerplan. The post QI group, powerplan utilization increased to 53 out of 75 SIRS patients (77.3%). In FY16, 1267 septic patients without powerplan useage(87.2%); 186 septic patients recieved the plan (12.8%). In FY17, 888 septic patients without powerplan (57.6%); 652 with the powerplan (42.3). Thus power plan increased from FY16 to FY17 of 29.54% (P <.001) Septic patients with powerplan from FY16 and 17 combined was 838; 100 of these patients expired. Without the powerplan for FY16 and FY17, 2155 dx with sepsis and 373 expired. Thus, NNT= 18.6 (CI 12.0-40.4) to prevent mortality and a RR of death from powerplan usage vs no powerplan =0.6894 (CI 0.561-0.847) Conclusion: The implementation of a QI project lead to increased usage of sepsis powerplan. Utilization of the powerplan increased for all patients who received sepsis as a diagnosis at PHR between FY2016 and 2017. Mortality of septic patients decreased between powerplan in FY16 and 17 vs no powerplan.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 132

Ahrens, Ella Klusek, Jessica Propositional Density as an Indicator of Premature Language Decline in Women with the FMR1 Premutation
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Abstract Text

Introduction: Approximately 1 in every 151 women has the FMR1 premutation, which means they are a carrier for the gene responsible for the most commonly inherited intellectual disability known as fragile X syndrome (Seltzer et al., 2012). Considering how prevalent the FMR1 premutation is, little is known about the associated phenotype, especially regarding language use. A study conducted by Sterling et al. (2013) found that speech dysfluencies, which reflect difficulties with linguistic planning and execution, increased with age for women with the premutation while the comparison group had no correlation between speech dysfluencies and age (Sterling, 2013). This suggests that women with the premutation show premature language decline. The goal of this study was to determine if women with the FMR1 premutation show other language deficits, such as decreased propositional density during a picture description task compared to age-matched control women. Propositional density is a measure of how much information (adjectives, prepositions, verbs, conjunctions, and adverbs) is conveyed in a text or an utterance related to the total number of words and has been shown to decrease with age (Kemper & Sumner, 2001). Methods: Participants included 32 FMR1 premutation women (mean age=45.84) and 15 control women with no premutation (mean age=43.17). Both groups were given two picture description tasks: the cookie theft description task and the picnic description task. Both pictures displayed a scene that the participant narrated. Their narration was recorded and then transcribed according to the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcriptions conventions. From those language samples, propositional density was calculated using Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater (CPIDR). The CPIDR program obtains a propositional density proportion score by calculating the number of propositions divided by the total number of words. Results: There were no significant differences between propositional density in women with the FMR1 premutation (M=.497, SD=.011) and control women (M=.494, SD=.013), p=.406. Conclusion: These results suggest that women with the FMR1 premutation do not have lower propositional density scores than the typical population and that propositional density may not be an indicator of premature language decline in middle-aged women with the permutation. References: Full references on poster.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 106

Warrington, John Buckhaults, Phillip A TP53 Knockout system for oncology drug testing.
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Abstract Text

TP53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers. The effects of TP53 mutation on sensitivity to FDA approved chemotherapies is incompletely described. We generated TP53 knockout derivatives of MCF7 breast cancer cells using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, and measured in vitro differences in sensitivity to 133 chemotherapeutic agents in the NCI Approved Oncology Drug Set, and 92 anti-cancer compounds in the Biolog phenotype drug array plates M11-M14. TP53 KO clones were confirmed by genomic analysis of the targeted region, and by demonstrating resistance to the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin3A. We identified drugs that were less effective in MCF7 cells with TP53 deletion compared to wild type parental cells, such as olaparib, oxaliplatin, and thiotepa. We also observed compounds that were more effective against TP53 KO cells, compared to wild type parental cells, including 4’-demethyl epipodphyllotoxin, hydroxyurea, and fluorouracil. These results provide clues to novel combinatorial regimens to try in preclinical and clinical models to target TP53 mutant human breast cancers. In addition, the isogenic sets of cell lines created for this investigation will be valuable for testing novel therapeutics for p53-dependent effects.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 119

Howell, Christine Gudridge, Maegan Living With Purpose
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Abstract Text

During the spring and summer of 2017, I worked as the Social Media and Community Outreach intern for With Purpose, a nonprofit dedicated to finding safe, effective treatment options for kids with cancer. As a public relations major at the University of South Carolina, this internship provided me with first-hand experience in digital media. My role within the organization was to create, plan, execute and audit social media content across Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. I was responsible for creating a voice and tone for the organization’s social media, developing content calendars, and marketing various events. Most notably, I created and implemented digital media plans for both the 2017 WP Kids Fun Run which raised over $10,000, and the Lincoln Logs for Sam campaign, which broke the world record for the tallest Lincoln Log structure. Working with With Purpose reaffirmed my decision to pursue a degree in public relations and provided practical experience in the nonprofit sector. Through this experience, I was encouraged to seek full-time employment in the digital media field following my graduation in May 2018.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 257

Hungate, Natalie Lewis, Elise We Are as Alike as We Are Different: An International Perspective on the Lives We Live
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Abstract Text

Over the course of my time at USC, I have completed study abroad programs for credit and served on volunteer abroad programs. I have studied abroad for credit three times, once on a Summer Program in Lutherstadt-Wittenberg, Germany at Martin Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, and once on a Semester Exchange in Bamberg, Germany at Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, along with completing a Maymester in Iceland. I have served abroad three times, working twice in optometry clinics in Misahuallí, Ecuador and in San Ramón, Costa Rica, along with working with homelessness in Toronto, Canada. I studied and served abroad, because as an International Studies and German Double Major, I wanted to learn more about other cultures and countries, and expand my understanding of the world in which I live. While abroad, I’ve had my ideas and beliefs challenged, stepped out of my comfort zone, learned to be more flexible, realized new perspectives and ways of life, and have become the person I am today. My study and volunteering abroad experiences have impacted who I am, through gaining insights in the specific areas of gender stereotypes and norms, community, and breaking from expectations. My time living, serving, and learning abroad helped me figure out that following graduation, I would like to go to graduate school abroad, work for the United States State Department, or work for an International Non-Profit, and to continue to help international relations and understanding around the globe. We are all human and we are all in this together.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 198

DellaSala, Briana Freedman, Daniel Serving Trauma Survivors: The Impact of Graduation with Leadership Distinction in Professional & Civic Engagement
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Abstract Text

Throughout my four years at the University of South Carolina (UofSC), I have been involved in higher education and student affairs-related experiences that include serving as a University 101 Peer Leader and an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant to an Introduction to Psychology course, and working with UofSC's Office of Undergraduate Admissions to recruit and communicate with prospective Gamecocks. Additionally, I have gained experience in the victim services field by conducting research and compiling a literature review on the effects that sexual assault has on female victims' romantic relationships and sexual experiences, interning at a domestic violence shelter near my home in the upstate of South Carolina, and volunteering for a local and comprehensive sexual assault services agency. The integration of these vastly different beyond the classroom experiences and my experiences within social science-related classrooms has ultimately led me to discover my passion for pursuing a career that is dedicated to serving trauma survivors. It has also allowed me to explore various theories that attempt to explain why interpersonal violence occurs, and the importance of networking and collaboration as they relate to being a competent helping professional. With the application of these key insights, I have developed a profound understanding of the complex needs of trauma survivors and am equipped to create a leadership plan that addresses the issue of interpersonal violence in South Carolina.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 271

Backmon, Kendrick Shaw, Todd Graduation with Leadership Distinction: Discovering True Leadership
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Abstract Text

I decided to challenge myself in 2016 by travelling to Cambridge, Massachusetts to take a course on the presidency. This course changed the trajectory of my life and let to a continuous state of personal transformation. After the summer course, I returned to the University of South Carolina on a mission to make a difference. I became a college senator and a resident mentor. In the 108th Senate, I proposed the Backmon-Carter 2040 Vision for USC to promote inclusive academic standards, advocate for a school of government, and offer a different model for undergraduate instruction (e.g. increased research activity, increased accessibility to various campus resources, etc.). Resident mentors often change the lives of their residents; however, my residents changed my life. I used to be robotic—too formal, orderly, and scripted—until my residents showed me how to truly connect with people. I learned three key insights in classes at the University of South Carolina: The Looking-Self Glass Theory by William Horton Cooley and how this impacted my leadership, (2) collective action and how this concept from the political science courses guided my thinking when recruiting students for political causes, and (3) the importance of vitamin-c, connectedness, when seeking to make a difference in the world. Several courses and mentors have transformed me into the leader I am today. I lobbied at the State House for three months through student government, took a stand in the college senate, founded two college organizations, and led a residence hall because of my desire to make a meaningful difference in the world; these experiences played a significant role in preparing me for the challenges ahead.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 270

Bowling, Emily Bezuidenhout, Anne Appositive relative clauses (ARCs) and the foreground/ background distinction
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Abstract Text

Pragmaticians have long been interested in the information structure component of language. One issue concerns the distinction between foregrounded and backgrounded information. Our investigation concerns sentences that consist of a main clause and an appositive relative clause (ARC), such as: ‘My friend Sophie, who is a classical violinist, performed a piece by Mozart.’ It is generally assumed that main clauses express “at issue” content, whereas ARCs carry background information. In a series of web-based psycholinguistic experiments, we look at the effect that ARC placement and ARC type has on the comprehension of such sentences. Our first experiment is a partial replication of earlier work by Syrett and Koev (2015). Participants see mini dialogues between two speakers where Speaker A utters a sentence like the example above and Speaker B responds ‘No, that is not true.’ In some conditions the ARC is sentence-medial and sometimes it is sentence-final. The main question being investigated is whether the sentence position of the ARC influences what participants believe Speaker B is referencing with their denial. A second question being addressed is whether the type of relative clause influences the participants’ decisions. Our first experiment manipulates whether the ARC describes a state of a person (e.g., ‘is a classical violinist’) or describes an event that the person is participating in (e.g., ‘performed a piece by Mozart’). The experiment thus has a 2x2 design (ARC sentence-medial versus final; ARC expressing a state versus an event). Participants see twenty-four experimental dialogues plus thirty-six filler items. The fillers are two-clause sentences of other kinds intended to mask the experimental manipulation. Each participant sees each experimental item in only one of the four conditions, but across the experiment participants are exposed to all conditions. The second experiment relies on a tripartite distinction between continuative, relevance and subjectivity ARCs proposed by Loock (2007). As in the first experiment, we manipulate clause position and ARC type. Both experiments show that ARC content can be foregrounded. This is of interest as it shows that contextual factors can influence what is foregrounded and that syntactic category alone does not settle the question.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 5

Horgan, Tim Stallworth, James
Knight, Lisa
Improving Practice Management Through a Business Oriented Lecture Series
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Abstract Text

The USC Palmetto Health Pediatric Residency Program goes above and beyond in training future pediatricians with a broad curriculum, including in-patient, out-patient, specialty lectures three to four times per week, in-patient teaching rounds and a weekly morning report. However, the majority of residents have matriculated via the traditional pathway: pre-medical science courses during undergraduate training with less than two years between undergraduate and medical school and have little to no business education or experience. A better knowledge base and understanding of the business aspect of healthcare is an important, yet overlooked, portion of a resident’s education. The goal of this project is to improve resident satisfaction with the practice management portion of the resident education curriculum at Palmetto Health by incorporating a four-part lecture series into the curriculum that covers topics of business basics, structures of private practices versus hospital systems, helpful information when joining a practice, coding and other careers for physicians. The foundation for the material used in the lecture series was derived from my personal finance background, careful review of the current curriculum, and input from different faculty members, a pediatrician in private practice with over 30 years of experience and an MBA graduate in the banking industry. A pre-lecture series survey was provided to the resident that include objective multiple-choice questions taken from the lecture series along with subjective questions about their level of comfort with business related topics in healthcare and demographic information. Following the fourth lecture, the post-survey was sent out and included the same business-related multiple choice objective questions along with further subjective questions about their level of comfort and if the lecture was beneficial. When comparing the pre-survey to the post-survey, improvement was seen in six of the eight objective multiple choice questions, with the other two questions having the same number correct. Overall, the resident satisfaction with the lecture series was positive. Of the residents who attended the lectures, the majority felt some degree of comfort with the business aspect of healthcare and the majority stated they are interested in learning more.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 118

Cummings, Caroline McClimans, Leah A Systematic Review of Measuring Instruments for Use in the Evaluation of Clinical Ethics Services
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Abstract Text

A Systematic Review of Measuring Instruments for Use in the Evaluation of Clinical Ethics Services Abstract Introduction The provision of clinical ethics support is widespread across North America and Europe and is increasing in numbers. Since 1992, hospitals in the US have been required to have an established mechanism to deal with ethical issues. As clinical ethics has become increasingly important, clinical ethicists have recognized the need to evaluate their work, yet they have been slow to do so. In those cases where clinical ethics has been evaluated, researchers have failed to provide robust information on their research methods or outcome criteria. To address this problem, a systematic review was planned to be conducted to identify measuring instruments that could be used to evaluate clinical ethics outcomes. Methods The research mentor and student took an online course provided by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health on systematic reviewing and meta-analysis. The course was six weeks long and taught the process of conducting a PRISMA protocoled systematic review. Then, following the steps learned from the class, review was developed and conducted. Results Not enough existing literature satisfied the inclusion criteria for the planned review. The course, however, did provide in-depth education on the process of performing a protocoled systematic review and meta-analysis. This education contributed to obtaining a summer research fellowship at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Conclusions Measuring tools are continuing to be developed and when more methods exist a systematic review will be useful in the field. The Magellan Apprentice Grant provided professional experience with presenting research findings at meetings with researchers in the field and networking opportunities. Additionally, because of the Johns Hopkins course, I was able to perform a systematic review at my position as a Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Undergraduate Research Fellow in the summer following the grant (Summer 2017).

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 10

Sullivan, Kathryn Lichterman, Hilary Practicum Experience Taught Me How to Treat Illnesses and Injuries I Had Never Seen Before
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As an Exercise Science major at UofSC, I am required to complete 300 hours at an off-campus location, preferably one that relates to my future career and professional goals. During this spring semester of 2018, I have been completing my practicum at The Sigurd Center for Ortho and Neuro Rehab. This is an outpatient physical and occupational therapy clinic that works with patients who vary in age and injury, or reasoning for therapy. At the clinic, I work almost as an aide, doing administrative work to help in the smooth operation of the clinic, keeping the gym fully stocked and clean after each patient uses equipment, and working with the therapists, helping them with patients and learning from them. This experience has opened my eyes to an array of diseases and injuries that I did not know much about, such as neurological disorders like strokes and Parkinson's Disease, and orthopedic issues like brachial plexus injuries and amputations. Because I am there for a full semester, I am able to see the improvement in stroke patients, the progression of Parkinson's Disease, the strengthening of patients with brachial plexus injuries, and the improvement of amputee's walking. As I go into physical therapy school after graduation, I am confident that this is the field I want to work in and I now have a better idea of what it would be like to spend my career in the outpatient field.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 269

Milz, Emily Creek, Kim P53 Polymorphisms in Human Keratinocyte Strains
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Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is linked to higher rates of cancer development compared to individuals who quickly clear the virus. This research aims to examine the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located on codon 72 of the p53 gene as a potential biomarker for increased duration of HPV infection and therefore greater risk of certain cancers. Codon 72 of p53 has either the sequence CCC, which encodes proline or CGC, which encodes arginine. Previous studies indicate a potential link between the proline variant and increased chance of cancer development, however, this suggested correlation continues to spark controversy and warrants further investigation. Frequency of each SNP variant differs among populations. For example, 65% of African-Americans (AA) encode proline whereas a similar percentage of European Americans (EA) express arginine. This difference provides a potential explanation for higher prevalence of HPV infection observed within AAs. In this study, human keratinocyte cells (HKc) were genotyped in order to compare accepted population frequency of p53 the polymorphism to a South Carolina cohort. For each sample, DNA was extracted prior to amplification of p53 via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gel electrophoresis was used to identify the presence of p53 in each sample before performing Sanger sequencing to determine genotype. 48% of AA HKc encoded homozygous proline, which is consistent with data that suggest this variant is most common within the AA population. In contrast, the majority (52%) of EA HKc samples were heterozygotes, which conflicts with population data that suggest arginine is most prevalent. Only 36% of AA and 32% of EA expressed homozygous arginine. In future studies, these data will be used to further evaluate the potential link between proline and increased risk of cancer. Sample genotype will be assessed for correlation with spheroid formation, a characteristic of cell growth that may support cancer development after HPV infection. If proline is definitively traced to cancer predisposition, increased screening and prevention efforts in populations such as AAs that exhibit a higher prevalence of this polymorphism variant will likely yield better health outcomes.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 125

Ravan, Joseph Shim, Minsub The Role of Cycooxygenase-2 (COX2) in Fat Loss during Cancer Cachexia
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Abstract Text

Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic condition characterized by loss of fat and skeletal muscle. It is estimated that approximately 2 million people die annually worldwide due to the consequences of cancer-related cachexia. Although many studies have focused on the loss of skeletal muscle during cancer cachexia, accumulating evidence suggest the important role of fat tissues in cancer cachexia. This study aims to elucidate a novel role of COX2 in cachectic fat loss in association with cancer, through the use of an in vivo model. Our preliminary studies have indicated that CT26 carcinoma cells induces the loss of fat when co-cultured with 3T3-L1 induced adipocytes, and that COX2 expression levels are upregulated in these instances.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 135

Gazzola, William Benson, Roberto
Carver, Wayne
Meltblown Poly-Lactic Acid Nano-Webs as a Tissue Engineering Scaffold
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Abstract Text

Polylactic acid (PLA) nanofiber non-wovens have recently come under more vigorous investigation for their use as tissue engineering scaffolds due to its ability to mimic the physical properties of naturally occurring human extracellular matrix in a variety of host tissues. Currently, the majority of available research on PLA nano-webs has focused on their creation through electrospinning. The goal of this study was to evaluate meltblown non-woven webs made of nano-diameter PLA fibers for their application as a tissue engineering scaffold. Meltblown PLA fabrics were produced with a variety of different crystallinities, tensile moduli, and pore diameters. One fabric with mechanical properties similar to human dermis was selected as a scaffold to study attachment, proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts over 1, 3, 7 and 14 days without the use of additional cell adhesion molecules. Electron microscopy demonstrated adequate cellular attachment and surface migration at 1, 3, and 7 days. MTT assay showed good proliferation up to 7 days of culture, but without increase from day 7 to 14. Finally confocal microscopy was used to investigate cellular migration into the scaffolds. The investigation found that cells were able to migrate fully through the thickness of the scaffold. The successes of this initial experiment are promising, and confirm that meltblown nano-fiber non-woven are a viable avenue for tissue engineering scaffolds. Hopefully these conclusions will open the door for others to pursue research in this exciting field.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 90

Cederstrom, Collytte Pazda, Adam Intrinsic Motivation and Reading Improvement with At-Risk Students
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According to the U.S. Department of Education, 21% of adults among the general population read below the fifth grade level, 64% of fourth graders cannot read at grade level, and 22% of eight graders cannot read at grade level (NCES, 2014). The Nation’s Report Card for 2015 stated that only 36% of 4th graders and only 34% of 8th graders across the nation can read proficiently at grade level. Reading failure can also be seen as a mental health concern because being able to learn and being able to succeed in the classroom alongside of one’s peers are crucial aspects of emotional wellbeing (Berking et al., 2008). The Reading Orienteering Club (ROC), where I am currently interning, is set up much differently than the average classroom. It seeks to improve the reading, writing, spelling, and comprehension skills of at-risk students who are already failing in school. The ROC is a yearlong after school program which emphasizes cohesive interaction, hands-on workstations, and vowel clustering (Clanton-Harpine, 2013). The program stresses intrinsic (internal) motivation rather than extrinsic (giving rewards/prizes) in hopes that they find the motivation within themselves to read, especially as they complete hands on projects. For this research project, 25 students enrolled in the Reading Orienteering Club participated in a longitudinal study. Students’ intrinsic motivation to read and reading comprehension was assessed at three different times throughout the course of 7 months. The data across three time periods was analyzed using multi-level modeling. Changes in reading comprehension and intrinsic motivation is modeled within individual students, and these changes are nested within different age groups. I hypothesized that students will rank reading higher on their preferred activity list as they spend more time in the ROC program. In addition, I hypothesized that students will spend more time reading, even when they have other activity options available. Finally, I hypothesized that students’ reading ability will increase throughout the course of the program. Results for the project will be analyzed before April 20th.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 52

Peagler, Lindsay Moore, Teresa Energy Expenditure in Whitewater Kayaking
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Abstract Text

Whitewater kayaking is an extreme, outdoor sport that involves hours to several days of paddling and hiking in remote, wilderness terrain. This level of activity places a huge metabolic demand on the human body requiring adequate nutritional support to sustain several hours or days of intense activity. Without the proper nutritional support, performance will be compromised, possibly leading to serious injury of death. The objectives of the study are to determine whether two Actigraph accelerometers are necessary to accurately record physical activity while kayaking or if a single accelerometer can be used on either the upper arm or lower arm. The second goal is to determine the energy expenditure of whitewater kayaking, including the combined activities of portage to the water and paddling in Class 1 to Class 3 whitewater. In this study, we are recruiting four to six experienced whitewater kayakers, ages 18-70. The participants weight, height, age, and gender will be recorded. The kayaking gear specifications will be recorded for weight, make, model and material composition. Each participant will wear an ActiGraph that is housed in a waterproof, crushproof case, and is attached to their arm and secured to the PFD with a locking carabiner. The case will also be covered with a compression sleeve to eliminate the possibility of snagging. Each kayaker will then walk (portage) to the water carrying their equipment and begin paddling. Once the session is complete, they will walk back to the initial starting point for final measurements. Research assistants will record the activities that take place during the session, including portage time, active paddling, perceived intensity levels and any rest taken. Data will be analyzed to compare the results between the ActiGraph accelerometers and to determine the average energy expenditure for whitewater kayaking. This will lay the ground work for future studies in energy expenditure and development of nutritional guidelines for whitewater kayakers.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 98

Choi, Ran Hee Koh, Ho-Jin Tribbles 3 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Mass in Fasting-induced Atrophy
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Abstract Text

Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) is a pseudokinase that has been found in multiple tissues, including skeletal muscle, in response to various stress stimuli, such as insulin resistance, nutrient deprivation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. TRB3 has been mainly known as a negative regulator of Akt, which is an essential protein kinase to control protein synthesis and breakdown. Recently, our lab has demonstrated that TRB3 decreases protein synthesis and increases protein degradation in mouse skeletal muscle at basal state. However, it still remains to be determined whether TRB3 regulates skeletal muscle mass under atrophic conditions. Here, we hypothesized that TRB3 has a detrimental effect on skeletal muscle mass under 48hr fasting-induced atrophy. We utilized C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and fasted them for 48hr to induce skeletal muscle atrophy. Our fasting strategy significantly reduced body weight and effectively decreased skeletal muscle mass. In addition, TRB3 protein and mRNA expression was significantly increased in fasted muscles, which was associated with elevated atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 mRNA expression. Phosphorylation of Akt (T308) was significantly decreased after 48hr fasting and FOXO1 and FOXO3a were activated, whereas protein synthesis was not affected. Next, we fasted muscle-specific TRB3 transgenic (TG) and WT mice for 48hr in order to determine if TRB3 overexpression worsens the fasting-induced atrophy. Interestingly, we found a significant reduction in muscle mass in TG mice compared to WT while the change in body weight was similar. In TG mice, Akt phosphorylation (T308) was significantly decreased after fasting along with suppressed S6K1 and activated FOXO1 and FOXO3a signaling. The fasting significantly decreased protein synthesis rate in both groups, but the degree of reduction was prominent in TG mice compared to WT. Lastly, we studied 48hr fasting-induced atrophy in TRB3 knockout (KO) mice to determine if the deletion of TRB3 could prevent fasting-induced atrophy. Although both genotypes significantly reduced body weight, KO mice interestingly preserved ~10% more muscle mass in fasted muscles. These data suggest that TRB3 could be a key regulator of protein synthesis and breakdown through the Akt/mTOR/FOXO signaling under 48hr fasting-induced atrophy.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 48

Brastauskas, Ian Dean, Carol Ann
Prest, Phillip
Analyzing Sequential Compression Device Compliance in a Large Tertiary Care Trauma Center
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Background: Hospitalized patients, particularly those hospitalized after sustaining traumatic injury are at significant risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE can progress to pulmonary embolism (PE) leading to significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population. The methods for preventing VTE are multifactorial and include pharmacological agents, patient ambulation, and sequential compression devices (SCDs). SCDs work through both a mechanical and fibrinolytic mechanism to prevent VTE, however compliance with their use in intensive care units and on hospital wards is often low. Methods: Utilizing the electronic medical record at a tertiary care academic trauma center, the charts for all patients admitted to the trauma service ward (excluding the surgical trauma intensive care unit) were reviewed to determine if the patients had SCDs ordered. An audit of all patients on the service was then performed by walking into their room and seeing if SCDs were in use. Data was collected in the following categories: 1.) were SCDs ordered 2.) was the SCD pump in the room 3.) were the SCD sleeves in the room 4.) were the sleeves on the patient 5). Was the pump turned on. Results: 7 patients did not have SCDs ordered (n=7) while 17 patients (n=17) did have SCDs ordered. Of the 17 patients with SCD orders in place, 1 patient (5.9% of the patients with orders for SCDs) was found to be in full compliance with SCD use. Full compliance is defined has the SCD pump being in the room and turned on with the SCD sleeves in the room and on the patient. All other patients with SCD orders in place were found to be in various states of non-compliance. Conclusion: Although it is widely accepted that SCD use can prevent VTE in hospitalized patients, compliance with their use is highly variable. In this analysis only 5.9% of patients with SCDs ordered were found to be in full compliance. Other patients were in various states of non-compliance. The next step will be to conduct an effect diagram to examine potential causes of non-compliance.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 130

HOSSEINI, NOZHAN MATOLAK, DAVID WIDE BAND CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION FOR LOW ALTITUDE UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM COMMUNICATION USING SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIOS
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Abstract Text

In the near future, there will be a need for accommodating large populations of fast moving Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) operating in uncontrolled, very low level (VLL) (below 500 ft) airspace. As is well-known, real-time knowledge of the wireless propagation channel is essential for the effective design and optimization of wireless communication systems. As an example, for multicarrier schemes, the subcarrier spacing, and the appropriate cyclic prefix length (for complete elimination of inter symbol interference) in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing depends on the Doppler spread, and delay spread values, respectively. In this paper, we propose a software defined radio (SDR) based channel sounder employing a wideband linear frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) or chirp waveform technique for low altitude air to air (AA) links. This paper discusses both matched filter and heterodyne detector implementations in the receiver, and investigates advantages and disadvantages of both architectures for an SDR implementation in an AA scenario. We also discuss proper windowing techniques in the transmitter. Some proof of concept measurement results using SDRs are presented for a simulated UAS scenario.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 27

Gardner, Kayla Amlin, Angela Synthesis and Evaluation of Hawaiian Monk Seal Education and Outreach Resources
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Abstract Text

In the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), monk seals have become a focal point for marine conservation, but also for controversy given their close proximity to human development, commerce, and recreational activities. The growing conservation and recovery needs of monk seals in the MHI call for a more extensive education and outreach program, and efforts that are better planned and coordinated. This project has the dual purpose of holistically evaluating current education and outreach efforts as well as developing a system to examine the effectiveness of these efforts. To accomplish this, an annotated database comprised of all NOAA Fisheries and partner education and outreach materials was developed and shared between partner agencies and nonprofit organizations. The materials submitted to this database were analyzed in order to identify gaps, redundancies, or inaccuracies. Furthermore, an evaluation system for both outreach and education programs was researched and drafted. In the future, this database will be expanded, and the evaluation system will be implemented. This project will result in a coordinated, strengthened education and outreach effort in an attempt to share information with the public that encourages Hawaiian monk seal conservation and human-seal coexistence.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 142

Worobetz, Nestor Keeling, Sarah Rediscovering the Desire to Attend Medical School Across Borders
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This presentation will consist of an explanation about my two beyond the classroom experiences when I traveled abroad to Central America for medical mission trips over spring break. This presentation will: (1) describe the trip schedule in hopes of inspiring others to travel abroad, (2) compare and contrast the two experiences I had (Panama and Nicaragua), and (3) describe the inspiration I found which reaffirmed my desire to attend medical school and become a physician. I will briefly mention how my clinical mission experience related to each of my three Key Insights which I discussed in my GLD E-portfolio. All three of my insights – flexibility towards problem solving, accountability, and working as a team – were a result of these two experiences. I have pictures to display, as well as items which I used on the mission trips, or brought back which I will use on a table. I will highlight my cultural experiences within the Central American countries and relate this to my overarching appreciation of diversity. I will discuss how I grew on these trips and will spend a short time connecting missionary work to my desire to spend some of my medical career practicing medicine abroad. The essence of this presentation will focus on my appreciation of the opportunity to travel abroad. Interacting with the Central American people on these two trips touched a part of me that is hard to experience in America due to the restrictions in the healthcare system. I will briefly touch on my experience as a medical scribe for Lexington Medical Center and volunteer work within Palmetto Baptist Hospital, in order to contrast the vastly different experiences. These trips inspired me to become the best physician I know I can become and reminded me of my initial desire to go into medicine: to attempt to help those who are in need receive as the same quality of service regardless of ability to pay.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 263

Blau, Emma Liggett, Alisa Understanding and Implementing Better Sexual Assault Preventative Programing on Campus
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Abstract Text

Many colleges and universities experience rampant sexual assault. A major issue is that numbers of reporting are increasing, as are requests for action, yet the availability of effective programing for education and prevention is not changing. In other words, people are becoming more comfortable reporting assaults, but schools are not adjusting their programming accordingly. This research was designed to establish an understanding of effective programming and policies on college campuses nationwide, as well as develop a research-supported implementation guide that can be easily adapted.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 19

Hrisko, Stephanie Srinivasan, Shilpa
Durkin, Martin
Trends in First Time Admissions for Substance Use in Older Adults
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Introduction: Stereotypes of aging once included the idea that older adults “mature out” of substance use disorders (SUDs); however, more recent investigations of substance use by older adults suggest a trend of increasing first time admissions for drug use in older adults from 1998-2008. The purpose of this study is to provide an update on the trends in substance use treatment between 2009-2014 among adults aged 55 and above. Methods: Treatment Episode Data Set-Admissions de-identified data were downloaded from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive. Total admissions by year, and admissions where various drugs were mentioned were computed, comparing the experience of older adults to younger adults (30-54). Logistic regression analyses were completed to determine if there was an age by time interaction for trends in admissions related to substance use. Results: From 2009 through 2014, there were 221,846 first admissions for patients 55 or older. The total raw number of first time admissions for SUDs for all ages decreased from 789,358 to 547,7335; however, the percentage of first time admissions attributable to both the 30-54 and 55+ age groups increased over time. When analyzing the 30-54 and 55+ age groups, a statistically significant age by time interaction was observed for all substances except benzodiazepines. Conclusions: Older adults continue to account for an increasing proportion of first time admissions for SUDs. Marijuana has now replaced cocaine as the second most frequently occurring problematic substance for older adults. Indeed, marijuana is the only substance for which the increase in use over time was higher for older versus younger adults. Overall trends in substances used follow similar general patterns (i.e., increasing or decreasing over time) for younger and older adults. However, there are differences in the proportions of younger versus older adults affected by particular substances. Awareness of the trends in substance use among older adults may have clinical implications in regard to screening, assessment, and treatment of older adults.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 119

Crouse, Lauren Wilson, Dawn K.
Sweeney, Allison
Associations between Parental Support and Parental Values with Youth Body Mass Index in the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial
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Abstract Text

Childhood obesity has been nationally recognized as a public health issue; yet, relatively few interventions have been successful at decreasing obesity among high-risk groups, such as African American youth. Although previous studies have examined the relationship between parental social support and youth health behaviors, little research has directly compared the unique effects of tangible versus emotional support. Furthermore, although previous research has found that parents’ values shape their children’s’ health behaviors, relatively little is known about which specific values are most critical for promoting a healthy body mass index (BMI), especially among underserved African American families. The present study uses data from the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial to determine the extent to which parental support and values relate to youth BMI. Project FIT is a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a motivational and family-based intervention for reducing adolescent BMI among overweight African American adolescents. The present study examined data from 232 adolescents in Project FIT (Mean Age= 12.83 years, 35.78% females). Adolescent height and weight were measured at baseline by trained staff and BMI scores were converted to BMI z-scores (z-BMI) using CDC growth reference curves. Parents completed a baseline questionnaire that measured the extent to which they provide tangible and emotional social support around diet and physical activity. Parents also completed a questionnaire assessing the importance of transmitting various values to their child; the values of independence, hard work, religion, and self-respect were analyzed in this study. A hierarchical linear regression was used to test whether parental tangible support, emotional support, and parental values were related to adolescent’s baseline z-BMI. Parental marital status, parent age, household income, family size, child age, and child sex were included as covariates. Of the four core values examined, only self-respect was associated was a lower z-BMI (B= -0.18, p = 0.023). Surprisingly, neither tangible nor emotional support was significantly associated with adolescent z-BMI. These results suggest that parental values may play an important role in guiding adolescent’s health behaviors. Future research is needed to better understand how parental values shape adolescent health behaviors longitudinally.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 62

Andersen, Haley Walsh, Kenneth A Real Time Screening Assay for Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor-mediated Signaling
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Abstract Text

The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system where it functions to regulate neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. While the CB1 receptor has been identified as a target for both natural and synthetic cannabinoids, the specific downstream signaling pathways activated by these various ligands have not been fully described. In this study, we developed a real-time membrane potential fluorescent assay for cannabinoids using pituitary AtT20 cells that endogenously express G protein-gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels and were stably transfected with the CB1 receptor using a recombinant lentivirus. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments application of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 to AtT20 cells expressing the CB1 receptor (AtT20/CB1) activated GIRK currents that were blocked by BaCl2. WIN 55,212-2 activation of the GIRK channels was associated with a time- and concentration-dependent (EC50 = 309 nM) hyperpolarization of the membrane potential in the AtT20/CB1 cells when monitored using a fluorescent membrane potential-sensitive dye. The WIN 55,212-2-induced fluorescent signal was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with either the GIRK channel blocker tertiapin-Q or the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. The cannabinoids displayed an efficacy of WIN 55,212-2 ≈ anandamide (AEA) > CP 55,940 > Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) when maximal concentrations of the four ligands were tested in the assay. Thus, the AtT20/CB1 cell fluorescent assay will provide a straightforward and efficient methodology for examining cannabinoid-stimulated Gi signaling.  

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 12

Aycock, Kenneth Wang, Guiren Optimization of microfluidic chip fabrication via femtosecond laser ablation
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Abstract Text

Microfluidic devices have a promising future as low cost testing tools for both point-of-care (POC) and research applications. Research has been focused on the reduction in cost of these devices, commonly known as Micro Total Analysis Systems (μTAS). Despite the advancements in μTAS, the manipulation and fabrication of these systems can be tedious and expensive. Researchers would benefit substantially from a rapidly protoypable device fabrication system. Laser ablation of tape substrates has shown promise in producing cost-effective, rapidly manipulable devices, but the work done thus far has utilized continuous wave lasers that perform suboptimally due to the relatively long wavelengths used and the introduction of joule heating. Previous research has shown that polymeric substrates can be manipulated without absorbing heat when ablated via picosecond pulses or shorter. Thus, we are seeking to fabricate microfluidic devices with drastically increased resolution by using a pulsed laser capable of operating at wavelengths in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared spectra. We ablated substrates using a laser that provides energy in ultrashort pulses, well below the previously mentioned threshold. To make this fabrication method truly rapid, we have investigated the use of numerous biocompatible substrates. We have shown the influence of numerous input parameters such as laser power, magnification, substrate travel speed, and wavelength on the resulting ablation profile. We have demonstrated the efficacy of using ultrashort pulses for the rapid prototyping of microfludic devices. We are continuing this experiment to optimize our protocols and validate the performance of these devices in common microfluidic assays.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 164

Cohen, Katherine Green, Jessica Examining mirror neuron functionality in individuals with severe depressive tendencies using electroencephalogram
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Abstract Text

The Mirror Neuron System (MNS) is a network of neurons that respond equally when an individual performs an action and when an individual observes someone else perform the same action. It is a neurophysiological mechanism that allows individuals to relate to the actions of others by “mirroring” their brain activity. Several studies have indicated that certain disorders may cause mirror neurons to stop functioning properly. The functioning of the MNS can be tested using an electroencephalogram (EEG), which records electrical activity in the brain. Deficiencies have been found in individuals with autism and bipolar disorder. This study seeks to determine whether similar deficiencies are found in individuals with depression. We use EEG data to compare mu wave suppression in individuals who exhibit severe depressive tendencies and individuals who exhibit little to no depressive tendencies during a series of motor and cognitive tasks.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 42

Becker, William Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Nagarkatti, Prakash
Cannabinoid receptor activation induces unique changes in the murine gut microbiome associated with the induction of anti-inflammatory myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T regulatory cells.
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Abstract Text

Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient found in the Cannabis plant, has been shown to activate cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Synthetic THC is currently being used to treat anorexia in people with HIV/AIDS, patients undergoing chemotherapy, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, and spasticity. Moreover, use of marijuana for recreational and medicinal purposes is getting increased attention globally. The mammalian intestine harbors a diverse array of bacteria which are known to regulate and respond to many stimuli including that of the immune and nervous system. In the current study, therefore, we investigated the immune-modulatory capacity of THC, and its resulting effects on the gut microbiome. We tested the effect of acute or chronic exposure of C57BL/6 mice to THC on the murine immune system, and correlated these immunological changes to the flux of intestinal bacteria. Intraperitoneal exposure of mice to THC caused significant migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) from the bone marrow to the peritoneal cavity where they proliferated based on a dose dependent increase in Ki-67 expression. Mice administered THC displayed an increase in the number of colonic lamina propria RORγt+ FoxP3+ bacteria-associated T regulatory cells (Tregs). The acute induction of anti-inflammatory cells we observed was mirrored by an acute increase in the short chain fatty acid, butyrate, a bacterial metabolite known to have many beneficial effects in the colon. To determine the receptor mediating these changes, Cnr1-/-, Cnr2-/-, and Cnr1Cnr2-/- double knockout mice were administered THC, revealing that CB1 ligation is responsible for the alterations in butyrate levels; however, both CB1 and CB2 are needed to maintain normal levels of butyrate and acetic acid in the murine intestine. These data suggest a role for THC in reducing inflammation in the gut, as well as a role for cannabinoids in regulating the microbiome and healthy intestinal function. (Supported in part by NIH grants R01MH094755, R01AI123947, R01AI129788, P01AT003961, P20GM103641 and R01AT006888).

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 13

Sutton, James Fridriksson, Julius
Stark, Brielle
Basilakos, Alexandra
Rorden, Chris
Examining brain damage associated with poor reading comprehension
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Abstract Text

Reading comprehension involves integrating information about what words mean which involves a widely distributed network of brain areas. It remains unclear which of these areas, and the connection between areas, are most associated with poor reading comprehension that we often see post-stroke. Connectivity is especially interesting, because often areas that are not anatomical neighbors will work together on tasks, and it is likely the case that stroke disrupts these relationships which leads to impairment. In this project, we will analyze brain damage to specific areas that correspond to poor reading comprehension and we will also examine reduced functional connectivity between areas that correspond to poor reading comprehension. We analyzed data in 88 (59 male) stroke survivors at the University of South Carolina whose mean age was 62.33 (SD=11.22). All stroke survivors had damage to their left hemisphere, were native English speakers, and were at least six months post-stroke upon assessment (M=45 months, SD=43.44). Using a common test of reading comprehension, acquired from the Western Aphasia Battery - Revised part two, we assessed each participant’s reading comprehension. The total score for each participant was a proportion of the total possible score (out of 20). In all participants, we acquired structural and functional MRI scans and analyzed how brain damage and reduced functional connectivity associated with poor reading comprehension. The mean score on reading comprehension was 15.5 (SD=4.98), out of 20 total points. Damaged left hemisphere areas that were statistically associated with poor reading comprehension were largely in the temporal lobe and functional disconnection was found between left hemisphere temporal and frontal regions as well as bilateral temporal-to-frontal regions. Poor reading comprehension was found to associate with structural damage in temporoparietal lobe and underlying deep white matter as well as functional disconnection between temporoparietal areas and areas of the lateral frontal lobe. This information is helpful clinically because damage to these areas and connections may preclude an ability to relearn reading.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 77

Weatherred, Jane McKeever, Robert Results Regarding the Development of Two Scales That Measure Attitudes and Beliefs About Child Sexual Abuse
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Abstract Text

Abstract The results of two focus groups and an exploratory factor analysis for the development of two psychometric measurements: 1) The Attribution of Blame for Child Sexual Abuse and 2) Belief in Stereotypes About Child Sexual Abuse will be presented in a poster format at Discover USC. This research project was awarded SPARC funding from 2017-2018. Keywords: scale development, child sexual abuse, blame, stereotypes

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 16

Madia, Kayla Fallucca, Amber Growing in Leadership and Collaboration Through Service
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Abstract Text

I have been dedicated to serving others and my community since middle school, and I was determined to keep that trend going when I came to college. One way I did that was by spending two of my summers as a counselor at a service camp, WOW Urban Ministry. The focus of the camp was to better the community, one with a large homeless population, with a faith-based motivation. After having a great experience with the camp in high school, I decided to use my time and talents to go back to help run it. I knew that through this decision I could make a difference in so many lives, and not only in those I served but also in those of the middle and high school campers who came to us every week. I encountered many new and different perspectives through this experience which helped me to grow as a person and widen my outlook on others. The service site that I spent the most time at was a thrift store affiliated with the homeless shelter. Every $2 in proceeds at this thrift store equated to a meal served at the shelter. While there I would organize the store, restock the clothes, and bail clothes that had not been sold which the store would then sell to companies oversees. Through the collaboration and group leadership of the camp I learned a lot about how to work with others, how to handle conflict, and how to stay focused on a goal despite distraction. This experience showed me how much can be accomplished by a small group of dedicated people. The time I spent at WOW shaped my outlook on my faith, my service, and the world. I believe it has made me a better version of myself, not only through the positive growth, but through the challenging and frustrating aspects that I learned from. The knowledge I gained about leadership and collaboration have helped me to excel at USC, and I know I will be able to draw from those resources in my future career.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 231

Rizor, Elizabeth Stewart, Jill Functional Neural Correlates of Hand Motor Function Differ Based on Level of Motor Severity in Individuals Post-stroke
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Abstract Text

The neural correlates of motor function after stroke may differ based on motor deficit severity, supporting the need for investigation of brain-motor behavior relationships in functional subgroups. Resting-state functional connectivity (RsFC), a measure of brain function, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a measure of brain structure, may be useful tools for exploring these relationships. The objective of this study was to identify the structural and functional predictors of hand function after stroke, and whether these differed based on level of motor severity. Sixty-three individuals (age in years=60.3 ± 9.51; months post-stroke=54.2 ± 54.4) with chronic, left-hemisphere stroke completed fMRI, DTI, and three measures of hand function: Box and Blocks (BBT) test, Grip Strength, and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) Hand Domain. BBT performance was used to separate participants into three functional levels: Low (no blocks moved with paretic hand; N=13), Moderate (>0% but <90% of blocks moved with paretic versus non-paretic hand; N=27), and High (≥90% of blocks moved with paretic versus non-paretic hand; N=23). RsFC between motor regions (primary motor cortex, primary sensory cortex, premotor cortex, and supplementary motor area) within each hemisphere (intrahemispheric) and between homologous regions (interhemispheric) was extracted (Fisher’s Z). Structural integrity was extracted from the corticospinal tract (CST) and the body of the corpus callosum. A stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted to examine behavioral, structural (DTI), and functional (RsFC) variables as possible predictors. Structural integrity of the CST (the primary descending motor pathway) and RsFC between the two hemispheres were found to be robust predictors of hand function across all groups (R^2=0.468, p=0.001) and for the Moderate group only (R^2=0.204, p=0.010). In contrast, only within-hemisphere connectivity was identified as a significant predictor of hand function in the Low group (R^2=0.515, p=0.003). No significant predictors were found for the High group. Predictors of hand function varied based on motor functional group. These findings suggest optimal approaches for upper extremity rehabilitation may differ based on level of motor severity.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 84

Hartman, Rachel Farmaki, Elena
Kiaris, Hippokratis
Kaza, Vimala
Chatzistamou, Ioulia
CCL8 in mammary gland development and involution–associated breast cancer
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Abstract Text

The migration of cancer cells in response to chemokine gradients is an important component of tumor dissemination during cancer progression and metastasis. Our previous findings indicate the development of a CCL8 gradient between the neoplastic epithelium, the stroma and the peripheral tissues that is involved in the dissemination of breast cancer cells. Inhibition of CCL8 activity interfered with the motility of cancer cells and their invasive/metastatic activities suggesting that anti-CCL8 therapy should be considered for the management of metastatic breast cancer. Our results are also consistent with bioinformatic analyses of publicly available data indicating an increase of CCL8 in the stroma of breast cancers and also during mammary involution, suggesting the contribution of the chemokine to the poor prognosis of postpartum breast cancers. In this study we investigated the role of CCL8 during mammary gland development and during involution–associated promotion of tumor growth.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 91

McLeod, Caroline Walsh, Kenneth Cannabinoids Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels in a Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Line
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Abstract Text

The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is expressed throughout the central nervous system where it functions to regulate excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter release, as well as synaptic plasticity. While the CB1 receptor has been identified as a target for both natural and synthetic cannabinoids, the specific downstream cellular targets affected by these ligands have not been fully described. In this study, we examined the effect of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the rodent dorsal root ganglion neuron F-11 cell line. The F-11 cells were treated overnight in media containing 1 % fetal bovine serum, 0.5 mM dibutyryl cAMP, and 50 ng/ml nerve growth factor to induce the differentiation of the cells to a neuronal phenotype. Ca2+ currents were measured using the whole-cell arrangement of the patch clamp technique. Under these conditions, the F-11 cells expressed two types of Ca2+ currents; a transient current that activated at -30 mV and a sustained current that activated at potentials positive to -10 mV. Application of 5 µM WIN 55,212-2 inhibited the sustained Ca2+ current, but had no effect on the transient current. We are presently looking at the effect of other cannabinoids, including the psychoactive plant cannabinoid (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on the F-11 cell Ca2+ channels. Cannabinoid inhibition of the Ca2+ channels should inhibit neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release and, thus, have clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety, depression and pain. As medicinal and recreational use of cannabis continues to rise, it is important to fully elucidate the physiological effects of natural and synthetic cannabinoids on the body.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 37

Shealy, Stephanie Love, Bryan Prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2014​
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Abstract Text

Purpose Increasing rates of obesity and changes in dietary composition are believed to play a central role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development among adults. Medications from the statin and thiazolidinedione class of drugs have been shown to provide benefit in patients with NAFLD, and may be implicated in use in patients with significant fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall prevalence and compare clinical characteristics of patients meeting NAFLD criteria according to an established risk score. Methods Each patient's fibrosis score was categorized into one of three categories: absence of significant fibrosis (score ≤ -1. 455), presence of significant fibrosis (score ≥0. 675), or an indeterminate score (-1. 455 to 0. 675). Clinical characteristics including body measurements, labs, exposure to metformin, thiazolidinediones, or statins, and history of metabolic disease were collected. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis of hepatitis B/C and ongoing alcohol consumption greater than 21 or 14 drinks on average per week in men and women, respectively. Results Data were analyzed on 10,175 patients representing 236.1 million (weighted estimate) respondents of the 2013-2014 NHANES survey. NAFLD risk scores indicating significant fibrosis were found in 11% of respondents. Patients with significant fibrosis were older (66.6 vs. 39.6 years; p<0.001), more likely to be non-Hispanic whites (74.2%), and have a diagnosis of diabetes (93.5%). Patients with scores indicative of significant fibrosis were more likely to be prescribed a statin therapy (50.8% vs. 7.8%; p<0.001), metformin (24.6% vs. 2.2%; p<0.001), and a thiazolidinedione (2.5% vs. 0.05%; p<0.001). Patients in the fibrosis group had higher levels of triglycerides (143.1 mg/dL vs. 110.7 mg/dL; p=0. 02) and fasting plasma glucose (147.4 mg/dL vs. 98.9 mg/dL; p<0.001). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that NAFLD associated fibrosis is present in a significant proportion of US adults. Earlier clinical studies demonstrated benefits for vitamin E, statins, and pioglitazone; however, these medications appear to be underutilized in patients with significant fibrosis due to NAFLD. Identification of patient characteristics associated with presence of fibrosis could lead to more efficient diagnosis of NAFLD and appropriate management of this syndrome.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 111

Cryer, Michael Cantrell, Matthew Born With a Saber in the Chest: Scimitar Syndrome
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Abstract Text

Background: Scimitar syndrome is a variant partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) in which part of or the entire right lung drain by right pulmonary veins connecting anomalously to the inferior vena cava (IVC). Case: 34-year-old black female with history of Chiari-I brain malformation, hirsutism, tobacco use presents to the clinic with shortness of breath and chest tightness. Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the chest demonstrates a hypoplastic, bilobar, right lung, as well as, a large anomalous pulmonary vein draining into the intrahepatic IVC. Decision‐making: Exercise stress transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrates normal left ventricular function without resting or inducible regional wall motion abnormalities. There is a mildly dilated right atrium without evidence of pulmonary hypertension during rest or exercise. Her symptoms improve spontaneously so she is to have routine follow-up for monitoring of symptoms. She will also need routine echocardiograms to screen for worsening of right atrial enlargement, and/or development of right ventricular enlargement, and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: Scimitar syndrome is a rare variant of PAPVC commonly associated with ipsilateral pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary sequestration. Patients can present in infancy and typically have more severe symptoms related to heart failure and/or respiratory complications. Adults can be diagnosed incidentally or have a wide range of symptoms including fatigue, dyspnea, and recurrent pneumonia. Confirmation of diagnosis is usually with chest CT, chest magnetic resonance imaging, or echocardiography. Surgical correction should be a consideration for symptomatic patients with significant left to right shunting. Transcatheter occlusion can be a consideration in some selected cases.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 102

Moyers, Caitlin Freedman, Daniel Making the Most out of the Undergraduate Experience: Preparing for a Management Career in the Restaurant Industry
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Abstract Text

During my time here at USC, I have discovered how to be a leader through my studies and work in the hospitality and tourism industry. I have learned invaluable lessons as a result of within the classroom experiences. A few of these lessons include, how to be sustainable, what it takes to lead a team, how to plan conferences/events, marketing, and management. I have also learned invaluable lessons as a result of beyond the classroom experiences. I have been able to apply all of my knowledge gained at USC to many of my work and internship experiences. I have also been able to apply the lessons that I learned while participating in a study abroad program to how I will pursue my future career life. One internship in particular, Kiawah Island Club Management Intern, allowed me to truly apply the knowledge I have learned in school to real life experiences. I not only gained more knowledge of the restaurant industry but also more experience in management, leadership, and responsibility. As a tourism major here at USC, my internship experience provided me with first-hand experience of hospitality and management at a high-standard level. The integration of within the classroom and beyond the classroom experiences has produced substantial insight into providing leadership in the restaurant industry. Through this experience, I hope to pursue a career in a management role in the restaurant industry in the future.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 258

Snyder, Brian Myslinski, Joseph A Rare, Atypical Presentation of Community Acquired Streptococcal Salivarius Meningitis
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Abstract Text

Bacterial meningitis continues to be a feared entity in today’s medical world. While advances in H.flu, Strep pneumo, and meningococcal vaccines have significantly decreased the incidence of disease, mortality and morbidity rates remain high. Traditional teaching describes meningitis as a constellation of headache, fever, and nuchal rigidity. Classically, it is often seen in patients with previous sinusitis or mastoiditis, incomplete or absent vaccination history. Or, in the neonatal population, it affects infants born to GBS positive mothers with late or no prenatal care, or arises from hematogenous spread of urinary tract infection. The vast majority of cases of bacterial meningitis are accounted for by just three pathogens: Strep pneumonia, Neiserria meningitidis, and Strep agalactiae. However, a number of other bacterial species have been implicated in meningeal infections: Staph aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Coagulase negative staph species, just to name a few. Typically, these organisms will carry specific risk factors for transmission and present much like the traditional pathogens. Occasionally though, uncommon sources of bacterial meningitis may present in atypical fashion, in patients with no obvious predisposing risk factors. We present a case of a 36 year old previously healthy male who was diagnosed with Streptococcal Salivarius meningitis. We believe this case to be unique in that the patient presented without the classic symptoms of headache, neck stiffness, and fever. And, unlike most of the previous Streptococcal Salivarius cases, this patient had no predisposing head, neck, or CNS procedure. This report describes the presentation, evaluation, management and ultimate course of the patient, as well as discusses some of the literature surrounding Streptococcal Salivarius meningitis. We feel that this case raises awareness of atypical presentations of meningitis and the need to maintain a high degree of suspicion in cases of afebrile altered mental status that cannot be clearly attributed to other causes.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 98

Fayyaz, Habiba Fadel, Jim
Calva, Coleman
Intranasal orexin-A administration increases neuronal activation of brain stem regions
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Abstract Text

Cognitive decline associated with aging is characteristic of neurodegenerative and metabolic conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes. The orexin neuropeptide system serves as a key physiological integrator of homeostatic and cognitive function, with regulatory functions in appetite, wakefulness and arousal, and reward and stress systems. Degeneration of this system has been shown to significantly contribute to the development of narcolepsy, as well as other major neurological and psychiatric conditions. The goal of this study was to use immunohistochemistry staining to assess the therapeutic potential of intranasal orexin-A (inOX-A) administration through examination of changes in expression of neuronal markers in the brain stems of young and aged rats. Intranasal administration has the advantage of bypassing the blood brain barrier, minimizing systemic exposure, and rapid delivery of drugs to the brain, and clarifying its use for orexin could indicate a viable treatment method. Through comparison of changes in young and aged rats, this study also aimed to identify the strength of this treatment for age-related cognitive decline. In young rats, inOX-A administration contributed to greater expression of the neuronal activity marker, c-Fos, in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and dorsal raphe, regions involved with regulating REM sleep, wakefulness, and arousal. In aged rats, inOX-A administration increased activation of areas including the lateral region of the ventral tegmental area, which is involved in the mesolimbic reward pathway. Greater neuronal activation of select brain stem regions indicates a potentially therapeutic role for inOX-A in age-related cognitive decline.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 54

Cordes, Alexandra DeHart, Dana Sex Trafficking Victims Seeking Help in South Carolina: Service Provider Perspectives
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Abstract Text

This qualitative study utilized interviews with 13 service providers at 9 domestic violence and sexual assault (DV/SA) agencies on the challenges faced by sex trafficking (ST) victims, the similarities and differences between the two trauma groups, and the challenges of service delivery to ST victims in South Carolina. Qualitative analyses were completed using MAXQDA software. We also used archival data from 13 life-history interviews with girls committed to a juvenile facility who also described their involvement in the commercial sex trade (DeHart & Moran, 2015). The latter cases were used to identify additional service gaps not mentioned by providers. Based on analyses from the two sets of data, challenges faced by ST victims include obtaining safe housing, education and job skills, legal aid, and compassion from police officers. Agency challenges of service delivery include funding, providing housing, training staff, and professional boundary setting. The data implies that while DV/SA and ST victims share many similar traumas and needs, ST victims often require more breadth and depth of care and require more resources than most DV/SA agencies can spare given their current caseload.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 9

Cromer, Carmen Ducate, Lara
Roy, George
Graduation with Leadership Distinction: Effective Education in Mathematics
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Abstract Text

In 2015, the United States of America ranked near the bottom of thirty-five industrialized nations when it came to mathematics (Barshay, 2017). This is because in the United States we have created a culture of inpatient problem solving (Meyer, 2010). Students often perform well at a surface level, but if a problem asks for deeper thinking, the students will freeze. Standardized tests will more often than not test at a deeper level of thinking, so this would explain the poor performance of our students comparatively to the other industrialized countries. We are not adequately preparing our learners for these tests with our inpatient problem solving. Is a problem really a problem if the answer or pathway to the answer is known right away? When does this happen in the real world? Mathematics at its core is about problem solving, so why do we teach it in a way that gives nothing but prescribed steps and processes? Where is the problem solving in that? Through my time at Dutch Fork Middle School in conjunction with my time at the University of South Carolina, I believe that mathematics should be taught in a way that holds all learners to high expectations and promotes a culture of understanding instead of knowing through the use of high cognitive demand tasks and productive struggle. If mathematics were taught in that way, from kindergarten to university, we would see a mathematical revolution, and the United States of America would rank higher in mathematics education in the world.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 232

Anilonis, Kaitlin Camp, Lisa Gaining a New Perspective
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Abstract Text

While my courses during my time here at the University of South Carolina have paved the way for me to become prepared for my future, it has been the pursuit of my degree that has led me to discover what I am truly passionate about. My experiences as a member of the executive committee of Zeta Tau Alpha, internships with iCIMS and Hip New Jersey, and a study abroad trip to Oman all contributed to pursuing Graduation with Leadership Distinction in Professional and Civic Engagement. During my sophomore year, I decided to go on a Maymester trip led by the Journalism School to Oman because I knew that going to this Middle Eastern country would be a once in a lifetime opportunity. Our mission was to film an interview a citizen of Oman about an aspect of their culture as we traveled through the deserts, mountains, and beaches of Oman. My group and I chose to interview the first Omani to ever graduate from the University of South Carolina about her view and comparison of women’s rights in the United States and those of Oman. What she said was startling. She told us that in fact she did not see that much of a difference between the women of each country. While the women in the two countries were living in different cultures, the desire for equality is what makes us all the same. This interview gave me a new perspective on how I viewed other people. Instead of only seeing the obvious differences between two people, I started to see the similarities. I have adapted this lesson and incorporated it into my life and leadership style throughout my remaining time here, such as my position as Risk Management. Throughout various situations, I made an effort to understand where every person is coming from to find the solution that was best for them. Finding a common ground and learning to understand my peers is an invaluable skill that I was able to apply to my leadership position and will be able to help me in my future positions.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 209

Werner, Kristina Adams, Morgan
Humphrey, Mark
Witherspoon, Patricia
Reducing Non-Emergent ED Utilization in Patients of the Family Medicine Center
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Abstract Text

The Family Medicine Center (FMC) is primarily a resident clinic that serves over 12,000 patients. From July 2016 to June 2017, our patients visited Palmetto Health Emergency Departments (ED) 1,332 times. ED visits contribute to overall rising costs in our healthcare system and may lead to fragmented care due to lack of continuity with their primary care physician. Further, ED visits may lead to overmedication and utilization of diagnostic testing. With this in mind, a yearlong quality improvement (QI) project was implemented at the FMC to reduce ED utilization by 15%. The QI project focuses on five specific drivers, including education of both patients and providers, access to primary care, evaluation of disease states, utilization of resources (such as time, transportation to appointments, and cost), and patient experience and perception. From August 2017 through January 2018, multiple PDSA cycles have been implemented. “Super utilizers,” defined as those who use the ED six or more times per year, were contacted to determine if they were aware of the FMC after hours phone line and same day appointment availability at the FMC. Same day appointments and next-day walk in priority visits were developed in order to care for patients in the clinic instead of the ED. Flyers were developed to educate patients on the signs/symptoms of serious illnesses versus minor or acute illnesses that can be addressed in the clinic. Additionally, patients were encouraged to call the after hours line if they experienced concerning symptoms outside of clinic hours so that they may be triaged by a provider instead of reporting directly to the ED. As of February 2018, the ED utilization rate has decreased by 9% with these interventions alone. Future interventions will focus on connecting patients to care coordination services and targeted interventions for specific disease processes.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 120

Sriram, Shyamkumar Khan, Mahmud Burden of Asthma in USA: Evidence from National Survey of Children’s Health
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Abstract Text

Background: According to the CDC, about 1 in 12 people have asthma, and the numbers are increasing every year. Asthma costs the US about $56 billion in medical costs, lost school and work days, and early deaths. More children than adults had an asthma attack. It is vital to understand the determinants of asthma in children to take remedial actions and policy measures to reduce complications. Methods: The National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) data for 2012 is used for our study. NSCH was conducted using telephone methodology led by the National Center for Health Statistics. National weights were used to estimate relevant parameters. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data in STATA version 14.1. Results: Smoking inside the home increases the likelihood of asthma by 1.53 times (OR1.53: CI 1.19-1.98). Likelihood of asthma dropped by 8% (OR0.92:CI 0.90-0.94) with increase in age by a year. Children without health insurance coverage were 1.94 times (OR1.94:1.61-2.32) more likely to have asthma. Each additional physician office visit in past 12 months increased likelihood asthma by 2.2 times (OR2.22: CI 2.04-2.41). Children who are stopped breast feeding earlier than 6 months are 1.5 times more likely to develop asthma (OR1.52: CI 1.23-1.78). Children who are born prematurely at least 3 weeks before the due date are 1.47 times (OR1.47: CI 1.23-1.78) more likely to have asthma. Conclusions: Indoor cigarette smoking is an important cause of asthma. Barriers to physician care utilization significantly increased likelihood of having asthma. Health education measures should be targeted at providing exclusive breastfeeding for children, prevention of indoor smoking and increasing access to health insurance coverage. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between premature birth and development of asthma.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 9

Davis, Nicole Lichterman, Hilary Finding Professional Engagement Through the Environment
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Abstract Text

Tying my Environmental Studies major to my beyond the classroom experiences such as my various internships, was initially very daunting. At first I did not think I could find a relationship between the two in similar way as the research pathways or the global learning pathways could. After some reflection on my part, I remembered why I choose to reach out and look for experiences and professional activities beyond my major in the first place; to better my professional background. By not limiting my future job prospects by only having a background in the environmental sciences, I pursued internships and experiences in political science, construction, customer service, teaching and human resources. In all of these, I can tie a specific concept learned throughout my academic career under the Environmental Studies degree such as the concept of a feedback loop, reflections on Climate Change as well as ideas from preservationist John Muir.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 300

Cooley, Jalesa
Stone, Emily
Rice, Adena
Ciambotti, Michala
Howell, Christine
Grigg, Ernie South Carolina With Purpose
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Abstract Text

As part of the Public Relations Student Society of America’s Bateman Competition, our team of five public relations students created the South Carolina branch of With Purpose, a youth-powered non-profit organization dedicated to finding safe and effective treatment options for children with cancer. Through our research, we decided the most effective and influential campaign would focus on the passage of the Childhood Cancer Survivorship, Treatment, Access and Research (STAR) Act. If approved, this bill could expand opportunities for childhood cancer research, enhance the quality of life for survivors and provide hope for those who have run low on options.We researched our target audiences, and planned our objectives, strategies and tactics for the campaign. We will execute from February 15th to March 15th and unite the voices of students across the Palmetto State through a full-scale communications campaign, including social media, media relations and government relations. Our campaign will have an impact on a national level and could change the lives of children with cancer and their families.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Carolina Meeting Room A (lower level)
Time: 1:45-1:55pm 

Lamison, Ryan Thompson, Raymond Reproducibility of Accelerometer-Based Mechanomyography
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Abstract Text

The purpose of this study is to determine the reproducibility of accelerometer-based mechanomyography (aMMG) to assess skeletal muscle endurance. A second purpose is to determine the reproducibility of the isokinetic dynamometer to assess peak torque. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) induced muscle contraction (twitch and tetanic) is traditionally used in both clinical and research settings. While current data is limited supporting reproducible measures of muscle-specific endurance, aMMG measures can be used to evaluate changes in acceleration stemming from low frequency EMS and assess muscle endurance during contractions. In addition to measuring muscle endurance, isokinetic dynamometers are used to measure peak torque and can provide good comparison for skeletal muscle endurance. For this overall study, a longitudinal design is used to measure the reproducibility of aMMG to assess the change in acceleration over time for the rectus femoris (quadricep muscle) and biceps femoris (hamstring muscle). The Endurance Index (EI) consists of the percent decline in EMS induced acceleration over 3 consecutive 5-minute stimulation periods. The assessment will be made on 3 nonconsecutive days within a 2-week period. Low frequency (4 Hz) EMS will induce muscle twitch contractions in the rectus and biceps femoris. With this, the change in acceleration from the initial stimulation to the last stimulation will be recorded, compiled, and calculated as percent change. This longitudinal study will provide evidence whether this EMS protocol yields reproducible results within subjects. At each lab visit the participant will also perform 3 maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVC) each for the quadricep and the hamstring muscles. Peak torque will be assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer and reported as the highest values for each muscle as each visit. Reproducibility measures will be recorded over the same time frame as EMS. Anticipated results will support previous studies reporting high reproducibility of the isokinetic measurements of peak torque. Limited data is available on the reproducibility of the aMMG endurance index. However, we expect the EI results for each participant will be consistent and reproducible of the 3 assessments.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 105

Rank, Marisa Keeling, Sarah Working at the Student Success Center
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Abstract Text

Being a Peer Consultant at the Student Success Center has been rewarding in so many different ways. The Student Success Center itself is an incredible office filled with enthusiastic staff ready to assist students in any way possible. There are various resources the SSC has to offer, including Transfer student services, Veteran services, Course-Specific assistance, financial assistance, etc. My role as a Peer Consultant (PC) falls under the Success Connect team, which is an early-intervention program that reaches out to students in need of academic assistance. As a PC, I have worked in many different roles: answering the phones, working the front desks, calling students, and meeting one-on-one with students to discuss academic success strategies. I have always enjoyed helping others be successful and it is truly satisfying to be able to assist students with their academics-not just in a particular class, but with skills that will carry them through life such as time management skills. There are many lessons I have learned during my time as a PC. For one, success starts with you. You have to be the one to take the initiative if you want to be successful. Another lesson is to remember that people come from all walks of life. I have met with a variety of different students who come from a variety of different backgrounds and I have learned that one cannot assume anything about a person, especially because we do not know with what they are dealing. These are both important lessons that I can take with me as I continue on in life, and I hope to be able to continue helping others, using what I have learned at the SSC. While I am graduating and leaving my role as a PC, the Student Success Center continues on, always improving, especially as the Peer Consultant role is rapidly growing to meet students’ needs. I know that I have acquired many valuable life lessons and skills that I would not have gotten if I had not worked at the SSC.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 314

McNeill, Madison Moreno, Nina From Babysitting to Nursing Care
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Since the age of 12, I have been an active babysitter in my various communities. I have taken care of children from birth till middle school. Throughout my college years, I have nannied for families during the day, babysat for others at nights, and even worked for St. Michael’s nursery in Charleston, SC, during breaks. Needless to say, I have always had a passion for young children. I find developmental learning and healthcare field enticing. Therefore, when I decided to pursue my Bachelors of Science in Nursing through South Carolina, I always knew that Pediatrics or Labor and Delivery was calling my name. Here at USC, I have completed clinical rotations at Lexington Medical Center’s Labor and Delivery unit, a pediatric rotation at Palmetto Health Children’s Hospital on the adolescent floor and in their emergency room, and I have shadowed a pediatric flight nurse for MUSC in Charleston. These experiences have cemented in my heart, where I see myself after I graduate from the University of South Carolina. After graduation, I plan on working in Charleston with pediatric patients. I am grateful for my classes and my experiences both inside the hospital and outside the hospital that have prepared me for my future career. Nurses are the healing hands of the hospital and I look forward to being a mentor for the adolescents, a gentle voice for the toddlers, and a soft touch for the babies.

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 285

Pandya, Kinjal Armstead, Cheryl Exploring Gender and Ethnic Microaggressions on Campus
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Women of color (WOC) continue to be underrepresented in academia and report many challenges to success including gender and ethnic focused microaggressions. Microaggressions can be defined as “brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color” (Sue et al., 2007). Although general scales of racial microaggressions exist, there is little research regarding how to measure and assess the role of the unique gender and ethnic microaggressions that faculty WOC face and how these experiences impact their mental health and ultimately their decision to stay or leave their positions. The aim of this study is to explore the nature, frequency, and content of the specific microaggressions WOC face on campus. Further, the results of this study will be used to create a measure of gender and ethnic based microaggressions in WOC. Fifteen participants for a total of three focus groups will be recruited. Participants will be asked about any gender or ethnic focused discriminatory experiences, both blatant and subtle, that they have experienced on college campuses. Interviews will be transcribed and coded in NVivo software. Questionnaire items will be generated based on the themes/results derived from the qualitative analyses. In this presentation, thematic analyses of qualitative data from the focus groups will be described. Further, potential questionnaire items derived from focus group results will also be presented to provide an assessment tool that can be administered in departments and programs.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Congaree Meeting Room B (lower level)
Time: 1:35 

Beck, Julia Valerio, Wendy Parent's Observations of their Young Children's Music Behaviors
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With the intent of understanding perceptions of early childhood music development, the purpose of this research is to examine parents’ observations of their young children’s music behaviors to develop a deeper knowledge of how parents observe, interpret, document, and support their young children’s early childhood music development and learning. Data will be collected through video-recorded, early childhood music engagement classes with three-year-old children, parents’ interviews regarding their child’s music development, and an exit questionnaire. This research has implications for parent and child music interactions. By continued examination of parents’ observations and perceptions of young children’s music engagement and behaviors, we may increase our understanding of early childhood music development, and we may learn how to help parents better understand their children’s music development. Keywords: Music Learning Theory, Gordon, early childhood, music development, qualitative

9:30-11:00 a.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 26

Hightower, Cody Jones, Thomas Supine Positioning for Proximal Humerus ORIF using arthroscopic shoulder distractor
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Introduction Despite implant and surgical advances in treating proximal humerus fractures, maintaining anatomic reduction throughout surgery remains difficult and failure to do so is correlated with poor patient outcomes. We conducted a retrospective study to include patients treated with a novel surgical method using an arthroscopy tower that allows intra-operative control and positioning of proximal humerus fractures. This technique facilitates fracture reduction and decreases operative time. Methods A retrospective chart review study was conducted for all proximal humerus open reduction and internal fixation procedures performed by one surgeon at a level one trauma center from January 2007 to May 2017. Data reviewed included; inpatient notes, operative reports, computed tomography scans, pre-operative and post-operative x-ray images, and outpatient follow up clinic notes. Patients were grouped based upon use of the technique described. The technique outlines the use of an arthroscopy shoulder distractor to obtain adequate intraoperative fracture reduction and how to maintain reduction throughout the surgical procedure helping to prevent varus malreduction. Results Our review yielded 15 patients, 9 were treated with the outlined technique and 6 without. Three patients were lost to follow up. The remaining twelve all achieved complete fracture healing without major complications. Eleven of the twelve achieved functional range of motion in their operative extremity. All patients treated with the described technique achieved functional pain free range of motion. The average operative time between the two groups was 132 minutes without the tower and 95.4 minutes with the tower. This revealed a 27.7% reduction in operative time using the described technique. Conclusion Proximal humerus fractures are difficult to treat and frequently seen by the orthopedic surgeon. Our described technique facilitates intraoperative fracture reduction, helping avoid varus malreuction, and also allows for a decrease in operative time.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Columbia Ballrooms A & B (upper level)
 Poster: 113

Stevenson, Aida Jones, Joe How Does Social Equality Play A Role in Happiness Levels (in Iceland)?
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This project helped to establish the relationship between social equality and happiness in an economically sustainable country (Iceland). This project was used to help improve the aspect of social sustainability. The word sustainability has three facets, social, environmental, and financial. Social sustainability deals with how our interactions with ourselves and others can improve the world around us. Iceland is ranked the 2nd country for happiness in 2015 per the World Happiness Report released by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network. The rankings are collectively based on reports from leading experts in economics, psychology, survey analysis, national statistics, health and public policy. The project was created to see if social equality was the primary reason behind this increased trend in happiness in Iceland since they are one of the only nations that has almost equal representation in Parliament and has established equal pay for men and women as well as maternity and paternity leave. If social equality was the reason behind the prosperity of the country, the idea was to bring some of those ideas back to the US and see if any of them could be implemented; however, reasons other than social equality were also investigated. Research was performed in the capital of Iceland, Reykjavik. 12 people were asked a total of 8 questions which ranged from demographic questions to in depth short answer questions. The results led to the conclusion that while social equality does lead to an overall sense of happiness, there were many other factors that do play a role in the overall state of the country such as environmental sustainability, the sense of community and the economic system that prevails there.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 22

Gray, Veronica Leri, Alice Islamic Finance in Spain and Superdiversity
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Islamic financial institutions within Europe have seen significant growth during the 21st century. The leader in IFI’s in the west is the United Kingdom. It is curious that Spain, despite its history of Muslim dominance from 711-1492, lags so far behind its western counterparts when it comes to Islamic finance. Spain has long been a center for Muslim immigration, especially from its neighboring country, Morocco. Spain takes in the second highest influx of Moroccan immigrants in all of Europe (second to France). It is a wonder that businesses have not capitalized on this population and expanded Islamic financial institutions more heavily into this region. During three months of research in Spain and two months of literature and web research in the United States, I began to formulate opinions of why this may be the case. First, it was important to obtain a better understanding of the Muslim/Moroccan population of the region. This was done primarily through participant observation, interviewing locals who identified as Muslim, and taking courses on the Society and Culture in Spain and Muslims in Spain. Additionally, I spent time researching immigration trends, unemployment rates, and GDP information for both Morocco and Spain. My time in Spain was primarily focused on finding out more about what I believed to be the causes for the lack of growth of Islamic finance in the region. This research, however, turned into something different from what I expected. The more individuals I interviewed and the more in-depth my ethnographic study went, I realized that my preconceptions were not the reality. I began to discover that the Muslim identity was something much more complex then what I had previously hypothesized. In this presentation, I will go into detail on what I learned through my classes, interviews, and participant observation and how understanding super diversity is the first step in analyzing the market for Islamic finance in Spain.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 11

Kiefer, Mikala Chojnowski, Jena Characterization of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells to be used in Research for Patients with Aniridia
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Auburn University, University of Georgia, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, and University of South Carolina Beaufort have a collaborative mission to find better treatment options for patients with aniridia. This will be done by collecting fibroblasts from patients with aniridia, inducing those cells into pluripotent stem cells(PSCs), introducing a good copy of the Pax6 gene into the induced PSCs, stimulating those modified cells to become corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), and transplanting the CEPCs back into the patient’s eyes. This mission requires a subset task of practicing transfection of Pax6 and transplantation of CEPCs into rabbits. Since CEPCs from patients are limited, HCECs for this subset task will be purchased from the ATCC Company. To increase the success rate of this subset task, it is necessary for the purchased HCEC to be molecularly characterized and the percentage of CEPCs to be known in this population, which is my part of the bigger mission. Characterization of these cells is important to create a control for future experimentation and to use as a reference point for any subsequent characterizations. This project will use a cryopreserved HCEC line from the ATCC Company. Molecular and morphological characteristics of this cell line will determine the percentage of progenitor vs non-progenitor cells within this population. This is important because regeneration of the cornea requires a significant population of progenitor cells. I will use immunohistochemistry (IHC) to identify the presence or absence of specific antibodies known to be associated with progenitor or non-progenitor HCEC. No single protein can determine progenitor vs non-progenitor cells which is why a combination of proteins is necessary. PAX6 is expressed in both populations and therefore will be used as a control. Morphologically, I will be looking at shape and size as a biomarker for the presence of progenitor cells. My molecular and morphological characterization data will confirm there is a population of cells with the potential, through manipulation, to regenerate the cornea in the rabbits, and ultimately for patients with aniridia.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Exhibit Hall (lower level)
 Poster: 118

Devivo, Blake Weidner, John
Turick, Charles
Application of Electromicrobiology for In-situ Bioprocess Monitoring
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Bioconversion of feedstocks to fuels and chemicals offers significant economic and environmental advantages. For bioconversion efficiency to be cost-effective, bioprocesses need to operate at near optimum conditions with sufficient chemical, biochemical, and microbial monitoring. Bioprocess operational assessment is usually accomplished with periodic grab samples from bioreactors followed by laboratory analysis. This often presents a dilemma in determining how much data are enough for cost-effective and successful bioprocess operation. In-situ monitoring can be less expensive but is often problematic because of sensor fouling. Anaerobic bioconversion of waste organics to methane exemplifies the need for robust monitoring strategies in order to maintain balanced conditions and to avoid bioreactor under-performance or even failure. Over the last decade or so electrochemical techniques have been used to define extracellular electron transfer by microorganisms. This field of study, referred to as electromicrobiology, opens up new opportunities and techniques in bioprocess monitoring. For instance, voltammetric techniques provide precise information regarding extracellular electron transfer and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy offers a data rich platform for evaluation of microbial physiological status. In addition, voltammetric stripping is an established electrochemical technique used to clean electrodes in-situ. This creates the opportunity for in-situ, real time monitoring, thereby providing a cost-effective opportunity to monit