Skip to Content

Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice

  • Students in a classroom taking notes


Beyond learning criminological theory and research methods, the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice provides students with the opportunity to conduct research that is vital to designing effective policy interventions and criminal justice system practices.  

Faculty and Student Research 

Recent Publications

* Represents current or former graduate student.

  • Adams, I. T., Mourtgos, S. M.,  *Mclean, K., & Alpert, G. P. (2023). De-fanged. Journal of Experimental Criminology.

  • Adams, I. T., Mourtgos, S. M., Simon, C. A., & Lovrich, N. P. (2023). If the face fits: Predicting future promotions from police cadets' facial traits. Journal of Experimental Criminology.

  • Applegate, B. K., *Bolin, R. M., & *Ouellette, H. M. (2022). Extending the long arm of the law: Punishment and rehabilitation as motives of public support for handling violent juvenile offenders as adults. Journal of Experimental Criminology.

  • Boehme, H. M. (2022). Are coffeeshops really third places? A street segment approach to investigate the influence of coffee shops on property and violent crime. Criminal Justice Studies. doi: 10.1080/1478601X.2022.2087649

  • *Boehme, H. M., *Cann, D., & Isom, D. A. (Forthcoming). Citizens’ perceptions of over- and under-policing: A look at race, ethnicity, and community characteristics. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.1177/0011128720974309

  • Boehme, H. M., Dawson, R. M., Williams, T., Gual-Gonzalez, L., Rodriguez-Ramos, C., Brown, N., Hernandez, B., *Kidd, L., & Nolan, M. S. (2023). "Ain't about the money, ain't about the haircut": Experiences of servant leadership in black-owned barberships and beauty salons during the Covid-19 pandemic. SSM - Qualitative Research in Health, 3, 100225.

  • Boehme, H. M., & Kaminski, R. J. (2023). Suspect resistance, police use of force, and officer injuries in a post-Floyd era: An analysis of two large police departments. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal.

  • Boehme, H. M., Kaminski, R. J., *Leasure, P. (2022). A comparative interrupted time-series assessing the impact of the Armstrong decision on officer-involved shootings.  Police Practice & Research.  doi: 10.1080/15614263.2022.2079508.

  • *Boehme, H.M., Kaminski, R.J., & Nolan, M.S. (2022). City-wide firearm violence spikes in Minneapolis following the murder of George Floyd: A comparative time-series analysis of three cities. Urban Science, 6(16), 1-7. doi: 10.3390/urbansci6010016.

  • Boehme, H. M. & Schnell, C. (2022). Why did the use of force go up? Investigating the unexpected impact of a body-work camera program on a use of force time series. Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2022.101944

  • *Boehme, H. M., *Martin, A., & Kaminski, R. J. (Forthcoming). Evaluating the 4th Circuit’s decision to limit officer use of tasers: A descriptive and time-series approach. Police Practice and Research. doi: 10.1080/15614263.2021.1982713?src=.

  • *Boehme, H.M., Metcalfe, C., & Kaminski, R. J. (2022). Female Officers in Use-of-Force Encounters: An Examination of Potential Correlates. Police Quarterly. doi: 10.1177/10986111211053842

  • *Bolin, R. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2022). In the best interests of the child? Distinctions between the professional orientations of juvenile and adult probation and parole officers. Criminal Justice Review. doi: 10.1177%2F07340168221117108

  • Boyle, K. M., Culatta, E., Turner, J. L., & Sutton, T. E. (2022). Microaggressions and mental health at the intersections of race, gender, and sexual orientation in graduate and law school. Journal of Women and Gender in Higher Education. doi: 10.1080/26379112.2022.2068149

  • Boyle, K. M., Jones, P., & Mancik, A. M. Racialized backlash: A state-level analysis of Black women’s homicide victimization by Black men, white men, and police. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.1177/00111287221134922

  • Boyle, K. M., & Rogers, K. B. (2022). Self-sentiments and depressive symptoms: A longitudinal analysis. American Behavioral Scientist. doi: 10.1177%2F00027642211066031

  • Freilich, J.D., Chermak, S. M., Mconnell, N. M., Klein, B. R., & Greene-Colozzi, E. A. (2021). Using open-source data to better understand and respond to American school shootings: Introducing and exploring the American School Shooting Study (TASSS). Journal of School Violence. doi: 10.1080/15388220.2021.1991804.

  • Hayes, W., & Boyle, K. M. (Forthcoming). Identity and hooking up at a U.S. “party school”. Deviant Behavior.  doi: 10.1080/01639625.2020.1724377.

  • Huynh, C. M., Boehme, H. M., & Lytle, D. (2023). Barriers and motivators to seeking mental health support: An assessment of a southeastern sheriff's office. Criminal Justice Review.

  • Kabiri, S., Shadmanfaat, S. M., Smith, H., & Cochran, J. K. (Forthcoming). Aggression in soccer fan’s: A test of Akers’ social learning theory. Deviant Behavior.  doi: 10.1080/01639625.2020.1763119

  • Koons-Witt, B., *Huffman, A. C., & *Wilson, A. (Forthcoming). Exploring the perceived helpfulness of correctional programs and needs among incarcerated mothers. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. doi: 10.1080/10509674.2021.2000549

  • Isom, D. A., *Boehme, H. M., *Cann, D., & *Wilson, A. (Forthcoming). The white right: A gendered look at the links between “victim” ideology and anti-black lives matter sentiments in the era of Trump. Critical Sociology. doi: 10.1177/08969205211020396

  • Isom, D. A., *Cann, D., & *Wilson, A. (Forthcoming). Discrimination, emotions, and identity: Unpacking Latinx pathways to crime. Criminal Justice and Behavior.  doi: 10.1177%2F00938548211040546

  • Isom Scott, D. A., Whiting, S., & Grosholz, J. M. (Forthcoming). Examining and expanding Latinx general strain theory. Race and Justice.  doi: 10.1177/2153368720930409

  • Mancik, A. M., Hawk, S. R., Jarvis, J. P., & Regoeczi, W. C. (Forthcoming). Evaluating fluctuations in homicide: crowdsourcing trends and assessing sentiments of change. Journal of Crime and Justice. doi: 10.1080/0735648X.2020.1842790

  • McCabe, J. E., Kaminski, R. J., & *Boehme, H. (Forthcoming). Racial  profiling and CT motor vehicle stops: An observational study in three towns. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal. doi: 10.1080/15614263.2020.1749620

  • *McLean, K., Alikhan, A., & Alpert, G. P. (Forthcoming). Re-examining the use of force continuum: Why resistance is not the only driver of use of force decisions. Police Quarterly. doi: 10.1177/10986111211066353

  • *Ouellette, H. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2022). Local incarceration as social control: A national analysis of social, economic, and political determinants of jail use in the United States. American Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1007/s12103-022-09682-9

  • Rogers, S. A., & Rogers, B. A. (2022). Advantages and challenges of queer scholars doing qualitative queer criminology and criminal justice. Crime & Delinquency. doi: 10.1177/00111287221108702.

  • Scaptura, M. N., & Boyle, K. M. (Forthcoming). Protecting manhood: Race, class, and masculinity in men's attraction to guns and aggression. Men & Masculinities. doi: 10.1177/1097184X211023545

  • Schnell, C., *Spencer, M. D., Mancik, A., Porter, L. E., Ready, J., & Alpert, G. P. (Forthcoming). Expanding Research on Investigations of Officer-Involved Shootings: An Experimental Evaluation of Question Timing on Police Officers’ Memory Recall. Criminal Justice and Behavior. doi: 10.1177/00938548211035824

  • Semenza, D. C., Grosholz, J. M., Isom, D. A., & Novisky, M. A. (Forthcoming). Mental illness and racial disparities in correctional staff-involved violence: An analysis of jails in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi: 10.1177/08862605221113023.

  • Semenza, D. C., Stansfield, R., Steidley, T., & Mancik, A. M. (Forthcoming). Firearm availability, homicide, and the context of structural disadvantage. Homicide Studies. doi: 10.1177/10887679211043806

  • *Spencer, M.D., Green, E.K., & *Bolin, R.M. (Forthcoming). Exploring the relationship between fishing regulations and angler compliance in Virginia. American Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1007/s12103-020-09576-8

  • Stansfield, R., Mancik, A., Parker, K. F., & Delacruz, M. (Forthcoming). County variation in intimate partner homicide: A comparison of Hispanic and non-Hispanic victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi: 10.1177/0886260519861657

  • *Vuk, M., & Applegate, B. K. (Forthcoming). From future orientation to readiness for reentry: An exploratory study of prelease cognitions of incarcerated men. Incarceration. doi: 10.1177%2F26326663211052282

  • Wilson, A.*, Applegate, B. K., & *Bolin, R. M. (Forthcoming). Evidence-based practices in community corrections: Officers’ perceptions of professional relevance and personal competence. American Journal of Criminal Justice. doi: 10.1007/s12103-020-09581-x

  • *Wilson, A., & Koons-Witt, B. (Forthcoming). “They still know I’m their momma”: Incarcerated mothers’ perceptions of reunification and resuming a caregiver role. Feminist Criminology. doi; 10.1177%2F1557085120983468

  • Wolfe, S. E., *McLean, K., Rojek, J., Alpert, G. P., & Smith, M. R. (Forthcoming). Advancing a theory of police officer training motivation and receptivity. Justice Quarterly. doi: 10.1080/07418825.2019.1703027

  • *Wilson, A., Koons-Witt, B., & *Pasquire, N. (Forthcoming). Mothering experiences in prison: Exploring distinctions between maternal and paternal caregiving arrangements. Family Relations. doi: 10.1111/fare.12807.

  • Andersen, T. S., Silcox, J., & Isom Scott, D. A. (2021). Constructing “bad girls”: Representations of violent girls in the Canadian and U.S. news media. Deviant Behavior, 42(3), 353-365.

  • *Bolin, R. M., Applegate, B. K., & *Ouellette, H. M. (2021). Americans’ opinions on juvenile justice: Preferred aims, beliefs about juveniles, and blended sentencing. Crime & Delinquency, 67(2), 262-286.

  • Isom, D. A., Grosholz, J. M., Whiting, S., & *Beck, T. (2021). A gendered look at Latinx general strain theory. Feminist Criminology, 16(2), 115-146.

  • Isom, D. A., *Mikell, T. C., & *Boehme, H. M. (2021). White America, threat to the status quo, and affiliation with the alt-right: A qualitative approach. Sociological Spectrum, 41(3), 213-228.

  • *Leasure, P., & Kaminski, R. J. (2021). The impact of a multiple conviction record on hiring outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, 67, 1022-1045.

  • *Leasure, P. & Kaminski, R. J. (2021). The effectiveness of certificates of relief: A correspondence audit of hiring outcomes, Journal of Empirical Legal Studies,18(4), 849-875. 

  • Martin, A., & Kaminski, R. J. (2021). On the relationship between social disorganization and police coercive action(s) in the New York City Police Department. Police Practice and Research - An International Journal, 22(1), 1095-1114.

  • Rogers, S. A., & Rogers, B. A. (2021). Trans men’s pathways to incarceration. Sociological Spectrum, 41, 115-134.

  • Sitren, A. H., Smith, H. P., Andersen, T. S., & Bookstaver, M. R. (2021). Jail visitation: An assessment of alternative modalities. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 32(3), 284-299.

  • Sutton, T. E., Culatta, E., Boyle, K. M., & Turner, J. L. (2021). Individual Vulnerability and Organizational Context as Risks for Sexual Harassment among Female Graduate Students. Social Currents, 8(3), 229-248.

  • Aizpurua, E., Applegate, B. K., *Bolin, R. M., *Vuk, M., & *Ouellette, H. M. (2020). The sins of the child: Public opinion about parental responsibility for juvenile crime. Children and Youth Services Review, 114 (105023), 1-12.

  • Andersen, T. S., Isom Scott, D. A., *Boehme, H. M., *King, S., & *Mikell, T. (2020). What matters to formerly incarcerated men? Looking beyond recidivism as a measure of successful reintegration. The Prison Journal100(4), 488-509.

  • *Boehme, H. M. & Isom Scott, D. A. (2020). Alt-white? A gendered look at “victim” ideology and the alt-right. Victims & Offenders, 15(2), 174-196.

  • *Cann, D., & Isom Scott, D. A. (2020). Sex offender residence restrictions and homelessness: A critical look at South Carolina. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 31(8), 1119-1135.

  • Isom Scott, D. (2020). The new Juan Crow? Unpacking the lnks between discrimination and crime for Latinxs. Race and Justice, 10, 20-42.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. (2020). Status, socialization, and identities: Central factors to understand disparities in crime. Sociology Compasss, 14(9), e12825.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. & Andersen, T. S. (2020). “Whitelash?” Status threat, anger, and white America: A general strain theory approach. Journal of Crime and Justice, 43(4), 414-432.

  • Kabiri, S., Shadmanfaat, S., Smith, H., & Cochran, J. (2020). A social learning model of antisocial coaching behavior. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 68, 860-879.

  • *Leasure, P. & Andersen, T. S. (2020). Race, criminal records, and certificates of relief: An experimental pilot study. Deviant Behavior, 41, 1065-1083.

  • Lin, K., & Mancik, A. M. (2020). National culture on the cross‐national variation of homicide: An empirical application of the Inglehart–Welzel cultural map. Sociological Forum, 35(4), 1114-1134.

  • Mancik, A. M., Stansfield, R., & *Kinard, S. M. (2020). Intimate partner femicide in context: An examination of firearm type across the rural/urban divide. International Journal of Rural Criminology, 5(2), 276-299.

  • *Martin, T. E., *Huffman, A., Koons-Witt, B. A., & Brame, R. (2020). Hiring people with criminal records in South Carolina: Examining businesses' hiring practices and views on incentives. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 31(4), 532-554.

  • Metcalfe, C., & *Cann, D. (2020). Arab threat and social control: An exploration of the relationship between ethnic attitudes and punitiveness among Israeli Jews. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 64(5), 498-521.

  • *McLean, K., Wolfe, S. E., Rojek, J., Alpert, G. P., & Smith, M. R. (2020). Police officers as warriors or guardians: Empirical reality or intriguing rhetoric? Justice Quarterly, 37, 1096-1118.

  • Nemeth, J. M., Viveiros, N., Lynch, K. R., Andersen, T. S., & Fisher, B. (2020). Adolescent reproductive and sexual coercion: Measurement invariance in a population-based sample of male and female high school students. Journal of Family Violence, 35, 619-632.

  • *Park, Y. & Metcalfe, C. (2020). Bullying victimization as a strain: Examining changes in bullying victimization and delinquency among Korean students from a developmental general strain theory perspective. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 57(1), 31-65.

  • Regoeczi, W. C., Jarvis, J., & Mancik, A. (2020). Homicide investigations in context: Exploring explanations for the divergent impacts of victim race, gender, elderly victims, and firearms on homicide clearances. Homicide Studies, 24(1), 25-44.

  • Scaptura, M. N. & Boyle, K. B. (2020). Masculinity threat, “incel” traits, and violent fantasies among heterosexual men in the United States. Feminist Criminology, 15(3), 278-298.

  • Shadmanfaat, S. M., Kabiri, S., Smith, H., & Cochran, J. K. (2020). A longitudinal study of Iranian fans’ cyberbullying: The utility of social learning theory. Deviant Behavior, 41, 1616-1635.

  • *Spencer, M.D. (2020). The Problem of Wildlife Poaching on U.S. Federal Lands. A Problem Solving Guide: Wilderness Problems, Guide No. 1. Phoenix, AZ: Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, Arizona State University.

  • Stoughton, S. W., Noble, J. J., & Alpert, G. P. (2020). Evaluating police uses of force. New York University Press.

  • *Vuk, M., Applegate, B. K., *Ouellette, H. M., *Bolin, R. M., & Aizpurua, E. (2020). The pragmatic public? The impact of practical concerns on support for punitive and rehabilitative prison policies. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 273-292.

  • Wilson, T., Loughran, T., & Brame, R. (2020). Substantial bias in the tobit estimator: Making a case for alternatives. Justice Quarterly, 37, 231-257.

  • Wolfe, S., Rojek, J., *McLean, K., & Alpert, G. (2020). Social interaction training to reduce police use of force. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 687, 124-145.

  • Fairchild, A. J., Gupta-Kagan, J., & Andersen, T. S. (2019). Operationalizing intake: Variations in juvenile court intake procedures and their implications. Children and Youth Services Review, 102, 91-101.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. & Grosholz, J. M. (2019). Unpacking the racial disparity in crime from a racialized general strain theory perspective. Deviant Behavior, 40(12), 1445-1463.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. & *Mikell, T. (2019). "Gender" and general strain theory: Investigating the impact of gender socialization on young women's criminal outcomes. Journal of Crime and Justice,42(4), 393-413.

  • Isom Scott, D. & *Seal, Z. T. (2019). Disentangling the roles of negative emotions and racial identity in the theory of African American offending. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 44, 277-308.

  • Mancik, A. M., & Parker, K. F. (2019). Homicide clearances during pre- and post-U.S. crime drop eras: the role of structural predictors and demographic shifts, 1976–2015. Journal of Crime and Justice, 2(3), 237-256.

  • Schnell, C., Grossman, L., & Braga, A. (2019). The routine activities of violent crime places: A retrospective case-control study of crime opportunities on street segments. Journal of Criminal Justice, 60, 140-153.

  • Smith, H. P. (2019). A rescue dog program in two maximum-security prisons: A qualitative study. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 58(4), 305-326.

  • Smith, H. P., Kaminski, R. J., Power, J., & Slade, K. (2019). Self-harming behaviors in prison: A comparison of suicidal processes, self-injurious behaviors, and mixed events. Criminal Justice Studies, 32(3), 264-286.

  • Smith, H. P., Power, J., Usher, A. M., Sitren, A. H., & Slade, K. (2019). Working with prisoners who self-harm: A qualitative study on stress, denial of weakness, and encouraging resilience in a sample of correctional staff. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 29(1), 7-17.

  • Tiesman, H. M., Gwilliam, M., Rojek, J., Hendricks, S., Montgomery, B., & Alpert, G. (2019). The impact of a crash prevention program in a large law enforcement agency. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 62(10), 847-858.

  • *Wilson, A. (2019). Returning to academia: The value of perspective. The Criminologist, 44(6), 37-39.

  • Andersen, T. S. (2018). Social support and one-year outcomes for women participating in prison-based substance abuse treatment programming. Criminal Justice Studies, 31, 80-94.

  • *Bolin, R. M. & Applegate, B. K. (2018). Supervising juveniles and adults: organizational context, professional orientations, and probation and parole officer behaviors. Journal of Crime and Justice, 41, 410-426.

  • *Crittenden, C. A., Koons-Witt, B. A., & Kaminiski, R. J. (2018). Being assigned work in prison: Do gender and race matter? Feminist Criminology, 13, 359-381.

  • Hine, K. A., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. J., & Alpert, G. P. (2018). Too much or too little? Individual and situational predictors of police force relative to suspect resistance. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy, 28, 587-604.

  • Hine, K. A., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. J., Alpert, G. P., & Allen, A. (2018). Exploring police use of force decision-making processes and impairments using a naturalistic decision-making approach. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 45, 1782-1801.

  • Isom Scott, D. (2018). Latina fortitude in the face of disadvantage: Exploring the conditioning effects of ethnic identity and gendered ethnic identity on Latina offending. Critical Criminology, 26, 49-73.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. (2018). Disentangling the impact of female victimization across racial and ethnic lines. Victims & Offenders, 13, 711-737.

  • Isom Scott, D. A. (2018). Understanding white Americans' percetions of "reverse" discrimination: An application of a new theory of status dissonance. In S. R. Thye & E. J. Lawler (eds.), Advances in Group Processes, Volume 35. Emerald Publishing Limited (pp. 129-157). 

  • Koons-Witt, B. & Crittenden, C. (2018). Gender differences and program participation among prisoners with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57, 431-458.

  • Metcalfe, C. & Chiricos, T. (2018). Race, plea, and charge reduction: An assessment of racial disparities in the plea process. Justice Quarterly, 35, 223-253.

  • Metcalfe, C. & *Hodge, O. (2018). Empowering the police to fight terrorism in Israel. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 18, 585-603.

  • Owens, E., Weisburd, D., Amendola, K. L., & Alpert, G. P. (2018). Can you build a better cop? Experimental evidence on supervision, training, and policing in the community. Criminology & Public Policy, 17, 41-87.

  • Sevigny, E.L. & *Zhang, G. (2018). Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools? Journal of School Violence, 17, 164-179.

  • Applegate, B. K. (2017). Advancing justice through our students. Justice Quarterly, 34, 727-738.

  • *Crittenden, C. A. & Koons-Witt, B. A. (2017). Gender and programming: A comparison of program availability and participation in U.S. prisons. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61, 611-644.

  • *Ferdik, F. V. & Smith, H. P. (2017). Correctional officer safety and wellness literature. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from:

  • Iratzoqui, A. & Metcalfe, C. (2017). Set up for failure? Examining the influence of monetary sanctions on probation success. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28, 370-393.

  • *Leasure, P. (2017). Neutralizations in retail banking: A qualitative analysis. Deviant Behavior, 38, 448-460.

  • Alpert, G. P., *McLean, K., & Wolfe, S. (2017). Consent decrees: An approach to police accountability and reform. Police Quarterly, 20, 239-249.

  • *Nix, J., Campbell, B. A., Byers, E. H., & Alpert, G. P. (2017). A bird's eye view of civilians killed by police in 2015: Further evidence of implicit bias. Criminology & Public Policy, 16, 309-340.

  • *Ouellette, H. M., Applegate, B. K., & *Vuk, M. (2017). The public’s stance on prisoner reentry: Policy support and personal acceptance. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 768-789.

  • Porter, L. E. & Alpert, G. P. (2017). Understanding police recruits' attitudes toward public interactions: An Australian example. Police Quarterly, 20, 449-480.

  • Sitren, A. H. & Smith, H. P. (2017). Teaching criminal justice online: Current status and important considerations. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 28, 352-367.

  • Wolfe, S. E., *Chrusciel, M. M., Rojek, J., Hansen, J. A., & Kaminski, R. J. (2017). Procedural justice, legitimacy, and school principals' evaluations of school resource officers: Support, perceived effectiveness, trust, and satisfaction. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28, 107-138.

 South Carolina Law Enforcement Census

The South Carolina Law Enforcement Census is an annual project conducted by researchers in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. The purpose of the Census is to provide law enforcement agencies in our state with empirical evidence concerning contemporary issues of importance to policing in South Carolina.

The overarching goal of the annual census is to produce a research report (that is posted online) that will prove useful to executives, their agencies, and, ultimately, the communities in South Carolina they serve.

The issues examined in the census change annually. In the past, we have conducted research on issues surrounding terrorism, immigration, gang violence, school resource officers, officer-involved vehicle collisions, and body-worn cameras (see links to PDF reports below). We also periodically conduct a Census that explores issues such as personnel, budgets, salaries, equipment, and policies.

A key component of the census is law enforcement executive participation in developing ideas for upcoming research projects. We encourage executives throughout the state to contact Scott Wolfe, Ph.D. ( or Bob Kaminski, Ph.D. ( if they have issues they would like to see explored in the census. Many of the topics we research each year developed because of this process.

 Census Research Staff

 Yearly Census Reports

Challenge the conventional. Create the exceptional. No Limits.