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Presenter Name(s) Mentor Name(s) Abstract Title Session Time
Martin, Hannah Gwara, Scott “I think the king is but a man”: Constructing Empire in the Chronique Anonyme Universelle
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One of the few medieval texts to circulate in scroll format, the Chronique Anonyme Universelle defines political empire from the perspective of cosmic history, arguing for a fundamentally Christian approach to just rulership. A fragmentary copy of the text, University of South Carolina Early MS 148, conveniently conveys this Christian focus in religious and secular “columns”: the (primary) left-hand side of the scroll is devoted to religious subject-matter, while the right covers secular events. Further parallel columns of text section historical eras into ever-finer subdivisions. This format invites readers to construe the work both linearly and laterally. One outlook established by these implicit correlations credits the righteous sovereign for the establishment and success of empire, and the sinful sovereign for its decline and overthrow. My study conceives of the Chronique Anonyme Universelle as a literary analogy meant to instruct French nobility on the obligations attending their own governance. In my presentation I will explore specifically how governance is conveyed by illustrations of key moments in the history of empire. In conversation with the text, small “roundels” imply a cycle of virtuous building and cataclysmic destruction through the depiction of technology. In one moment, for example, the king directs his architect, and the architect his laborers, in the construction of Rome. As the city is built through the sovereign’s vision, power and righteousness, so too is empire constructed by his command of creativity, labor and administration. Stone by stone, the city is built by its inhabitants—and, citizen by citizen, the empire is built with its inhabitants. Naturally, empire is a joint enterprise that stems from the ruler’s faith in God and the citizens’ faith in the ruler. The philosophy of just rulership that emerges from these graphic elements is foundationally Christian in spirit, emphasizing the humility required to safeguard all who contribute to the empire.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Puckett, Hannah Lenhard, Matthew
Cook, James
Sanasi-Bhola, Kamla
Harding, Ivory
Fisher, Katelyn
Assessing Risk of Post-Cesarean Endometritis and Implementing Vaginal Iodine Preparation in the High-Risk Pregnant Population: Quality Improvement and Risk Reduction Pilot Study
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Introduction: There are >2,400 deliveries per year at our tertiary referral center (Prisma Health Midlands – PHM), which covers 16 counties in the Midlands region of South Carolina. Approximately 30% of our deliveries are cesarean, and we encounter infections daily, though our rate of endometritis is unknown. Post-partum endometritis is an ascending infection that affects approximately 1-3% of all types of deliveries, and cesarean deliveries carry a 10-20-fold higher rate of infections compared to vaginal deliveries. A recent meta-analysis showed a 67% decrease in the rate of endometritis amongst high-risk patients (actively laboring and/or amniotomy before proceeding with cesarean) who received vaginal cleansing for > 30 seconds prior to delivery. Our study aims to determine the current rate of endometritis and demographic information of subjects in our cohort at PHM who were readmitted or treated post-operatively over a 12-month period and compare the rate of post-op endometritis at our institution to other institutions or to published data. Methods: Retrospective chart review of Labor and Delivery subjects at PHM from 05/01/2018 to 04/30/2019. Consecutive patient charts were evaluated and identified as meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Identified charts were then assessed for 19 epidemiological variables. Results: The rate of endometritis among our cohort was 5.76%. There were higher rates of endometritis among the deliveries of later gestational ages. On average, post-cesarean patients with a diagnosis of endometritis were younger, spent more hours in labor, and experienced an increased number of cervical checks. Fevers > 100.4℉ had a high specificity (99.2%) but a lower sensitivity (68.8%) in diagnosing endometritis. Conclusions: The rate of endometritis among our cohort was lower than the rate among the unplanned CS cohort (11%) of the reference study but higher than the rate among unplanned CS with intact membranes cohort (5%). Phase 2 of our study involves initiating protocol of vaginal iodine pre-operatively in high-risk patients and determining if this intervention matches accepted rates of risk reduction.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Wright, Pamela Corbett, Cynthia Health-Related Quality-of-Life and Exercise Perceptions among Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
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Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common chronic endocrinopathy, is associated with risk factors that increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. First-line management recommendations include exercise. However, exercise benefits, barriers, and outcome expectations among women with PCOS and the potential association of these perceptions with health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) are unknown. Purpose: Explore HRQoL, potential exercise barriers and facilitators, and exercise outcome expectations among premenopausal women with PCOS. Methods: In this descriptive study, online survey respondents (n=935), recruited from PCOS social support websites, included women aged 18-42 who self-reported a PCOS diagnosis. Survey data was collected using Qualtrics (Provo, Utah) and transferred to SPSS (Chicago, Illinois) and cleaned. Descriptive statistics were computed for each variable. Multiple regression will be performed to explore associations between HRQoL, exercise barriers, facilitators, outcome expectations, and depressive symptoms. Results: Respondents were 32 ± 10.6 years of age, mostly White (72%), well-educated (56% had a college degree), married (69%), and employed full-time (65%). Mean HRQoL was 2.7±0.6 with subscales ranging from 2.4 ± 0.7 to 3.2 ± 1.1. Mean scores were calculated for exercise benefit/barrier ratio (0.9), exercise outcome expectations (2.4 ± 0.8), and depressive symptoms (20.4 ± 5.8). Conclusions: Preliminary results indicate that respondents reported low HRQoL, particularly in the psychosocial/emotional domain and the physical domains of obesity, menstruation, and hirsutism. Exercise barriers were perceived greater than exercise benefits. Barriers included facility issues (e.g., gym fees), time commitment, and lack of social support. Overall, the respondents had low exercise outcome expectations and high depressive symptoms. These characteristics may interfere with exercise participation among women with PCOS. Research is needed to discern effective strategies for exercise initiation and maintenance and to evaluate the effects of exercise on HRQoL and depressive symptoms among women with PCOS. Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, health-related quality of life, exercise barriers and facilitators, exercise outcome expectations

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Davis, Kelli
Buono, Alyssa
Ricker, Erin Code Curriculum at Your Fingertips: Pediatric Resident Code Curriculum Quality Improvement Project
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Cardiopulmonary arrest is infrequent in pediatric patients, but requires rapid decision making, technical skills, and a well-coordinated response by the healthcare team for a successful outcome. Often, residents are the first responders in code situations but due to lack of experience, many remain uncomfortable leading and managing emergent codes. For this reason, a quality improvement project at Prisma Health Children’s Hospital Midlands was developed in July 2018 to initiate a mock code curriculum involving monthly written assessments, simulated code assessments, and unscheduled mock codes to increase resident confidence and performance in real code scenarios. The 2019-2020 quality improvement project continued this mock code curriculum with the additional intervention of a reference Code Quick Card provided to each pediatric resident. Results showed an overall improvement in average time to Zoll lead placement from 6:56 to 6:01, time to start of chest compression from 1:33 to 1:13, and time to defibrillation from 12:47 to 7:51 but no improvement in time to establishing airway or time to epinephrine administration in mock codes for the 2019-2020 academic year compared to 2018-2019. Survey results showed an average improvement of all pediatric resident self-perceived confidence with codes by 16%. Written code quiz scores improved overall by an average of about 70%.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Lynn, Heather
Beaty, Elizabeth
Blackburn, Melanie Readmissions in Pediatrics: Results of a Resident-Aimed Quality Improvement Project to Reduce Readmission Rates at a Medium-Sized Academic Pediatric Hospital
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Introduction: Readmissions are an expensive concern that all hospitals must address. Research has shown that there are some attributes that can be linked to an increased risk of readmission. At Prisma Health Children’s Hospital steps have been taken to improve readmission rates such as initiating a Readmission Quality Improvement Team. The purpose of this project was to reduce the rate of inpatient 30-day readmission by 10% by March 2020 through the implementation of standard discharge instructions for specific diagnoses. Methods: Pre-intervention data was collected from July 2018 to March 2019 and post-intervention data was collected from July 2019 to March 2020 using data that had been compiled by the Readmission Quality Improvement Team. Discharge Smart Phrases were created for the most common admission/discharge diagnoses and distributed to the residents for use. The Fisher exact test was utilized to compare pre- and post-intervention data. Results: From July 2018 to March 2019, there were 5,604 discharges and of those, 49 (0.87%) were readmitted. From July 2019 to March 2020, there were 5,774 discharges and of those, 236 (4.09%) were readmitted. Discussion: Upon evaluation of the data, no statistically significant difference was found between the readmission rate prior to the implementation of Discharge Smart Phrases compared to after. During the course of this project, the method used to collect readmission data by the hospital was changed which could have been a confounding factor interfering with data analysis. Conclusion: Though this project did not result in the decrease of readmission rates by the use of Discharge Smart Phrases, it did collect demographic data that may be used to determine how to target future interventions.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Odhiambo, Chrisogonas
Wright, Pamela
Corbett, Cynthia
Valafar, Homayoun
Medication Adherence Monitoring Using Neural Networks on Smartwatch Accelerometer Sensor Data
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Background. Medication adherence among people with chronic conditions is a global problem that contributes to preventable morbidity and mortality and resulted in $2.7 trillion avoidable health care costs. Recent advances in sensor technology and artificial intelligence present an innovative opportunity to objectively measure and assist with medication adherence. Purpose. Develop an artificial intelligence neural network, using the accelerometer signals from wearable smart watches, that can reliably (>80%) detect medication-taking gestures. Methods. This ongoing study’s three stages include data collection, training of artificial neural networks, and evaluation. Following receipt of supplies (watch and phone, medication bottle, candy as placebo medications), recruited participants (n = 26 to date) were trained via videoconferencing to collect data by simulating medication-taking 10 times/day over 10 different days. Week one involved participants’ natural way of medication-taking and week two, involved a scripted way of medication-taking. The participants then transferred data from the smart watch to the smart phone and then to the research cloud, which is downloaded and pre-processed as an input to train the neural network for pattern recognition. Two approaches were used to partition the dataset to train, validate, and test the neural network. In the first approach, the dataset was split in the ratio of 80:20, and the test dataset was sliced out of the main dataset. In the second approach, the 80:20 train/validation partition was maintained, except the model test data was a separate dataset omitted from the training data. Specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy will be used to measure the performance of the methods. Results. The highest accuracies for the two tested training approaches for scripted gestures were 98.5% and 97.07%. The second approach provided a more realistic picture of how the model would perform or generalize in a real deployment. This technique will be further tested as more data is collected from additional participants. Conclusions. The findings of this study will positively impact scientific knowledge about medication-taking gestures and provide an artificial intelligence approach to objectively monitor medication adherence. In the future, this artificial intelligence technology could be used by clinicians or caregivers to monitor and improve medication adherence.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Owens, Landon Wenning, Derick Systemic Histoplasmosis with Fibrosing Mediastinitis in a Toddler
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Histoplasmosis is the most common systemic mycosis in the USA, caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which is usually asymptomatic in non- immunocompromised hosts and is classically associated with spelunking. Symptomatic infection in children is uncommon. Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare complication of histoplasmosis that is progressive and resistant to treatment. A 30-month-old male was brought to the pediatric emergency department by his mother with 4 pounds weight loss and decreased activity for four weeks, with recent development of dry cough and occasional labored breathing, without fever. On exam he appeared fatigued and cachectic, with clear lungs and a normal neurological exam. A failure-to-thrive work-up was initiated including a chest x-ray, which showed a rounded density in the right upper lobe with tracheal deviation. A subsequent computed tomography for better characterization showed a mass measuring 4.4 cm in diameter without calcification which abutted the thoracic aorta, trachea, and right mainstem bronchus. This was not felt to be thymic tissue. Differential diagnosis included neuroblastoma, lymphoma, germ cell tumor, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, or nontuberculus mycobacterium. The patient was admitted to the hospital and was given partial parenteral nutrition and underwent surgical biopsy, which was notable for hard fibrotic tissue that was poorly vascularized. Workup included histoplasmosis complement fixation, which was strongly positive (1:512) and urinary antigen, which resulted negative. Biopsy pathology showed extensive fibrosis, suggestive of fibrotic mediastinitis, secondary to histoplasmosis infection. He was started on Itraconazole for the typical six-month course although unfortunately this complication of Histoplasmosis is not usually responsive to treatment or surgery. During his hospitalization he was transitioned to drinking children’s protein beverages and grew more energetic, although he had developed an aversion to solid foods. After stabilization he was discharged. On a follow-up CT two months later, the mass had not grown significantly and the patient had gained nearly five pounds. This case illustrates the need for mycosis to be considered in a patient with upper respiratory symptoms, especially in one with an immature immune system or immune compromise. Histoplasmosis is endemic to the United States and failure to recognize it may lead increased morbidity and mortality.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Snedecor, Kelsey Staples, Heather Long Winded: A quality improvement project to increase the usage and understanding of Asthma Action Plans in the pediatric inpatient setting
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Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in pediatrics, affecting more than 5.5 million children and adolescents in the US in 20181. Studies have repeatedly shown that Asthma Action Plans improve health care outcomes.9,15 The goal of this quality improvement project was to improve the frequency and patient understanding of asthma action plans for patients admitted to the Children’s Hospital with an asthma-related illness. Residents were provided with the new AAP and were taught correct dosing and usage of medications. The new AAPs had a Flesch-Kincaid Readability score of 5.9, which is below the 6th grade reading level. The original Children’s Hospital APP had a score of 7.5.13 Residents were provided with pre- and post-surveys assessing the percentages of asthma action plans (AAPs) provided to patients at discharge, percentage of teaching provided by the residents to the families, and barriers to providing the plans to patients. Two PDSA cycles ran from Jan-March 2020. Pre-intervention, only 22% of residents were giving out written asthma action plans (AAPs) >75% of the time. During the first cycle, this increased to 70% and 66% after cycle 2. Only 26% of residents reported taking the time to teach the plans to patients and their families >75% of the time. This increased to 60% after PDSA-1 and 66% after PDSA-2. Initially, 17% of residents believed that the patient and their families understood >75% of the information on the AAP. After the first cycle, this number increased to 60% after PDSA-1 and 66% after PDSA-2. The two most common barriers for residents were forgetfulness and time constraints. Time constraints decreased to 20% after two cycles, but forgetfulness was still common. At the end of cycle 2, 100% of residents reported that they liked the new AAP and found it more convenient. The new format of the action plan used in this study improved resident compliance and decreased the time spent filling out the plans. It also reemphasized that low literacy, updated, and customized plans help asthmatic patients and their families better understand their disease and manage medications.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Patterson, Paige Edwards, Hollie The use of simulations to improve resident learning in hospital based scenarios: A quality improvement project
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Introduction: Despite studies that show that learning and knowledge retention is improved with simulation based learning, medical education continues to center around an apprentice based learning model. Aim: This quality improvement project aimed to improve resident education and increase knowledge and learning through the institution of a simulation based learning curriculum that focuses on commonly encountered urgent but non-emergent inpatient clinical scenarios using high fidelity mannequins. The goal was for post simulation test scores to increase by 5% for each learning topic with a resident rating on the simulations of 8.0 or higher. Methods: Time was set aside for the residents to participate in the simulations during each of their inpatient blocks. Residents took a pre-simulation test evaluating their knowledge of the topic, completed the simulation with the high fidelity mannequin followed by a short teaching session, then answered the same questions in a post-simulation test that additionally surveyed how they would rank the simulation in terms of helpfulness to their education on a scale from 1-10. Pre and post-simulation test scores were averaged and compared for improvement for each simulation topic. Results: For each of the four learning topics that were addressed with the inpatient simulation curriculum, there were increases in average post simulation test scores. The bronchiolitis simulation had an increase of 4%, status asthmaticus improved by 10%, status epilepticus scores increased by 29%, and septic shock scores showed an increase of 8%. Additionally, the simulations were rated an 8.7, 9.1, 9.1, and 9.3 respectively by residents in terms of helpfulness to their education. Conclusions: Average test scores improved after each of the four simulations implemented with the new inpatient simulation curriculum and were rated highly valuable to the inpatient learning experience by the participating residents.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Satme, Joud Downey, Austin Structural Health Monitoring using a Drone Delivered Sensor Package
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This paper presents a novel method of procuring and processing data for the assessment of civil structures via vibration monitoring. This includes the development of a custom sensor package designed to minimize size/weight while being fully self sufficient (i.e. does not rely on external power). The developed package is delivered to the structure utilizing a customized Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), otherwise known as a drone. The sensor package features an electropermanent magnet for securing it to the civil structure while a second magnet is used to secure the package to the drone during flight. In this work, the novel B-Spline Impulse Response Function (BIRF) technique is utilized to extract the Dynamic Signature Response (DSR) from data collected by the sensor package. A series of tests were performed to validate the feasibility of these methods including a flight test and data collection tests. The flight tests confirmed the ability of the drone to deliver and recover the sensor package from the underside of a structure. The same structure is used to demonstrate that the DSR techniques successfully detect structural damage in a fast and efficient way. The advantages and limitations of the proposed techniques at their current states are discussed and recommendations for further developments are made.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Honan, Lauren Hashemi, Parastoo Optimization of Serotonin Detection: Efforts Towards Improved in vivo Analysis
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The serotonergic system is commonly studied due to its altered levels in mood disorders, including depression. The release and reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) have been extensively studied via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), but little is known about ambient levels of 5-HT in the extracellular space. Preliminary data using fast-scan controlled adsorption voltammetry (FSCAV) revealed distinct oscillatory patterns in ambient 5-HT. It has been shown that 5-HT levels are tightly regulated in the central nervous system making measurements of this analyte difficult to perform. Therefore to better understand these oscillatory patterns and to improve the general quality of detection of 5-HT, a two-fold approach was applied: 1) The time parameters of FSCAV (background collection, controlled adsorption, redox, and inter-file time) were optimized to improve temporal resolution and surpass the Nyquist limit, 2) Various biologically relevant amino acids were included in buffer solutions to better understand how the in vivo environment influences sensitivity to 5-HT. Combined, these efforts will allow us to filter out technical noise, better visualize the biologically relevant oscillations of ambient 5-HT levels, and ultimately lead to a better understanding of the serotonergic system.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Hendrix, Andrew Sarzynski, Mark Does global methylation relate to bodyweight changes in children?
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This study seeks to determine the association between participants’ global methylation and their BMI/weight trajectory during the transition from middle school to high school. Additionally, this study will also examine the effect of physical activity in mediating or moderating this association. The data used in this experiment comes from the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids (TRACK) study conducted by Dr. Russ Pate. DNA extraction from buccal swabs will be completed using the mini Genomic DNA kit from IBI Scientific. Upon extraction, global DNA methylation will be accessed using Epigentek methylflash DNA Colorimetric ELISA kit. This kit quantifies DNA methylation status by measuring levels of 5-methylcytosine in a simplified, one-step ELISA-like reaction. Data Analysis for each student will then be conducted by composing a BMI/weight trajectory that considers each participant’s change in body weight from 5th grade to 11th grade. These trajectories will then be grouped into similar trends. Statistical models will examine whether global DNA methylation differs between bodyweight trajectory groups.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Schreiber, Daniel Harrison, Sayward
Hastings, Tessa
Knowledge of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among Health Professional Students in South Carolina
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a health crisis in the United States, with an estimated 1.1 million individuals living with HIV as of 2016, and 38,739 new diagnoses of HIV in 2017. The crisis is particularly of concern in the states of the Deep South, which account for nearly half of new HIV infections in the US, despite only accounting for 38% of the US population. To combat this issue, Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), a once-a-day pill recommended for persons at high risk for HIV, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2012. Compelling data shows that PrEP reduces an individual’s risk of HIV infection by ~99% when taken daily. However, despite the demonstrated efficacy, PrEP uptake remains slow. The barrier to the uptake and usage of PrEP this that is of most concern to this study is the lack of awareness and knowledge of PrEP among healthcare professionals, especially in the South. This project seeks to assess the PrEP-related knowledge and awareness of students in health-related professional programs at UofSC, as well as identify where and in what context such knowledge is being acquired by the surveyed students. Students’ awareness of PrEP, PrEP knowledge, sources of PrEP knowledge, general HIV knowledge, and HIV-related stigma will be assessed via the completion of web-based online surveys and focus groups. We will then systematically review curriculum lists to determine any courses where HIV and/or HIV prevention may be topics and review syllabi for key phrases of relevance to the study (e.g., “HIV,” “PrEP,” “pre-exposure to HIV,” “HIV prevention”, etc.). The results of this study could be vital in developing more well-informed curriculums for health-related programs, enabling us to intercept students while they are still in a learning environment and inform them of the effectiveness of PrEP before entering the health workforce. A more comprehensive understanding of PrEP among future healthcare providers could be instrumental in lowering the rates of HIV infection, especially in a region that is disproportionately burdened by the virus.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Roland, Mary Kubinak, Jason B-cell-intrinsic MHCII Signaling Promotes Microbiota Diversity
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The expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules is essential for the formation of germinal centers (GC) in lymphoid follicles, which are the primary sites for the generation of T-cell-dependent (TD) high-affinity antibody responses. Gut peyer's patches (PPs) are the dominant peripheral lymphoid tissues that give rise to TD antibody (primarily immunoglobulin A (IgA)) responses generated against the gut microbiota. While it is anticipated, a requirement of B-cell-intrinsic MHCII expression for GC formation has never been formally described. Additionally, while anti-commensal TD IgA responses have been shown to regulate microbiota composition and function, to what degree B-cell-intrinsic MHCII influences this process is also undefined. Here, we use a RAG1-/- adoptive transfer model where RAG1-/- mice are either reconstituted with naive CD4+ T cells and MHCII+ B cells or naive CD4+ T cells and MHCII- B cells to address these gaps in our knowledge. Results from these experiments demonstrate that B-cell-intrinsic MHCII signaling is a strict requirement for GC-TFH cell development. Consequently, B-cell-intrinsic MHCII signaling promotes the generation of high-affinity anti-commensal IgA responses in the gut, which lead to increased species richness within the fecal but not small intestinal microbial community. Collectively, our data suggest that B-cell-intrinsic MHCII signaling is crucial for the generation of high-affinity anti-commensal IgA responses generated against the gut microbiota, and that this response favors a more diverse bacterial community.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Daneshian, Leily Chruszcz, Maksymilian Molecular Basis of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Resistance in Tetranychus urticae
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Invasive pest species are a major cause of crop loss around the world and adversely affect the agricultural industry. We are focusing on Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite; TSSM), which is a polyphagous pest that targets more than 1100 plant species. The TSSM alone causes a loss of roughly $1.6 billion per year globally due to acaricide resistance. It is developing resistance to most acaricides due to rapid growth and reproduction. Therefore, new acaricides are needed to combat TSSM resistance and infestation [1]. To address this problem, four enzymes of TSSM, intradiol ring cleavage dioxygenases, a glutathione S-transferase, a β cyanoalanine synthase, and uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases, are characterized. These enzymes contribute to the detoxification system of TSSM and are potential protein targets to develop new acaricides. Intradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenases are involved in the breakdown and metabolism of toxic aromatic compounds [2]. Glutathione S-transferases conjugate reduced glutathione to xenobiotics for detoxification and have been associated with insecticide resistance [3]. The β cyanoalanine synthase is known for detoxification of cyanide and silencing this gene in TSSM reduces the survival of the mites on cyanogenic plants [4]. Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the covalent addition of sugar moieties from UDP sugar donors to xenobiotics to facilitate their elimination from cells [5]. UGTs are known for the detoxification of acaricides such as abamectin. Here we have structurally and functionally characterized these proteins, particularly focusing on revealing the crystal structure of enzymes with the intention of exposing unique properties that will allow for the design of new acaricides.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Wagner, Koby Oswald-Hensley, Anna Amazing Life of Koby Wagner
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In this presentation you will see the steps that I have taken towards being a leader in my pathway of Professional and Civic engagement along with who I am. In my first beyond the classroom experience I was a Ranch hand for a local ranch called Stanton Ranch. This was hard and consistent work however it taught me a lot. While working at the ranch I learned a lot of responsibility like making sure the animals were taken care of, but also the equipment. This job gave me great leadership skills as I was the lead man on the job, and making sure everyone did their part, along with keeping the place together. Along with leadership lessons this job allowed me to take pride in all that I do, whether that be picking up horse crap or doing my assignments, and I feel that is the biggest take away for me. The next beyond the classroom experience is being a team captain for my soccer team at Lakewood highschool. This role allowed me to really step towards being a leader for my peers. As the captain I kept everyone in line in terms of making sure they are giving it their all along with showing each other respect. I feel this was a huge step for me towards my pathway goal because it allowed me to grow as a leader and it gave myself confidence knowing that I could lead my peers. When looking into my presentation you see that I am huge about sports, along with school and family. I take a lot of pride when it comes to my athletics and academics. In this presenstaint you will get to see some of my most memorable moments during my times in highschool and USC Sumter with my friends and family.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Lauber, Meagan
Faulkner, Madisen
Fowler, Lauren
Tucker, Matthew
Mobley, Julie
Evaluating Non-Invasive Objective Measures of Fatigue and Time of Day Effects in Medical Students
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Fatigue has long been an issue among healthcare workers, being associated with increased occurrences of medical errors, decreased task efficiency, and lower quality of patient care. Due to the prevalence of shiftwork and the biological strain of operating against one’s circadian clock, medical professionals are at high risk for fatigue. In order to minimize accidental harm and optimize care, it is necessary to develop accessible, non-invasive, and reliable measures of fatigue. Fatigue is often measured via self-report questionnaires. However, this approach is limited twofold; fatigue is a multidimensional experience and such measures are inherently subjective and most measures do not account for time-of-day variations. Therefore, it is prudent to not only develop an objective measure of fatigue that can be cross-validated with subjective data, but to also examine how fatigue varies with time-of-day. Being a reliable, non-invasive, and quantifiable measure of cognitive activity, EEG presents such an opportunity to objectively measure fatigue. Thirty first-and second-year medical students were recruited from the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville. Participants completed two consecutive data collection sessions approximately 12 hours apart, where their responses on the Epworth Sleepiness and Karolinska Alertness Scales were recorded to assess time-of-day effects on perceived fatigue. Participants were also hooked up to a 32 channel EEG cap for 5 minutes to objectively measure fatigue and time-of-day effects. Data analyses are underway, and we expect to find a positive correlation between higher scores on fatigue questionnaires and an increase in low-frequency theta and alpha wave activity indicated by EEG, with both measures demonstrating greater fatigue during the evening test condition. Obtaining objective measures of fatigue and time-of-day effects is important, as medical professionals would be more likely to develop countermeasures against fatigue if they were aware that they were more physiologically fatigued than indicated by subjective assessments.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Mewborne, Quinlan Green, Jessica EEG Correlates of Consciousness
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Our project is an electroencephalogram (EEG) study that aims to explore how the brain’s processing of facial emotions differs in conscious and unconscious perception. We are also using the same data set to study how symptoms of depression and anxiety correlate with individual differences in EEG markers of conscious processing. We aim to study how the emotional expressions of faces affects our conscious awareness and it neural signatures. This is critical to understanding both conscious awareness and how mood and anxiety disorders may influence what we perceive in our environment. By studying visual processing of facial stimuli in the absence of awareness, we anticipate gaining a greater understanding of the nature of consciousness and the underlying neural differences in depression and anxiety.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Suchy, Christine Schammel, Christine Breast Cancer Metastasizing to the GI Tract
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Breast cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is rare. Takeuchi et al. reported metastasis of breast cancer to the gastrointestinal tract (GI) in less than 1%, or only 17 of 2,604 cases over an 18-year period. The most common sites of breast cancer metastasis are bones, lungs, the central nervous system, and the liver with few reports of GI involvement (7). Using data from current literature, the most common areas of GI involvement are the upper GI tract including the stomach and small intestine. The lower GI tract, including the colon and rectum, are less commonly affected. Infiltrating lobular carcinomas are more commonly associated with metastasis to the GI tract (5), whereas invasive ductal carcinomas are more frequently associated with spread to the liver, lungs, and brain (3). According to Kim et al., invasive lobular carcinoma accounts for 83% of all metastases from malignant breast tumors (2). Furthermore, there is a low response rate to chemotherapy in infiltrating lobular carcinoma patients with a median survival rate of 2 years (4). This implies a poor prognosis, particularly for gastric metastasis. It is important to distinguish a primary gastrointestinal cancer from metastatic breast cancer in order to administer the appropriate treatment to the patient.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Lew, Madi Oswald-Hensley, Anna My Experience as an Opportunity Scholars Program Representative
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I thoroughly enjoyed the role I served an OSP Representative for the spring semester. As an OSP representative, I mainly helped out around the office with tasks like shredding and copying as well as typical administrative tasks like pulling files and sorting papers. As an OSP representative, I was responsible to represent OSP members with giving ideas for cultural trips and helping to prepare for monthly meetings and workshops. This role helped to grow my leadership skills in a variety of ways; it was also interesting to get a feel for the inner-workings of an administrative role, something that has always appealed when it comes to my future career interests.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Khathayer, Firas Ray, Swapan Evaluation of Therapeutic Efficacy of Combination of 4HPR and SAHA In Inhibition of Growth of Human Glioblastoma T98G Cells in Zebrafish Xenograft Model
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Use of xenograft of human cancer cells in animal is an important area for evaluating efficacy of new therapeutic agents. Rodent model is used long time as standard model for many of scientific researches to understanding the biology of glioblastoma, but they are not suitable for high- throughput screening for evaluating of new therapies. Our laboratory used embryo of zebrafish (Danio rerio) xenotransplantation of human glioblastoma T98G cells as a new animal model for studying biology of glioblastoma in vivo and efficacy of a novel combination therapy to treatment of glioblastoma cells . Zebrafish model is a relatively rapid, ease, small size, and cost-effective in vivo model of human glioblastoma. Furthermore, the immune system in zebrafish is absent until embryogenic day 9 that might make it topical animal model in xenotransplantation. Glioblastoma is the most common aggressive tumor in central nervous system. Despite the current therapies to treatment of glioblastoma that include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, its prognosis unfortunately remains very poor. In this study, we used two drugs, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and N-(4-hydroxphenyl) retinamide (4HPR), alone or in combination to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G cells injected in the zebrafish as a new model used the first time in USC to test effective anticancer drugs. Zebrafish embryo was microinjected with fluorescence labeled T98G glioblastoma cells in zebrafish yolk sac. Glioblastoma was imaged after several days by fluorescence microscopy before and after treatment. The results showed that size of tumor grew up inside of zebrafish without treatment (control), but the size of tumor in zebrafish after treatment with 4.0µM 4HPR and 8.0µM SAHA alone or their combination was decreased. The combination of two drugs was better than a single drug in suppressing cell proliferation and inducing of apoptosis. We assessed effects of two drugs and found that 4HPR inhibited 63.92 % cell proliferation while SAHA inhibited 42.0% cell proliferation but the combination of two drugs significantly decreased glioblastoma growth to 34.4%. Our work suggested that the zebrafish xenograft model could be useful to identify the therapeutic efficacy of combination of drugs in the treatment of glioblastoma.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Faulkner, Madisen
Lauber, Meagan
Fowler, Lauren
Tucker, Matthew
Mobley, Julie
Identifying the Relationship Between Fatigue and Alertness in Medical Students
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Despite the poor physiological and cognitive function caused by fatigue, medical students must remain responsible for their education and patient care. The identification and management of fatigue is vital to personal wellbeing, clinical outcomes, and school or work-related success. For students who have to get up early for school, but have the biological tendency to sleep later, sleep restriction often leads to falling asleep in class, poor attention, and mood disorders. However, research demonstrates that there are cognitive and physiological effects of fatigue, but because physiological fatigue is rarely studied, it is unclear whether these effects are related to either perceived fatigue, physiological fatigue, or both. Indeed, fatigue in healthcare professionals has been studied extensively, but has most commonly been measured by self-report questionnaires. However, the reliability of these questionnaires poses a challenge, as they are subjective and unidimensional in nature. The current study is designed to assess perceived and physiological fatigue in medical students at different times of day. Thirty medical students recruited from UofSCSOMG were assessed twice, 12 hours apart. Students self-reported their perceived fatigue via the Epworth and Karolinska Sleepiness Scales (both self-report measures), and we collected pupillometry data as a non-invasive, objective measure of physiological fatigue. The pupilometer measures pupillary response to light to determine fatigue. Data collection is ongoing, but results are expected to show that participants who report perceived fatigue will exhibit increased pupillary constriction as well as decreased amplitude of constriction, indicating decreased alertness. Furthermore, we expect students to be more alert in the morning, compared to the evening session. Overall, we hope to demonstrate that physiological measures of fatigue provide a more accurate representation of the magnitude of fatigue, in comparison to subjective measures, which may allow medical professionals to better appreciate the effects of fatigue on performance and general wellbeing.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Jones, Blake Twiss, Jeffrey Elucidating Functions of ATF4 in Neurons and Glia
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The neuron is a main functional unit of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system (PNS), and is responsible for conducting electrical impulses across the body. Axons are the long, signal-carrying projections of neurons that extend from the cell body and innervate other neurons and target tissues. Despite their vital role, neurons have a limited capacity to regenerate axons after they are severed. Previous data from the Twiss lab has suggested that Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) overexpression increases axonal growth in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, while it simultaneously triggers death of Schwann cells. RNA-seq and subsequent RT-ddPCR validation studies show that ATF4 overexpression changes gene expression in cultures of both DRG (neurons + Schwann/Satellite cells) and isolated Schwann cells. Differential regulation of gene expression is seen in the cultures, suggesting that ATF4’s pro-growth effects in neurons and pro-death effects in Schwann cells can be controlled by ATF4-driven gene expression. Further, these studies indicate that the outcome of ATF4 overexpression is cell context-specific. We identified candidate genes by methodically sorting RNA-seq data and then validated these results through quantitative RT-ddPCR analysis. We then conducted siRNA knockdown and overexpression assays in DRGs and Schwann cells in order to determine the target gene(s) responsible for ATF4’s effects in vivo. We hope that these data will bring new insight into cell context-specific effects of the stress signaling ATF4 protein and uncover new therapeutic directions for improving neural regeneration after traumatic injury.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Manning, Jasmine Gainey, Andrew
Daniels, Robert
Burch, Anna Kathryn
Evaluating the impact of a procalcitonin testing and treatment algorithm on antibiotic use within pediatric patients
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Procalcitonin (PCT) is an endogenous peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin. Healthy individuals can have extremely low levels of PCT <0.02 ng/mL, however, the serum concentration can increase in response to systemic inflammation and bacterial infections. PCT levels can quickly increase within 3to 6 hours, peak at 6 to 13 hours, and has a half-life of around 22 to 36 hours. A PCT level >0.5 ng/mL is a strong predictor of bacterial infections. Studies have demonstrated that PCT testing promotes earlier discontinuation of antibiotic therapy in adults; however, similar data is lacking for pediatric patients. Appropriate initiation of antibiotics can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections. However, inappropriate use or extended antibiotic exposure, has been associated with the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and antibiotic-associated adverse events, such as C. difficile infections. Thus, antibiotic de-escalation or discontinuation is an important goal of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Our study seeks to evaluate whether a PCT testing and treatment algorithm can promote early and safe antibiotic discontinuation within our pediatric population. This is a retrospective; single center observational study. The study will assess the mean duration of antibiotic therapy between a cohort adherent vs a cohort non-adherent to the institution specific algorithm. Data will be collected from July 1, 2019 to June 20,2020. Patients will be identified using the Theradoc Clinical Surveillance system for patients identified with a procalcitonin level obtained during the admission. Patients included in the study will include all patients admitted for an infectious work-up and initiated on antibiotics. The study will exclude any patients that meet the risk factor for false elevations in procalcitonin (ie. end-stage renal disease, trauma, etc.). Data collection points will include the following: adherence to PCT algorithm, number of days of antibiotics, procalcitonin level(s), c-reactive protein, days of antibiotics outside of standard care, 30-day mortality, re-initiation of antibiotics for a bacterial infection within 30-days, length of intensive care unit admission, overall length of hospitalization, and rates of antibiotic-associated complications. Data will be reported using descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables, and Kaplan-Meier curves.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Moy, Victoria Heiney, Sue Young Adult Electronic Cigarette Use: Misperceptions of Addiction and Disconnected Behavior Choices
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Purpose Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, were originally intended as smoking cessation devices but are now used increasingly as a first-line nicotine product by the young adult population. The long-term physical effects of e-cigarettes are not fully understood but are likely harmful to both lung and brain function. Understanding young adult e-cigarette usage patterns and motivations is important in developing effective evidence-based mitigation strategies. Design and Methods The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore e-cigarette usage among young adults, including frequency of and reasons for use, and self-perceptions of use. Quantitative data on the frequency and rationale for use of e-cigarettes among young adults was gathered using an online survey. Results Participants included 207 young adults ages 18-30 years. 54.8% reported frequent use, while only 1.9% rated themselves as “very dependent” on e-cigarettes. Results suggested a discrepancy between how frequently participants were using the e-cigarettes and how dependent on them they believed themselves to be. Conclusions This suggested discrepancy should be further examined using cognitive dissonance theory in order to inform the development of evidence-based interventions. Practice Implications Pediatric and adolescent nurses should be aware of the frequency of e-cigarette use in young adults and the motivations for their use as well as the potential for dependency. E-cigarette use is a recreational activity combined with social interaction. Understanding young adult e-cigarette perception and use is crucial for the guidance of nursing practice and the future health of this population.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Robbins, Palmer Oswald-Hensley, Anna Palmer Robbins GLD Presentation
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As an Early College student with aspirations to become a leader and pioneer in the field of aerospace engineering, I have decided to pursue a Graduation with Leadership Distinction in Professional and Civic Engagement as part of pursuing my Associates of the Arts degree from USC Sumter. As a part of seeking this honor, I have participated in multiple beyond-the-classroom experiences including volunteering with different organizations in my community, working with other peers in student government and other organizations, and attending conferences to help further develop my leadership and communication skills. Volunteering in my community has brought with it valuable knowledge about how to go about improving a community in a way that everyone can appreciate. Realizing the impact such simple acts can have on entire communities has allowed me to see why everyone and everything they do matters. Elsewhere, working with other peers has taught me how to both be a part of a team and be a leader. As a team member, I have learned how to listen to other's thoughts and provide my own to supplement the ideas that other people have brought forth. Opposing that, being a leader has also taught me to take everyone’s suggestions and compile them into something that the group can manage to succeed at while incorporating the best parts of everyone’s ideas. However, none of this could be done without further learning about and improving my skills as a leader and a listener. Different conferences have taught me how to approach different situations with different people still get the best out of everyone. My best experience with leadership thus far has been my role in creating a video with my high school student government. I led a small group of people who created a video to promote registering to vote to high school seniors. This task incorporated all of the aspects hitherto mentioned, and it was the first big test of my skills as a leader and as a community member. My presentation will focus on just exactly how deeply my experiences have impacted who I have become today.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Siegfried, Emily Heiens, Richard
Narayanaswamy, Ravi
An Exploratory Examination of the Impact of Customer Service Features on Conversion Rates for Online Retailers
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The present study explores the link between customer service features and conversion rates for the 500 largest online retailers. Twelve distinct customer service features were examined, including auto-replenishment, co-branded credit cards, currency conversion tools, free shipping, free return shipping, in-home services such as product installation or in-person consultations, live chats, providing website content in multiple languages, next-day delivery, online return processing, paid memberships with enhanced customer services, and same day delivery. Consistent with previous studies that indicate typical conversion rates in the range of 2-4 percent, the mean conversion rate for the firms in our sample was 3.194 percent. In addition, the findings indicate that customer conversion rates were significantly higher for firms offering auto-replenishment, free return shipping, home services, paid memberships, and same day delivery. As such, managers may want to emphasize these features when developing e-commerce websites.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Godwin, Joshua
Brown, Meghan
Gibson, Stephanie Comparison of Outcomes of Infants at Risk for NAS Utilizing the Eat, Sleep, Console Model​ versus the Modified Finnegan Scoring System: A Quality Improvement Project
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Comparison of Outcomes of Infants at Risk for NAS Utilizing the Eat, Sleep, Console Model versus the Modified Finnegan Scoring System: A Quality Improvement Project Meghan Brown, MD; Joshua Godwin, MD; Stephanie Gibson, MD. Department of Pediatrics, USC-Prisma Health Richland Midlands, Columbia, South Carolina Background: Infants exposed to various medicines such as opiates, SSRIs, or other substances while in utero are at increased risk of exhibiting withdrawal symptoms after birth. This constellation of symptoms is commonly referred to as Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). Although rarely leading to death, it can lead to serious outcomes and significant health care system costs. Aims: To decrease use of Morphine and hospital admission lengths in newborns at risk for NAS. Methods: Data was obtained through retrospective chart review of all infants identified to have a ICD diagnosis code of NAS. Baseline data was obtained on infants who underwent management by the Finnegan scoring model. Post-intervention data was obtained on infants who were managed with the Eat Sleep Console model. We also evaluated the effect of higher caloric formulas on primary outcomes. Results: Our data showed a 3.3 day decrease in length of hospital stay in infants managed by the ESC protocol when compared to the traditional Finnegan scoring system. Similarly, we saw a 3.8 day decrease in corrected length of stay using the ESC model. Infants managed by the ESC model showed a 9% decrease in Morphine use compared to the Finnegan scoring system. Eighty-four percent of all Morphine doses given to the infants observed under both models is attributed to the infants scored using the Finnegan system. Conclusion: The Eat-Sleep-Console model correlates to a significant decrease in both Morphine use and length of hospital admission in infants at risk for NAS when compared to the Finnegan scoring system.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Carle, David Richardson, William
Hardison, Tina
Comparison of Administration Time Delays in a Three Bag N-Acetylcysteine Treatment Infusion Protocol
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Intravenous (IV) N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is most effective in preventing acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury when administered early - ideally within 8-10 hours from the time of ingestion.2 Most commonly IV NAC is given over the course of 21 hours via 3 separate bag infusions – a loading dose of 150 mg/kg over 60 minutes, followed by 50 mg/kg over 4 hours, then 100 mg/kg over 16 hours. More recent studies have suggested decreased frequency of adverse events through utilization of a “2 Bag method.”1 . A secondary advantage of a two bag method would be theoretically decreased opportunity for delay in dosages administered allowing for a more consistent administration of the proven treatment. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 35 patients that were treated with IV NAC infusions due to acetaminophen toxicity to evaluate for the presence and degree of delays in initiation of the different infusion bags of NAC. We hypothesized there would be significant differences in time between initiation of the various dosages of the “3 Bag method.” Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated a significant delay in administration of the third bag in comparison to initiation of the second bag.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Mohammed, Ahmed Kubinak, Jason Defective Humoral Immunity Disrupts Bile Acid Homeostasis Which Promotes Inflammatory Disease of the Small Bowel
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Mucosal antibodies maintain gut homeostasis by promoting spatial segregation between host tissues and luminal microbes. Whether and how mucosal antibody responses influence gut health through modulation of microbiota composition is unclear. One critical metabolic function carried out exclusively by bacteria in the gut is bio-transformation of host bile acids (BAs), and dysregulation of BAs metabolism has been linked to numerous inflammatory and metabolic diseases in humans Here, we use a CD19-/- mouse model of antibody-deficiency to demonstrate that a relationship exists between dysbiosis, defects in BA homeostasis, and enteropathy of the small intestine (SI). SI enteropathy that develops in CD19-/- mice is associated with alterations to the luminal BA pool in the SI, marked by significant reductions in the abundance of conjugated BAs. Manipulation of BA availability, adoptive transfer of functional B cells, and ablation of bacterial bile salt hydrolase (bsh) activity all influence the severity of SI enteropathy in CD19-/- mice. Collectively, results from our experiments support a model whereby mucosal humoral immune responses limit inflammatory disease of the small bowel by regulating bacterial BA metabolism.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kostelic, Stephen Richardson, William Case Report: Sodium Azide Overdose
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Introduction Sodium azide is a hazardous white solid commonly used as a propellant in airbags as well as preparation of various chemicals in agriculture, microorganism fumigation, sponge rubber, detonators, and in explosive manufacturing. Mechanisms of human health affects is unknown but felt to be related to inhibition of cytochrome oxidase and cellular respiration as well as enhancing excitatory transmission in the CNS after conversion to nitric oxide. There is currently no specific antidote for intoxication. Case Report 21-year-old male presents to ER in Columbia, SC after he reportedly told his mother he swallowed 2.7 g of sodium azide powder approximately 1-2 hours prior to approval. The patient quickly deteriorated, became unresponsive, went with refractory seizures, hypotension and metabolic acidosis. Despite very aggressive resuscitation and intervention, the patient died within hours of arrival to the ED. Discussion Based on a systemic review of literature ranging from 1927 to 2002 on human exposure most sodium azide industrial exposures are by inhalation with most laboratory exposure and suicide attempts are by ingestion. Fatal doses reported with exposures as small as 700 mg (10mg/kg). Non fatal exposures ranged from 0.3 to 150 mg. (0.004- 2 mg/kg). Of a total of 185 cases studied, overall fatally rate was 9.7%, with most coming from oral exposure. Nonoccupational deaths included suicides and poisonings. Other common symptoms reported include headache, tachycardia, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea. Severe health effects such as coma, respiratory failure, seizure, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary edema were observed only following doses of 10 mg/kg. Multiple common antidote treatments were tried including amyl nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate as well as activated charcoal, gastric lavage, and peritoneal dialysis without success. This case demonstrates typical findings of large oral ingestions of sodium nitrate with patient death despite aggressive supportive care. However, as the mechanism of action of action of its human health effects is poorly understood, future studying could benefit those with larger ingestions.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
McKenna, Mae Dawson, Robin Enhancing parenting skills and childhood development: A collaborative project with the Nurse Family Partnership
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Background- The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based, national-level home visitation program in which nurses work with young, first-time mothers to foster the positive development of their children. The NFP uses the Partners in Parenting Education (PPE) guide, consisting of twenty-eight educational modules (lessons and hands-on activities), to teach parenting skills to their clients. However, the Lexington/Richland South Carolina NFP has limited resources to deliver these PPE educational modules. Purpose- The purpose of this project was to create portable workshops based on the PPE educational modules to 1) support the activities of the Lexington/Richland NFP nurses, and 2) enhance parental understanding of the PPE lessons and activities. Methods- This project took a community-based participatory approach. First, a focus group was conducted with all Lexington/Richland NFP nurses (n=5) to identify modules they deemed most important for their clients. Subsequently, materials to support the lessons and activities in the identified modules were compiled into portable containers, along with instructions for use. The NFP nurses could then take these portable workshops with them to home visits. Results- Five portable workshops were developed, including Emotional Refueling, Floor Time, Tune In/Tune Out, Playing is Imitation and Turn Taking, and Playing is Learning. The portable workshops were packaged into stackable plastic storage bins that included copies of the instructional activity cards corresponding with the materials inside the boxes. Sample materials included in the workshops included pipe cleaners, wooden building blocks, and matchbox cars to facilitate the interactional activities between the mother and her child. Conclusions/Implications- While the portable workshops were well-received by NFP nurses, implementation was delayed due to the cessation of in-home visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future work will focus on evaluating the effectiveness of the portable workshops, as well as the development of others as indicated by NFP nurses.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Jacobson, Abby
Kent, Nicole
McAnally, Steve Sustainable Water Systems in Ecuador - Engineers Without Borders at UofSC
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Engineers Without Borders is a nonprofit organization with collegiate and professional chapters across the United States. Our chapter at UofSC has been established for 10 years and our community partners are in El Cedro, Ecuador. Our multi-faceted project there includes maintenance of a water pipeline, additional water storage construction, and water treatment assessment. When communicating with the community in El Cedro, they informed us of their need for an additional central storage tank within the community. From the pipeline, the water flows into a concrete cistern that is about 1 km from the center of the village. There is another connecting pipeline from the cistern to an existing storage tank. When the central tank is full and additional water is not able to flow, the cistern has a tendency to overflow, especially during the rainy season. This causes significant water loss, justifying the need for additional storage. We are currently working with the community to prepare a design and construct both the foundation and the metal structure for the new tank to be placed on, as well as a drainage system for behind the water storage tanks to stabilize the ground around their foundations. The final element of our El Cedro project is the research and implementation of point-of-use filtration systems. Research began with Slow Sand Filtration systems adapted from Dr. Jafvert from Purdue University. These filters were constructed and tested to compare the turbidity, bacteria and other pollutants between influent and effluent water samples. To explore alternative filtration methods for the community, lab research was extended with the testing of Sawyer Point One Micron Bucket Adapter Filters. Through our research in the lab as well as through comparing maintenance, sustainability, and input from the community, we chose to implement the Sawyer Filters. Our poster for DiscoverUSC will highlight the preliminary research as well as plans and designs from each element of our international project, as well as field results from the organization’s annual Ecuador trip.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Nguyen, Thien Corbett, Cynthia
Combs, Elizabeth
Wright, Pamela
Older Adults’ Use and Perceptions of Smart Lighting
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Background: According to the United States (US) Census (2018), adults aged 65 or older comprise 16% of the US population, and this number is growing. Adults’ abilities to live in their chosen residence as they age has become an important focus in improving older adults’ health and age-associated societal costs. Purpose: To evaluate older adults’ use of smart lightbulbs that are voice-activated through virtual home assistants (VHAs; i.e., Amazon Echo devices), and their perceptions of the usefulness and usability of smart lightbulbs. Methods: A descriptive, mixed method study with a convenience sample of older adults (n=5) recruited from a parent study of participants familiar with using VHAs was completed. Participants received ≤ eight smart lightbulbs that were installed in their homes with instructions from the research team. Data was collected weekly from the VHA’s mobile app. After eight weeks, the researchers interviewed the participants about their experiences and perceptions of using the smart lightbulbs. Results: Smart lightbulb use varied depending on the week and time of day (range 37-104 times/week). Most participants used the smart lightbulbs in the early morning/dawn. Most participants rated the usefulness of the smart lightbulbs 8-10 on a 10-point scale (10 = most useful). Reported benefits included: improved safety at night, reduced caregiver burden, more confidence living home alone, and decreased fear of falling. Participants reported some difficulty with the connection between the VHA and the smart lightbulbs. Discussion/Conclusion: Most participants were able to effectively use the smart lightbulbs with the VHA and had positive perceptions of use, usability, and usefulness. Older adults want to explore technology; however, they need more resources for learning the technology and troubleshooting any issues. Preliminary evidence from this feasibility study suggests that smart lightbulbs and VHAs offer potential to improve older adults’ abilities to age in place.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Chu, Trinh Saef, Steven Self Report of Pain vs. Discomfort in the Emergency Department. Is There a Difference?
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Background: Previous studies have reported that patients will deny being in pain but report feeling uncomfortable, for instance women with cardiac ischemia. We believed that Emergency Physicians (EPs) would find it useful to know if there was a significant difference in how their patients reported pain vs. discomfort. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at an urban, academic ED. Adult patients (>=18yrs old) with a chief complaint that included pain of any sort who were willing and able to participate without duress were eligible. Surveys were administered by student teams asking patients to rate their pain and discomfort from 1-10 on visual analog scales. Patient characteristics including demographics, types of pain, duration of pain, location of pain, quality of pain or discomfort, and pain-modifying conditions were recorded on tablet computers. Data was entered into REDCap ©, Vanderbilt University and uploaded into SAS, Cary, NC for analysis. Results: There were 289 patients enrolled in the study. Overall, 58% reported no difference between their discomfort and pain. 21% reported their discomfort to be greater than their pain and 21% reported their discomfort to be less than their pain. Fifty-two (18%) of patients reported chest pain. Of these, 52% saw no difference between pain and discomfort, 25% reported discomfort to be greater than pain and 23% reported discomfort to be less than pain. Seventy-three (25%) of patients reported abdominal pain. Of these, 58% reported no difference between pain and discomfort, 26% reported discomfort to be greater than pain and 15% reported discomfort to be less than pain. Conclusions: Amongst ED patients who present with painful conditions, a clinically important number of patients reported discomfort to be greater than pain. Emergency Physicians (EPs) should be cognizant of this and include questions about discomfort in their clinical assessments.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Spencer, Matthew Schnell, Cory
DeWitt, Samuel
The Disruptive Impact of Public Transportation Expansion on Crime Trends: A Time Series Analysis of Light Rail Train Stations in Charlotte, NC
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Physical locations can attract or generate crime; one example is public transportation infrastructure which can increase the risk of crime in surrounding areas. Prior research often utilizes cross-sectional designs to examine the spatial relationship between crime and place. This study designs a natural experiment based on the recent expansion of Charlotte, NC light rail train service. The time series of crime incidents at the street segments in different spatial buffers around the train stations are contrasted using interrupted time series analyses. Three temporal periods are examined: a pre-expansion period (2005-2016), a construction period (2017), and a post-expansion period (2018-2019). This permits observation of the short-term disruption or “shock” of long-term patterns of crime at place by the light rail expansion. Our preliminary findings suggest the expansion of the light rail system did influence crime patterns for the spatial areas around both the new and old train stations. These findings have several implications for a range of stakeholders.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Wright, Pamela Wirth, Michael
Hebert, James
Adams, Swann
CRP as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in African Americans
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Background: African-Americans (AAs) who experience depressive symptoms have a more severe, prolonged depression with increased disease burden and disability compared to other racial groups. Although chronic systemic inflammation is a well-established mechanism in the pathogenesis of depression, the literature is mixed regarding its association in AAs. Physical activity is a potential modulator of both depressive symptoms and c-reactive protein (CRP), a marker for chronic, systemic inflammation. Purpose: The objective was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and CRP in AAs from a church-based program in South Carolina and assess physical activity as a possible effect modifier. Methods: Participants (n=414) were from the Healthy Eating and Active Living in the Spirit (HEALS) lifestyle intervention (2009-2012). The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered to measure depressive symptoms (outcome) and participants’ blood samples were collected to measure high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP, exposure). Using baseline data, descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed and results were stratified by physical activity levels. Results: Participants were middle-aged (54.9 ± 11.8 years), mostly female (79%), married 61%), with some college (35%), and employed full-time (53%). Although 85% reported good to excellent perceived health, most participants were obese (BMI 33.5 ± 7.5kg/m2) and had ≥ 1 chronic health condition. The mean hs-CRP level was 2.73mg/L (SD ± 2.38mg/L). The mean score of depressive symptoms was 5.29 (SD ± 4.76). High CRP levels were significantly and positively associated with higher levels of depression. Among those meeting physical activity guidelines, the CESD score increased 0.09 (± 0.04) for every-one unit increase in CRP. Conclusions: The study revealed higher depressive symptom scores in participants with higher hs-CRP levels, especially in those who met the recommended physical activity guidelines. More research is necessary to delineate the relationship between variables and determine protective factors to reduce health disparities among AAs.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Renick, Dalton
Hobbs, April
Blackburn, Melanie Stay Alert: Improving Response to SIRS/Sepsis in Pediatric Patients via Implementation of a Sepsis Alert Protocol
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Sepsis is the leading cause of death in pediatrics. Delay in treatment contributes to the high morbidity and mortality rates seen in sepsis patients within the pediatric population. Although there are multiple studies of implementing sepsis alerts within various emergency departments across the nation, there are very few addressing the implementation of similar alerts within the inpatient setting; especially within pediatrics. Aim : Implement a Sepsis Alert protocol within the EMR at Prisma Health Children’s Hospital 4th floor. The goal of this sepsis alert is to decrease the time that it takes to realize that a patient is septic and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of treating that patient. Design: A before and after retrospective cohort study Setting: Prisma Health Children’s Hospital 4th Floor - Med Surg (Child/Adolescents) Intervention: Sepsis alert protocol was implemented based on Goldstein criteria for pediatric sepsis. This protocol included 3 parts: an automatic sepsis pop-up alert within the medical record based on Goldstein sepsis criteria, a screening tool completed by nursing in effort to identify and initiate treatment if indicated, and a sepsis powerplan that is to be used when sepsis is identified to help orchestrate appropriate fluid resuscitation and antibiotic selection. Measurements: Total number of alerts,percentage of responses, time to response, huddle documentation Results: Data collected prior to the implementation of the SIRS/Sepsis alerts showed that there was a 38% response rate to patients who met SIRS/Sepsis criteria. After the alert system was implemented, there the response rate increased to 51.7%. The average response time prior to implementing the alert was 24.9 minutes. The average response time after implementation of the alert actually was slightly increased to 26.7 minutes. Conclusions: Overall, there was no significant change in time to response/resuscitation for patients who met SIRS/Sepsis criteria despite implementation of the protocol. Post-data was only collected for only three months after the protocol was implemented. There is an obvious learning curve for the start of a new electronic tool and therefore, further data collection should be obtained to further assess its usefulness in the pediatric inpatient setting.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Horton, Kaitlynn Oswald-Hensley, Anna Community Service
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Throughout my time in school and church, I have been in multiple different community service organizations. I have gone to children’s homes, volunteered at food pantries, and helped restore a porch for a women’s shelter in manning with my church. I have also held many different positions such as student body president of my high school and vice president of the National Technical Society. I was previously a Community Assistant for the University of South Carolina Housing Department. Currently I am a full-time sales associate for Kay Jewelers in the Sumter Mall. I have enjoyed every position that I held and the positions that I currently hold. I have learned a lot from these positions and I am excited to use this knowledge for my future career.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Everhart, Kayla Dail, Robin
Donevant, Sara
Iskersky, Victor
Wirth, Michael
A National Survey to examine blood transfusion practices in early preterm infants
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Background/significance: Over 100,000 early preterm infants are born annually in the United States (US) and suffer morbidity and mortality during hospitalization in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devasting gastrointestinal disorder is one such morbid condition. Another acute morbidity is anemia in preterm infants due to frequent laboratory testing. Anemia requires correction with a packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfusion. Researchers have found an association between NEC and PRBC transfusions in preterm infants; the etiology is unknown. Purpose: To examine standard practices for PRBC transfusions in NICUs across the US to suggest possible links between NEC and PRBC transfusions in preterm infants. Methods: Based on a literature review and NICU experience, we developed a survey using RedCap software. Surveys were advertised through social media and a one-time email blast to US NICU nurses, with gift cards offered as incentives. Participants completed surveys over the internet. Results: Over 4 weeks, 757 surveys were attempted; 521 were completed. Over 90% of the respondents represented level III-IV NICUs from 47/50 states. The mean age of respondents was 32 years (21-66, SD 0.42). Results revealed consistencies in frequency and manner vital signs were assessed. Data revealed considerable differences in feeding protocols around transfusions amongst NICUs with feedings given full or reduced volume, or not at all during the transfusion. Results revealed differences in criteria for transfusions, with clinical indication or at the preference of the shift clinician as determining factors. Only 10.2% (53) of respondents indicated they warmed PRBCs prior to infusion; however, only 2.1% used blood warmers. Conclusion: Survey results indicate wide variation in practice for PRBC transfusions for preterm infants in NICUs across the US. Future research should examine variations in practice in relationship to the incidence of NEC in infants who receive PRBC transfusions.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Patel, Khushi Corbett, Cynthia
Combs, Elizabeth
Perceptions of COVID-19 and the Use of Health Information Technology among People who are Uninsured
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Background: The novel coronavirus has claimed nearly 2.5 million lives globally and 475,000 lives in the United States as of mid-February 2021. Vulnerable populations, including low income and those who lack health insurance, are often more seriously affected due to risk factors such as health literacy. People with such socioeconomic disparities may lack knowledge of appropriate infection precautions [1] and/or have reduced access to care when ill [2]. Objectives: The objectives of this research were to explore: (1) participant experiences regarding COVID-19, including their knowledge of disease symptoms and risk factors, and (2) participant perceptions concerning a healthcare app designed to monitor the physical and mental health symptoms of COVID-19, associated safety concerns, and to facilitate community resource access for these symptoms and safety concerns. Methods: A prospective survey study was conducted with a convenience sample of uninsured adults seeking care at a free clinic. Respondents were queried about their awareness of COVID-19, their current technology use, and their knowledge in using technology to aid their health regarding COVID-19. The surveys were available for all patients at the clinic to complete. Respondents placed de-identified surveys in a response box, where they were collected by the research team every three days. Survey response data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (e.g., frequencies, means). Results: Respondents (n=122) were 51.6% male, primarily Black (56.6%), and had a mean age of 48.9 years (range 19-72). Most respondents (73.2%) did not think they were at risk for COVID-19. Respondents’ knowledge of the COVID-19 symptoms aligned well with CDC reports of the most common symptoms (97.2%) and aligned fairly well with CDC-published longer-term COVID-19 symptoms (73.7%). Most respondents (74.6%) reported interest in using the mHealth app to gain additional information regarding COVID-19 and available community resources. Implications and conclusions will be further discussed in the presentation. References: Ahmed F, Ahmed N, Pissarides C., Stiglitz J. Why inequality could spread COVID-19. The Lancet Public Health, 2020, 5(5), E240. HTTPS://DOI.ORG/https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(2)30085-2 Levy H, & Janke A. (2016). Health literacy and access to care. Journal of Health Communication, 21, 43-50. HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.1080/10810730.2015.1131776.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Schammel, Noah Reinarz, Stephen
Schammel, Christine
The Value of the Third Ventricular Width: under-reporting of brain atrophy
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Abstract Background As the population ages, it is estimated that 65.7 million will be living with dementia by 2030. Early detection and initiation of actionable protocols are key to combat the effects of this disease. The third ventricular width has been noted to correlate with normal advancing age as well as current and future cognitive decline; however, the status of ventricular width is seldom noted in radiology reports to alert clinicians to intervene. Purpose The goal of this study was to illustrate the utility of third ventricle measurements, update reference values and encourage identification/reporting of at risk patients. Methods Brain CT/MRIs with optimal ventricular measurements for age at a single institution (3/1/2016-6/1/2019) were evaluated. Ventricular measurement and clincopathologic data were collected blinded to each other. Data were combined and analyzed. Results Overall, 149 optimal brain CT scans/MRIs were evaluated. Age range was 22-99 (mean 74 years); the mean third ventricular width was 5.2mm. Stratification by decade revealed the optimal ventricular width ranges for each decade: <50 1.8-2.8mm, 50-59 2.7-4mm, 60-69 2.4-4.2mm, 70-79 4.2-5.5mm, 80-89 5.7-7.1 and >90 6.3-9.1mm. The differences between the 7th, 8th and 9th decades were significantly different when compared to each other (p<0.001). Optimal ranges were compared to the literature. The data collected were within previously reported ranges, but modifies ‘normal’ or ‘average’ to ‘optimal’ for each decade >50. Conclusion Conclusion We propose a simple approach to identifying and reporting brain atrophy in a consistent manner, and have suggested redefining ranges from ‘normal’ to ‘optimal’ for decade of age. Radiologists are encouraged to report this measurement in ‘impressions’, allowing clinicians to begin early intervention for patients outside of the optimal range to hopefully minimize/alleviate cognitive decline.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Schammel, Noah Madeline, Lee
Schammel, Christine
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and White Matter Hyperintensities: correlation or causation?
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Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea) is thought to cause small vessel ischemic episodes in the brain from hypoxic events, postulated as white matter hyperintensities (hyperintensities) identified on MRI which have been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and decline. This study sought to evaluate these correlations. A retrospective evaluation of adults who underwent polysomnography and a brain MRI between 4/1/2016 and 4/30/2017 (n=72) was completed. MRI evaluation of hyperintensities using Fazekas scores were collected blind of clinical data. Collated clinical/MRI data were stratified and then analyzed using chi-square, fishers t-tests, ANOVA and linear regression. Stratification by apnea category revealed no differences in demographics, clinicopathologic or comorbidities; none of the hyperintensity measures were significantly different. Similarly, stratification by BMI and hypertension did not expose indicators of apnea differences. Mean Fazekas (2.09; p=0.0032) and deep hyperintensities (1.22; p=0.008) were different with hypertension stratification. Stratification by Fazekas, periventricular hyperintensities and deep hyperintensities revealed increasing incidence and classification with age (p=0.0001), while hypertension and hyperlipidemia were significantly different between Fazekas (p=0.0032 and p=0.0005, respectively) and deep hyperintensity groups (p=0.0008 and p=0.0005, respectively). Hyperlipidemia was significant between periventricular hyperintensitiy classifications (p=0.0076). No association between total hyperintensities, periventricular hyperintensities, or deep hyperintensities and apneas were identified. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are significantly associated with both Fazekas and deep hyperintensities, with periventricular hyperintensities significantly associated with hyperlipidemia only, suggesting small vessel atherosclerosis may play a role in the development of hyperintensities. Unanticipated, our results may provide insight into future study design for evaluating these clandestine but ubiquitous white matter findings.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Pollard, Casey Skipper, Tracy Reform, Abolition and Restorative Justice
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In the summer of 2020, I completed a remote internship for State Senator Scott Surovell of Virginia’s 36th district. During my internship, I conducted donor research, drafted constituent response letters, and composed research on criminal justice reform policies. Specifically, my research projects focused on state policies of assault on law enforcement officers and the Virginia Senate Democratic Caucus’ proposed Police Reform and Criminal Justice Equity Plan. As a Political Science and Sociology major at the University of South Carolina, I gained a deeper understanding of state politics and institutions because I was able to connect criminal justice reform efforts to my studies of mass incarceration, prison and police reform. The experiences I gained through this internship expanded my passion and hope for criminal legal justice. After I graduate, I hope to work in grassroots criminal justice.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Childs, Tasha Iachini, Aidyn A Content Analysis of School District Websites for Parent and Family Resources During COVID-19
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The unprecedented school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic has current and lasting impacts on students and families. During COVID-19, schools were forced to close entirely, reopening slowly virtually and in varied modalities. Prior to COVID-19, schools served as a main provider of mental health services, food security, and other psychosocial services that support students’ academic success and overall well-being. However, once COVID-19 occurred, it was unclear what resources schools provided for students and families. This study collected and examined 80 South Carolina school district websites in order to understand the types of resources available to parents and families during COVID-19. Out of the 80 school district websites, about 68% (54) provided both information on COVID-19 and resources for families or just information on resources for families. A majority of the school districts provided resources for English Language Learners, information on meals and nutrition, e-learning, wi-fi/internet, and computers and technology; whereas fewer school district websites provided resources on mental health, telehealth, grades and accountability, and for students with disabilities. Most surprising, given the need and public attention on loss of housing, no school districts provided resources on housing. Overall, this study found school district websites communicated vital information and resources for parents and families during COVID-19. Additionally, school districts may examine their resources and continue to prioritize the distribution of information on other student needs such as housing and mental health on the school district website, especially given it is publicly accessible for families and these needs continue to plague families during the ongoing pandemic.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Barré, Alyssa Trocha, Steven
Schammel, Christine
Fenton, Hubert
Gastric Adenomyoma: a case report, updated review of the literature, and algorithm for preoperative diagnosis
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Gastric adenomyoma is a rare, benign neoplasm. It is often mistaken for another process such as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and not identified until after surgical excision. There is no necessity for surgical excision for gastric adenomyoma unless the lesion is obstructing or bleeding. General knowledge of this neoplasm is lacking among physicians. In case reports, this tumor was either incidentally discovered and removed or found during workup for nonspecific GI symptoms and removed because of suspicion for gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Multiple papers state that surgical excision is necessary for diagnostic clarity. We present an updated review of literature and a case of gastric adenomyoma, as well as define an algorithm using immunohistochemical stains (desmin, CKIT, DOG1, PDGF) for diagnosis of gastric adenomyoma in a noninvasive manner in order to potentially avoid unnecessary surgical procedure.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Rossitch, Elizabeth Myslinski, Joe Revised Fundoscopic Exam Results in Quicker Evaluation of the Optic Disc in the Emergency Department
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The fundoscopic exam can provide important clinical information, but is rarely performed in the emergency department because of the delays and poor success rates associated with the procedure. The traditional fundoscopic examination taught in medical school requires pharmacologic dilation of the pupils and an almost completely dark room, which leads to time delays in the emergency department. Our study describes a modified fundoscopic exam for the emergency department, where no medications are needed, the only equipment necessary is the direct ophthalmoscope, and it can be performed in the hallway. This revised fundoscopic exam (RFE) was easy to learn, was more rapid to perform than the traditional fundoscopic exam and demonstrated a high rate of success. Specifically, the mean time to visualize the optic disc was 64.86 seconds using the traditional fundoscopic exam and 21.40 seconds for the revised fundoscopic exam, yielding an average time difference of 43.46 seconds (Wilcoxon p < 0.001). We believe the simplicity and speed of the RFE will increase the utilization of the fundoscopic exam by emergency physicians, which is imperative in a medical specialty where the physician must evaluate patients accurately and in a timely fashion to optimize patient outcomes. The revised fundoscopic exam is ideal for assessing for acute end-organ damage or other life threatening conditions when a patient presents with headache, severe hypertension, visual complaints, or focal neurologic deficits.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
La Valley, Elizabeth Sen, Souvik Dental caries a risk factor for incident ICH and specific ischemic stroke subtype
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Introduction: Streptococcus mutans is a known cause of dental caries that contains a collagen-binding protein, Cnm, and shows inhibition of platelet aggregation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation. This strain has been linked to aggravation of experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and may be a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Presence of dental caries was assessed in subjects from the Dental Atherosclerosis in Communities Study (DARIC) without prior stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. This cohort was followed for a period of incident intracerebral hemorrhage, subsequently verified by chart abstraction. Cox regression with time-dependent covariate was used to compute crude and adjusted hazards ratio stratified as <15 years and ≥15 years from the initial dental assessment. Results: Among 6506 subjects, dental caries were recorded in 1227 (19%) subjects. 47 (1%) had ICH over a period of 30 years. Those with dental caries versus those without dental caries had a greater proportion of younger (mean age 61.8±5.6 vs. 62.5±5.6, p<0.001), male (24% vs. 16%, p<0.001), African-American (53% vs 12%, p<0.001) and hypertensive (24% vs. 16%, p<0.001) patients. The association between dental caries and ICH in the first 15 years was not higher (crude HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.4-2.3) and remained so after adjusting for age, gender, race, and hypertension (adj. HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.9). The association between caries and ICH in the second 15 years was higher (crude HR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.0) and strengthened after adjustment (adjusted OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3-15.5). This is depicted in the Kaplan-Meier curve below. Conclusion: We report a significant association between dental caries and ICH. Future studies are needed to determine if early treatment of dental caries can reduce the risk of ICH.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Chestnut, McKenzee Harrison, Theresa Everyone is an Environmentalist- they just don't know it yet
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During my junior year, I led a UofSC Alternative Break during the fall break with the theme of environmentalism. An alternative break (AB) is a service trip meant to immerse participants in a social issue that is affecting a certain community. I was inspired to lead this AB trip because I wanted to combine my love of community service and environmentalism and to try to impart at least a little of my passion for these topics on others. Throughout my time planning and leading our AB trip, I learned that although people may come from different backgrounds, everyone has a bit of an environmentalist in them, even if they do not know it yet. I believe that although my participants came from different backgrounds, the opportunity to connect over a shared experience and to learn about an interdisciplinary topic such as environmentalism pushed them to grow as individuals. This experience allowed them to integrate new information presented to them into their lives in their own ways. My AB trip participants will be able to use their experiences to guide their future actions as doctors, nurses, businesswomen, and scientists.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Merrihew, Allie Wardyn, Amy Efficacy of telegenetics: a diagnostic yield comparison between in-person and telemedicine pediatric genetic evaluations
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of telegenetic services for pediatric genetic evaluations conducted by telemedicine by comparing it to in-person pediatric genetic evaluations. Research into the utility of telegenetics would greatly serve to identify if this is a preferred alternative service delivery model to bridge the gap in accessibility and reach a greater catchment area of the population, especially to those living in underserved and rural locations. This study is a retrospective review of electronic medical records of pediatric patients seen at Greenwood Genetic Center (GGC) for initial in-person genetic visits prior to the COVID-19 outbreak and initial telemedicine genetic visits during the COVID-19 outbreak. Primary indications were reviewed in conjunction with the final clinical assessment made by the geneticist at the time of visit. Diagnostic information from the clinical assessment was used to determine if a clinical diagnosis could be made, which was categorized into clinical genetic diagnosis (met clinical criteria with/without the need for molecular confirmation), environmental etiology, isolated anomaly, multifactorial etiology, within normal variation, and testing not indicated. If testing was indicated, results were categorized into diagnosed, undiagnosed, uncertain, or sample not returned. Both clinical assessment and genetic testing outcomes were used in the diagnostic yield comparison. We found that visit type did not have a significant effect on the likelihood of a diagnosis. Identifying the similarities in diagnostic outcomes for patients seen by telemedicine may strengthen the support for telegenetic services, improve accessibility to genetic services, and benefit both providers and patients.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Krachman, Haley Schammel, Christine Atypical Lobular Hyperplasia and Lobular Carcinoma In-Situ: To Upgrade or Not to Upgrade?
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Patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancers on biopsy typically have a consistent treatment plan over the course of their disease; however, there are discrepancies regarding the significance and appropriate treatment of pre-invasive lesion identified on biopsy, including atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Following IRB approval, all females diagnosed/treated with breast cancer at a single institution between 2016-2019 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients that underwent a breast core biopsy that revealed ALH/LCIS only and had a subsequent resection for their disease were included in the study. Resection histology was noted and patients were classified as 'upgraded' if the resection specimen contained ADH/DCIS/IDC or ILC. Patients were classified as 'not upgraded' if resection histology was ALH/LCIS only. Overall, 27 patients met the study criteria, 12 (41%) of which exhibited upgraded histology upon resection (9 ADH only, 1 DCIS, 1 IDC/ADH, 1 ILC/ADH); 15 were not upgraded (52%). All upgraded histology was ER+/PR+; the IDC and ILC were Her-2 negative. Treatment for upgraded patients was mastectomy (33%), radiation therapy (17%), and anti-hormonal (50%). While two of those patients were not upgraded opted for mastectomy, 50% had anti-hormonal. None of the patients had a recurrence (follow-up 2 years). While some literature has recommended imaging as appropriate follow up for ALH/LCIS only biopsies, our data suggests that while the morbidity of resection and anti-hormonal can not be ignored, the morbidity of an under diagnosed lesion also must be considered warranting conservative therapy.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Morris, Corbin
Adams, Mackenzie
Harouny, Ann
Desai, Shivali
Guo, Alyssa
Little, Madison
Trocha, Steven
Self, Stella
Schammel, Christine
31-GEP testing and as an adjunctive risk assessment in following up of melanoma patients.
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Assessing the longitudinal recurrence of risk in melanoma has traditionally been defined by histological features such as Breslow’s thickness and regional nodal metastasis through sentinel node evaluation. These methods, however, have the possibility of missing patients with higher risk for recurrence then anticipated by these approaches. Recently evolving molecular evaluations of genetic markers (gene expression profiling GEP) has demonstrated a promising adjunctive testing to better stratify risk of recurrence in melanoma patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate all melanomas diagnosed in our institution over the last 3 years and compare traditional risk assessment with a 31 GEP test (Castle Melanoma DDX) that stratifies recurrence risk into Class 1A/B and Class 2A/B. All patients that have melanomas diagnosed and treated at a single regional medical center 3/2016-6/2020 were included in the study. Typical demographic and clinicopathologic data were collected to include histologic indicators of prognosis to include Breslow depth. Patient will be contacted to consent to have 31-GEP testing completed, generating a prognostic profile independent of traditionally utilized criteria. These genetic results will focus on the probability of recurrence and prognosis and allow enrollment of higher risk patients in a more intensive follow up program in a parallel clinic to their regular dermatologic follow up. This clinic, entitled Lifetime Clinic (LTC), will have physical exam (PE), imaging and an increased frequency of follow-up visits compared to patients classified as low risk patients following up only with dermatology.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Hathaway, Campbell Fiester, Steven
Schammel, Christine
Aspergillus otomycosis leading to tympanic membrane rupture in a young immunocompetent woman
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This case report outlines a case of left Aspergillus otomycosis with associated left tympanic membrane perforation that required tympanoplasty in an immunocompetent 28-year-old woman. Aspergillus otomycosis is uncommon in young immunocompetent patients without obvious risk factors. This case report highlights the importance of considering Aspergillus otomycosis in the differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with otalgia and otorrhea that does not improve with antibiotic therapy to avoid the potential devastating complications from an untreated infection.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
McCain, Katherine Fiester, Steven
Grier, Jennifer
Elucidation of heme-b utilization mechanisms by the human nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.
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The multidrug-resistant pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is common cause of nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis, as well as wound and urinary tract infections. While there is an understanding of the clinical manifestations of this pathogen, it is still unknown how A. baumannii survives in the bloodstream and causes sepsis. Specifically, there is a general lack of understanding as to how A. baumannii survives and thrives in the iron-limiting environment of blood including the mechanisms by which A. baumannii degrades hemoglobin, binds heme-b and uptakes heme-b as an iron source from red blood cells. To this end, a M16C peptidase gene was mutated in the A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (19606) type strain to assess its function, if any, in hemoglobin degradation. The M16C mutant and control were subcultured from Luria Bertani agar into an iron-limiting medium containing 10% red blood cells as the sole source of iron. Bacteria were incubated for 20 hours at 37°C with shaking at 200 rpm. The amount of red blood cells remaining was assessed by flow cytometry. Bacterial growth was assessed by obtaining colony counts. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests demonstrated that there was no significant difference in the number of red blood cells remaining after infection with 19606 as compared to infection with the M16C mutant or two phospholipase mutants (pla1 and pld1). Interesting, all three tested mutants grew better in iron-limiting medium than 19606 suggesting they are not involved in hemoglobin degradation or heme-b uptake. Additionally, the statistical data supports the null hypothesis of no significant difference. Our studies will continue by targeting genes identified from RNA-sequencing experiments currently in progress.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Weatherspoon, Kaylee Cooper, Joshua Chromatic Number of Disks in the Plane
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We take a new approach to the Chromatic Number of the Plane, a central problem in graph coloring which has been unsolved for over 70 years. The Chromatic Number of the Plane is the number of colors required to color the infinite two-dimensional plane so that no two points at distance 1 from each other have the same color. The chromatic number of the plane is known to be at least 5 and at most 7, and the most recent improvement on this bound was achieved in 2018 by a computer-generated 1581-vertex unit-distance graph. (We define a unit distance graph as a collection of vertices and edges such that each vertex is unit length). We examine the disk radii associated with the transitions from one chromatic number to the next ("transition numbers"), hoping to develop some intuition as to when/if the transition from chromatic number 5 to chromatic number 6 occurs. We show that the chromatic number of the disk increases from 1 to 2 and also from 2 to 3 at a radius of 1/2. That is, the chromatic number of the disk increases from 1 to 3 when the radius of the disk reaches 1/2. We establish upper and lower limits on the radius associated with the transition from chromatic number 3 to chromatic number 4. We also present results developed in our work on classifying all maximal unit distance graphs, including a limited number of graphs from which we can build non-rigid maximal unit distance graphs.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Huff, Haley Spence, Gina Bridging the Passion to the Profession
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During the summer before my senior year, I worked at the South Carolina Department of Veterans' Affairs (SCDVA). SCDVA aims to assist Veterans and their families with all the benefits they rightly deserve. I was the Public Information Assistant for the department and gained a lot of valuable skills in this position. This position gave me first-hand experience to help give me the tools for a career following my graduation. I was able to learn social media skills, event planning, crisis communication and how to manage a website. This experience helped push my passion into my profession.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Rodgers, Jessica Lang, Susan
Benitez-Nelson, Bryan
Comparing Carbon Sources of Microbes in the Chimneys of the Lost City Hydrothermal Vent Field: Does Location Matter?
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The Lost City Hydrothermal Field hosts distinctive microbial communities supported by the products of serpentinization reactions. Chimney interiors are characterized by an anoxic environment, while the exteriors are mixing zones of hydrothermal fluid and seawater. The anoxic environment of the chimney interior should promote microbial communities that differ in energy and carbon sources from those living on the exterior. We collected a large, intact chimney from Lost City during the 2018 expedition with distinct interior and exterior sections. We have analyzed lipid biomarkers from both interior and exterior sections of the chimney to investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities, focusing on the fatty acid synthesizing bacterial community. The distribution of long-chain fatty acids are distinctly different between the interior and exterior of the chimney. The interior section contained saturated fatty acids while the exterior contained both saturated and partially unsaturated fatty acids. These differences provide insight into the spatial distribution of the microbe communities inhabiting chimneys. This spatial distribution implies that each community is utilizing distinct carbon and energy sources. Identifying these sources could offer insight into the ability of similar serpentinite environments to host microbial communities. ​

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Costner, Caitlin Matthews, Sarah Service and Independence in a Partisan Government: My Washington Semester Program
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My goal is to live a life of service, and my interests and talents have brought me to law and politics. I was a member of the South Carolina Washington Semester Program during the fall of 2020. Through this program, students from institutions across South Carolina were selected to live and work in Washington, D.C. The Washington Semester Program provided a means of being in the room where it happens. Laws have real, tangible effects on so many people, and I wanted to help our democratic processes in any way I could. I worked with Congressman Jeff Duncan’s office, which represents my home district. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the office operated with a skeleton in-person staff of two to four staff members on any given day, which I was a part of. My title was Intern but due to understaffing I filled the role of Staff Assistant. I was the initial point of contact for the office, speaking to hundreds of constituents on the phone and sorting thousands of emails requesting legislative action. I was also a runner, a notetaker, a newsletter writer, a social media contributor, and an extra hand for whoever needed it. I was there to help. My time is Washington allowed me to help serve the people of my home and learn so much about how our government truly operates. I had worried that my own political affiliation would put me at a disadvantage; the world has become increasingly partisan while I stand firmly in independence. My classes have emphasized the interminable nature of the two-party system, and I have been forced to pick a side time and time again. While in Washington I witnessed the countless pitfalls of intense partisanship and admittedly felt quite stunned at times. Despite all this, I stand reinvigorated in my goal. For each moment of despair there was a stronger moment of joy, and I am encouraged in my career path and reminded of the humanity of it all. Government is imperfect because people are imperfect, but no matter how we divide ourselves, there is always hope.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Nonnemacher, Madeline Pou, Jay Integrative Learning in an Electronic Environment: What a Virtual Internship with a Commercial Bank Taught Me About Leadership
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The summer following my Junior year, I had my first internship that was directly connected to my intended future career path within the field of Finance. I was offered a position in the Commercial & Credit Leadership Program with Fifth Third Bank. This internship would potentially lead to a two-year rotational program through Fifth Third’s commercial bank in Charlotte, NC. Fifth Third is the 14th largest national bank in the United States and was exactly the place that I wanted to be begin my career. When the Coronavirus pandemic hit the United States in early April, I received news that my internship would be conducted completely remote. Although disappointed at first, my virtual experience exceeded all of my expectations in terms of interactivity. I was put in a rigorous, fast-paced training program throughout the ten-weeks and my pre-existing financial knowledge from classes in DMSB helped more than I ever anticipated. It was very rewarding to know that I had retained so much useful information from classes that I could actually apply that knowledge to real-world situations. Aside from tasks I had for my direct team, I had the opportunity to network with over fifty people throughout the summer in a variety of areas of the bank. I was shocked at how welcoming everyone was to the idea of a phone call with a virtual intern, and networking turned out to be one of the most beneficial parts of the internship as I got a closer look into other potential career paths. Following my internship, I received a full-time offer into Fifth Third’s Commercial & Credit Leadership Program and did not hesitate to accept. Since the conclusion of my internship, I have taken several upper-level Finance classes at UofSC that have all connected to topics I learned during my internship. Seeing the connection between what I have learned inside the classroom to what I have learned outside the classroom is incredibly enriching. I cannot wait to continue on with my journey at Fifth Third.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Cunningam, Niegel Mogilski, Justin Do Styles of Moral Reasoning Predict Attitudes toward Consensual Non-monogamy?
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Consensual non-monogamy (CNM) is a type of romantic relationship where individuals have the consent and approval from their partner(s) to form romantic or sexual partnerships with other people. This type of relationship has been steadily rising in prevalence and yet remains heavily scrutinized. We postulate that stigma against CNM in Western society can be attributed to certain styles of moral reasoning. In this project, we are using online survey software to administer several psychometric measures of moral reasoning alongside measures of peoples’ attitudes toward CNM to assess how moral beliefs, ethical decision making, and sexual ethics relate to beliefs about the social acceptability of CNM and a person’s willingness to engage in CNM. We will first administer our study to a sample of 600 participants from the U.S. to explore the statistical associations among our survey measures. After, we will revise our study, update its hypotheses, and re-administer it in an international sample. We expect that our research will reveal the causes of stigma against CNM and thereby help the scientific community to better understand why stigma against CNM exists.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Hampton, Sabrina
Falls, Aaron
McGill, Denise Gullah Gone: Preserving the Land, Water and Culture of the Sea Islands
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Since October 2019 I have worked with Associate Professor Denise McGill to create an hour-long documentary for National PBS about the land, water, and Gullah people of St. Helena Island, South Carolina. As a research assistant, I have been responsible for transcribing and organizing film clips, which creates a written record to be used later for editing purposes. Additionally, I have worked on organizing photos taken throughout the production process, while also helping promote the documentary on social media. Throughout this experience, I have learned the process of creating a feature length film, while also learning that even though I have a small part in the process, it will be of great help in the editing process and overall production of the film. This film explores generations of Gullah culture, which is important as the Gullah people are critical to American history. Gullah Gone also examines how the residents of St. Helena Island blend their traditional methods with modern ways to create something truly unique. As the descendants of plantation slaves, they tell a remarkable story of survival, and through the use of multimedia storytelling those stories can be shared across America.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Rush, Samantha
Bowers, Terrica
Richardson, Susan Bromide and Iodide Mapping of South Carolina Rivers: What Kinds of DBPs Form in the Wonderful Iodine State?
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The disinfection of water has been hailed as one of the most important triumphs for public health in the 20th century. Drinking water treatment plants generate safe drinking water by inactivating microorganisms through the use of several popular disinfectants including chlorine, chloramine, chlorine dioxide, UV irradiation, and ozone. Each of these disinfecting agents, despite their ability to sanitize water sources, also contain the ability to generate toxic disinfection by-products, or DBPs, when reacted with naturally occurring organic matter, bromide, and iodide. Therefore, the presence of bromide and iodide ion precursors present at different geographical locations can be a concern for human and aquatic health. This study examined the relationship of bromide and iodide ions as precursors to DBP formation in the first statewide analysis of the various bodies of water in South Carolina. Since the Fall Line in SC served as the coastline in ancient times, fossilized seawater, or ancient salt deposits, containing high concentrations of bromide and iodide have remained. Through a partnership with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC), water samples obtained both throughout the state and over the course of two years were analyzed for bromide and iodide concentrations using Ion Chromatography. In accord with the Fall Line, samples containing high levels of bromide and iodide were located at or below the Fall Line. Moving forward, this general trend is critical to determine the relationship of DBP formation levels in drinking water across the state. Currently, the relationship between preexisting bromide and iodide levels and resulting DBP formation are underway by performing liquid-liquid extraction, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), and total organic halogen (TOX) methods to identify and quantify DBPs at absent, low, medium, and high iodide concentration levels in the state. Based on the number, concentration, and identity of the toxic DBPs discovered, this research will offer quantitative information of potential hazards to make water safer for human and aquatic life.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Polite, DJ Childs, Matt Democracy, Citizenship, Puerto Rican Autonomy under the U.S. Jim Crow Empire
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This project unites the U.S. South and Puerto Rico to a joint history of Jim Crow and imperialism. The U.S. South was much more than an unwilling, intransigent obstacle to imperialism due to deep seated racism. Such characterizations do not capture the vision that Southerners brought to the debate and how it would shape the process of empire and modern nation-building as not merely reminiscent of Jim Crow. And likewise, Puerto Ricans at the turn of the 20th century were not simply subjected to empire, but as a migrant population they were marked with the stamp of U.S. racism, as well as imperialism. They used the courts, the political system, and archives to achieve greater freedom to live. But whether it be through citizenship, attempts to create a self-governing state, or to achieve race liberation, the options available had their limits. In many respects, then, this dissertation further elucidates the construction of new tools of oppression through the form of the expanding U.S. state, and the tools that could be used by individuals to challenge that oppression. It is of lesser consequence in assessing the extent to which these movements were successful or not. These lessons not just inform the US-Puerto Rico colonial relationship to today, but the greater development of the United States federal state and its relationship to the racialized others of the world under its ever-expanding empire at home and abroad.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Miller, Tracey Scott, Ann
Pate, Leigh
Davis, Angie
Simulated Medication Competency for Pre-licensure Nursing sSudents
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Background/Significance: Medication errors harm more than 1.5 million people annually. Medication errors can cause injuries or even death and lead to extra medical expenses at an estimated cost of more than $3.5 million. BSN students cause 77% of those errors due to incorrect dosing. Nursing students also have problems with medication administration rights, decreased medication calculation ability, and decreased self-confidence. BSN students have chosen the wrong syringe to medicate in the clinical setting, have not appropriately identified the patient, and attempted to use a needle with a needleless system. With computerized testing, the evaluation of the five rights is limited. Purpose: This DNP project aimed to use the simulated medication competency (SMC) to observe and rate the students' ability to complete the medication calculations adequately. Additionally, the student was assessed regarding the five rights to determine if they possessed the technical skills to administer medications safely. Lastly, to obtain the student's perception of satisfaction and self-confidence with medication administration. Methods: Concurrent mixed-methods guided by the NLN Jeffries Simulation Framework (NLN). Results: Integrated qualitative/quantitative data revealed four relevant constructs related to the NLN: Skill performance; Learning satisfaction; Self-confidence, and Learning Knowledge. The mean of the computerized medication competency (CMC) was 94, and simulation medication competency (SMC) was 84. 100% (13) per the NLN Survey of the participating students felt very confident or confident the SMC experience prepared them in all aspects of safe medication administration related to skills performance alone based on their responses: “I feel more confident moving forward administering medication because the hands-on portion was the extra practice I needed.” A disproportion was found with student confidence increasing while SMC scores decreased. Conclusions: The project results demonstrate that while students may know how to calculate medication dosages, they are not competent in the "Five Rights" or "hands-on" aspect of safe medication administration. It also demonstrates that simulation is a better method to evaluate nursing students' competence for safe medication administration than computerized testing alone. Safe medication administration helps the patient and decreases medical cost, prevents extended hospital stays and sentinel events.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Jefferson, Meoshay Wellman, Denise Empathy,Development,Peace: My Takeaways from the Middle East
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January 19, 2020: I landed in Queen Alia International Airport in Amman, Jordan. I went to the bathroom after 21 hours of travelling. As I finished washing my hands, the cleaning lady reached for paper towels to hand me. La’ Maalish shurkun! No! Don’t worry Thank you! I said to her before she completed her gesture, but she said no you are my guest. My first interaction in Jordan set the tone for my entire experience. My journey abroad was more than I could ever imagine. I committed myself to seeking opportunities to grow, learn, and expose myself to issues greater than me. In Amman, I was able to experience and learn issues firsthand that I have spent reading in the news for the last couple years. I was able to see directly the effect of United States’ Foreign Policy decisions in the Middle East. I was able to practice my Arabic that I had been studying for the last 2 years ago. I saw the authentic Middle East that got lost in the wicked narrative of the West. The Middle East with the nicest, most hospitable people willing to help you at their every move. But, ultimately over everything else, I was able to experience the interconnectivity of the world itself. My experiences heightened my level of empathy and quenched my thirst for knowledge. Every day when I woke up to the sounds of the morning prayers, I knew that the day was mine to make.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Trinh, Jasmine Pou, Jay Project Management turns into Life Management: My Takeaways from an Internship at a Farm Credit Bank
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In my role as a Project Management Intern at AgFirst Farm Credit Bank, I am responsible for providing updates on multiple Bank projects regarding the scope, cost, duration, and any changes that may impact the projects. On a weekly basis the Project Execution and Advisory Committee meets to discuss these details, addressing any impediments and providing guidance to project owners to ensure a successful project. Throughout my time in this role, it has become clear that proper planning, frequent communication and attention to small detail changes can be the difference between a successful/unsuccessful effort. I have been able to apply these concepts to tasks and projects in my personal and professional life to get the best return on my efforts.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Semba, Jacob Harrison, Theresa Sustainable Global Sourcing Strategies
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I applied sustainable global sourcing strategies from Management Science 487 to the University of Michigan Donald J. Bowersox Undergraduate Supply Chain Challenge in October 2019. The Supply Chain Operations Decisions Environment or SCODE Challenge Scenario was designed to mimic key strategic and tactical decisions related to managing an end-to-end supply chain including Procurement, Production, Logistics, and Distribution. My team and I were responsible for operations scheduling and supply chain management at Spartan Industries, Chemical Division (a hypothetical company). My team and I optimized a lean-supply chain by balancing strategic and operational decisions based on supplier location, facility location, market conditions, and service levels. Overall, I believe my SCODE experience will be useful to my career in operations and supply chain because it has taught me how to design a logistics network by vetting international carriers and shippers, and how to leverage data to make sustainable global sourcing decisions. Through this experience, I hope to pursue full-time opportunities with a supply chain division in a Fortune 500 company in the southeastern region of the United States.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Gately, Natalie Spence, Gina The Value of Relationships in High-Context Cultures
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As a Marketing major with a concentration in Business Data Analytics and a minor in Spanish, my decision to study abroad in Salamanca, Spain enabled me to apply what I had learned in a theoretical context in my past three years at the University of South Carolina in a more hands on and interactive environment in Spain. I had always wanted to find a way to incorporate the two dimensions of my studies at UofSC, both business and Spanish, and in the Spring 2020 semester I was able to make this a reality by enrolling in a mixture of both these classes at the Universidad de Salamanca as well as choosing to live in a homestay. I was even more excited to reside in a Spanish homestay when I recalled the concept of high and low-context cultures from a Consumer Behavior marketing class I took at UofSC. Living in the low-context culture of the United States for all my life, I was excited to not only venture out to Europe for the first time, but also to live in Spain and experience its high-context culture that was so different from back home. The semester of living with my host abuela and taking classes with Spanish locals taught me the value of relationships in high-context cultures. I hope to one day continue my postgraduate education abroad, and knowing the importance of relationships in high-context cultures and how to navigate them will be useful in providing a seamless transition and positive experience.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Smith, Jacob Harrison, Theresa To Walk as the Ancients Did
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As a future international human rights attorney, it is critical that I can understand other religions, cultures, and people. To aid in this goal, I traveled to Jordan, Egypt, and Turkey to better understand their cultural and religious differences to the United States and Europe. Today I have prepared an overview of the major takeaways and locations that I encountered. See how the Hagia Sophia, Pyramids of Giza, Petra, and one of the Upper Egypt coronation areas were all able to give me invaluable insight into all these civilizations' history, culture, and religion.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Fadel, Tina Shorter, Kimberly Vitamin B12 Affects Gene Expression in a Human Neuronal Cell Line
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Vitamin B12 consumption has increased via energy drinks, vitamin waters, and supplements. Little research is dedicated to high levels of Vitamin B12; research has centered on low Vitamin B12 and associated neurotoxic homocysteine levels. Interestingly, as Vitamin B12 consumption increased, neurological diseases such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) increased exponentially. Currently, 1 in 59 children is diagnosed with ASD. ASD is a disorder that involves epigenetics, genetics, and neurobiology changes that lead to behavioral patterns like decreased sociability and increased repetitive behaviors. These behavioral changes are rooted in neuronal communications involving vesicle trafficking along microtubules that are stabilized by Tau using dynein and kinesin as molecular motors. Vitamin B12 has the potential to affect gene expression since it assists with the one carbon metabolic pathway where a methyl group is added to DNA and histones. Therefore, we investigated whether excess Vitamin B12 affects gene expression and vesicle trafficking in a neurobiological model, the SHSY5Y cell. High Vitamin B12 does affect gene expression in SHSY5Y cells, and more research is needed to understand the physiological changes that may occur with high Vitamin B12 exposure in a full organism.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Hwang, Kyungjin Sanchez, Lenny Investigating Young L2 Learners’ Multimodal Reading Response Using Transactional Theory
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Drawing on Rosenblatt (1978)’s transactional theory of reading-response and Kress (2003)’s multimodality theory, this research examines how digital multimodal texts provide second language (L2) learners with opportunities to engage in their L2 learning. This study has two research questions: (1) How do the L2 learners respond to a digital multimodal text? (2) What roles do the learners play in multimodal reading-responses? The two participants, 9-year-old James and 7-year-old Emily, are siblings and they were native English speakers born in the United States. They have joined in a 10-week long project of learning Korean with digital multimodal texts — YouTube videos. I have provided the participants with a variety of Korean-based YouTube videos to watch each week. This current paper is a part of the project. In this paper, I use a video related to Korean history titled “Dividing Korea into North and South” on Korean history. The video is about five minutes long with subtitles. The children can understand and interpret the meaning of the video through various modes like language, image, gesture, gaze, body posture, sound, music, and speech. They talk about the meaning they form and as s final step, they write a multimodal journal. Data include audio-recorded class conversations and children’s multimodal journals. The data offer a snapshot of how they respond to the digital multimodal text. For analysis, I first employ discourse analysis (Gee, 2010) to glean a fine-grained understanding of the collected data. Then, I do the data analysis with "open coding" (Strauss, & Corbin, 1998) to generate codes to capture different reading responses, which culminated into different categories. In subsequent cycles, I conduct holistic coding (Saldana, 2013) to categorize chunks of data that eventually culminate into themes. The results show how the two children respond to the digital multimodal text based on their social, emotional, and personal context. They respond as follows: responding like an expert with experience and knowledge; responding like a curious questioner; responding like an artist using multiple modes. This study highlights the importance that language learning centered on multimodality and reader response can influence dynamic transactions between readers and texts.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Strandholm, Sarah Garimella, Sudha Impact of melatonin on blood pressures in children undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)
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Background: ABPM has become the standard of care for diagnosing pediatric hypertension. The use of sleep aids like melatonin is on the rise in children, especially due to COVID-19 related stress and loss of routines. In a survey in May 2020, over 50% of parents had given melatonin to their child. Melatonin has been reported to exert anti-hypertensive effects in adults with metabolic disorders, pre-eclampsia and sleep disorders. It's effects on blood pressure have not been well described in children. Objective: Analyze impact of melatonin in children undergoing ABPM and describe the association between Body Mass Index percentiles, use of melatonin, and abnormal systolic/diastolic BP, nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping. Design/Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart analysis of patients ages 4-21 years who underwent an ABPM study using SpaceLabs 90217® between January 2018-June 2019 at a pediatric hypertension clinic. Children with known cardiac disease, chronic kidney disease, or on dialysis were excluded. 377 records were evaluated. 300 children were not taking hypertension medications. Sub-analysis of this group was conducted for melatonin usage. Continuous variables are reported as mean (standard deviation). Discrete variables are reported as N (%). Differences between the groups were tested using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test. Discrete variables were tested using Chi-square test. All analyses were carried out using R statistical software. Results: 6% of our cohort was on prescription melatonin. Use of melatonin was more prevalent in children with higher BMI (Fig1). In our cohort, there was no influence of BMI on dipping status (Table 1). Children taking melatonin were not any more or less likely to have abnormal dip, higher systolic or diastolic BP on average or systolic load (Table2). Conclusion(s): Melatonin usage is more prevalent in those with higher BMI. While Melatonin may attenuate hypertension in adults, our study did not demonstrate an effect of Melatonin usage on blood pressures in children. Use of melatonin is increasing and its effect on BP must be better described with a prospective study and at differing doses.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Nguyen, Tien O'Kane, Jason Quantifying the Performance of AquaNav
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The underwater domain poses unique challenges for autonomous robots, including strong currents, challenging passageways and changing landscapes. Thus, UofSC robotics research labs implemented AquaNav, an algorithm that performs rapid planning of 3D motions for the Aqua2 hexapod autonomous underwater vehicle. Though the developers have shown through simulations and physical tests that AquaNav appears to be effective, currently there are no quantitative studies for AquaNav’s performance. The goal of this project is to create an algorithm that tests the performance of AquaNav. We created an evaluation subsystem, using Python, that communicates with ROS (Robotic Operation System) and Gazebo simulation to perform a continuous distance calculation from robot to the nearest obstacles. The proposed tester results in a distance vs time chart that shows how well AquaNav performs at keeping the robot at least 0.5 meters from obstacles throughout the robot’s execution.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Richard, Chelsea McDermott, Suzanne Maternal Longstanding Physical Disability and Increased Risk for Small for Gestational Age Infants: Is Prescription Opioid Use on the Causal Pathway?
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Women with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, spinal cord/traumatic brain injury, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or stroke (henceforth, longstanding physical disability (LPD)) are at high risk of chronic pain and adverse birth outcomes. Chronic pain is an indication for prescribing opioids, which are also related to an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. There is limited knowledge for how LPD and prescription opioid use before or during pregnancy impact the risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant. We hypothesize that pregnant women with LPD will have a higher risk of having an SGA infant compared to women without LPD and that prescription opioid use before and during pregnancy will mediate the association with SGA. Using a 3:1 propensity score matched sample from a cohort of Medicaid beneficiaries in South Carolina, causal mediation and Poisson regression analysis were employed. Prescription opioid use (‘opioids’) was measured in total morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs), and SGA was defined using cut-offs from Alexander et al (1996). Three models were obtained: (1) LPD predicting opioids during pregnancy mediated by opioids before pregnancy; (2) LPD predicting SGA mediated by opioids during pregnancy; (3) LPD predicting SGA adjusted for opioids before and during pregnancy. All models were adjusted for covariates. Significantly more women with LPD had an SGA infant (15.27%) than those without LPD (13.46%; p-value: 0.02). The association between LPD and opioids during pregnancy was 62.05% mediated by opioids before pregnancy (95%CI: 16.55-100.00%). The association between LPD and SGA was not mediated by opioids during pregnancy (-0.23%; 95%CI: -1.16-0.70%). Those with LPD were at 18% higher risk of SGA (95%CI: 1.06-1.32) than those without LPD, after adjustment. Among those with LPD, there was no significant difference in risk of SGA between those with MMEs over 90 and those with no MMEs during pregnancy (adjustedRR: 0.88; 95%CI: 0.63-1.21). For women with LPD, their increased risk of SGA is not explained by the level of opioids during pregnancy. Instead, this may be explained by some characteristic of the disability. Therefore, it is imperative that obstetricians be disability-informed and understand the unique needs of this population.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Anderson, Brandi Grace, Breanne Invisible Tears: Finding My Voice
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This study is intended to test the effectiveness of an intervention which combines the use of an existing evidence-based program (SSET) with expressive arts techniques, to improve overall mental health of youth ages 7-18.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Mau, Aaron Lang, Susan Novel characterization of hydrothermal dissolved organic carbon at the Mid-Cayman Rise
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Oceanic dissolved organic matter is a major carbon reservoir composed primarily of persistent, refractory material. Circulation through hydrothermal systems has been demonstrated to profoundly alter this material, but the conditions that lead to its addition, removal, and alteration are poorly constrained. As a consequence, the contribution of hydrothermal systems to organic carbon in the deep ocean, and the biological and geochemical processes responsible for this input, remain highly uncertain. In January 2020, samples were collected from two hydrothermal vent fields at the Mid-Cayman Rise that have substantial differences in host rock type, depth, and vent fluid temperature, allowing carbon fluxes and chemical transformations to be investigated over a range of physical and chemical conditions. The mafic, neovolcanic Piccard field hosts high temperature black-smoker fluids while the Von Damm field is situated atop an oceanic core complex and is influenced by ultramafic rocks that may facilitate abiotic organic matter production. Dissolved organic matter in fluids ranging from 4 - 393°C has been characterized by multiple means, including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. At Von Damm, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon isolated by solid phase extraction decreased from background seawater values proportionally with increasing temperature, while becoming more enriched in 13C. At Piccard, the dissolved organic carbon in fluids of supercritical pathways had no distinguishable difference in δ13C from background seawater, nor did concentrations correlate with temperature. NMR analysis of these samples indicates that Piccard fluids do not contain the thousands of compounds seen in background seawater, but instead contain a high concentration of a few compounds with specific characteristics detectable by NMR. Organic acid analysis indicates that formate is the dominant aqueous organic species in Von Damm vent fluids, with concentrations exceeding 800 μM. Our results suggest that there are radically different reaction pathways for DOC production and consumption at the Mid-Cayman Rise, which may have significant influences on deepwater carbon cycles and implications for extraterrestrial abiotic carbon synthesis.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Greer, Avery Hiott, Ambra Peer Leader Experience
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During the Fall semester of 2020, I was a peer leader for a freshman university 101 class. To be able to be a peer leader, I had to take EDLP 520. This class teaches you how to be a mentor/friend to these younger students, while keeping it professional. This experience provided me with the opportunity to not only learn how to work in a more professional setting, but also how to become more civically engaged in my community (being a peer leader is a civic duty) since we are ultimately guiding the freshman students towards a path of success. I had the opportunity to not only be a mentor to these students, but I also gained many mentors from the experience myself. I learned many new skills from the experience as well and taught many topics to the students including safety, alcohol education, civic engagement, and advisement and registration. This opportunity really helped me understand the importance of being civically active in my school and community and for that I am thankful.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Williamson, Lindsay Bell, Floyd
Cook, James
Simulation for Training in Pelvic Ultrasound: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Simulation versus Written Presentation
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Introduction: Transvaginal ultrasound provides invaluable clinical insight to skilled providers but is a challenging and sensitive exam. Ultrasound simulation is a well-established means of teaching in medical education. We examined differences in competence and confidence in novices using traditional didactic presentation alone versus in combination with simulation. Methods: One-hundred and twenty-six third-year medical students entering their obstetrics and gynecology clerkship were randomly assigned to experimental (ultrasound simulator + didactic presentation) or control (didactic only) groups. Differences in proportion of correct answers regarding skills involved in transvaginal ultrasound were evaluated with an image-based exam and chi-square test. Student preferences and confidence were determined with tallied anonymous survey results. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in exam performance between groups (% correct control: 59.5% and % correct experimental 58.2%; p=0.617). The students’ subjective evaluation of the benefits of simulation demonstrated a positive perception overall; 96% of students indicated that simulation improved understanding of spatial relationships, and no students indicated a preference for learning transvaginal ultrasound through didactic presentation without simulation. Conclusion: Incorporating simulation into didactic learning was at least as effective as traditional education alone. Overall student perception was encouraging regarding the use of simulation for learning more sensitive ultrasound scans.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Battaglia, Brittany Childs, Matthew Land Ethic
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Whenever I have asked someone, what do you consider to be a part of your community, their answer typically involves people and pets. Many people don’t consider the land that they live on to be a part of their community, but once you think about it you begin to realize that without it, your life wouldn’t be the same. The way we think about land has to change if we want to see a positive change in the environment. If we begin to think of our land as a part of our community, and a substantial part of our day to day lives, maybe we will begin to treat it better. An experience that really opened my eyes to this problem was participating in a beach cleanup in Hawaii in January of 2020. During this cleanup I was also able to talk to and meet a native who devotes a big part of his life to cleaning up these beaches and making Hawaii as beautiful as it can be. During this beach clean up I really was able to put Leopold’s land ethic theory into perspective, especially while talking to the native, Austin Kino about how he views the land and marine life of Hawaii as a part of his community. In my presentation I will talk more about how important it is to treat our land as a part of our community, and discuss my journey in making daily changes to become more energy conscious and environmentally friendly. As a student pursuing a pathway in professional and civic engagement, I have recently changed my professional goals to match a more eco friendly lifestyle in hopes of making even the slightest positive change for the land that we seem to take for granted everyday. I think that it is important that I keep this aspect of my goal for not only my piece of mind, but also to make my dreams have a bigger and more important message and meaning.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Haugh, Patrick Vanderborg, Susan Onliest Dispatches: A Metamodern Magazine
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Onliest Dispatches is a magazine composed of poetry, photography, and narrative that synthesizes the styles and methods of romanticism, symbolism, surrealism, modernism, and postmodernism to realize Luke Turner’s definition of metamodernism as “the mercurial condition between irony and sincerity, naivety and knowingness, relativism and truth, optimism and doubt, in pursuit of a plurality of disparate and elusive horizons.” In particular, a reinvigoration of the spirit is posited as vital in our age of digital pervasiveness, rampant consumerism, and obdurate, factious political ideology. The spirit, in the sense of an eternal connection to Nature, is essential and inherent to every individual, transcends rationalist truth-value in its ethereality, and also challenges concepts of race, sex, culture, age into their originary formlessness. This vision shirks the dangers of the entrancing yet unfathomable hallucinations of surrealism and the pleasant but naive spiritualism of romanticism, when it is coupled with the pioneering, futuristic designs of modernism, and the deconstruction and cynicism of postmodernism. The fusion of such contrary positions is certainly a model for the “pragmatic neo-romanticism unhindered by ideological anchorage” as outlined by Turner. Obviously, Onliest Magazine does not pretend to resolve these issues--there is no alchemical resolution—but rather to exemplify the fresh and exciting metamodern position. The first poem, “Muse”, uses surrealist non-sequiturs, dreamlike language, and syntactic breaks to eloquent both the potency and limitations of artistic expression. “ACME MODE”, the second poem, utilizes symbolism’s indirect treatment of images to develop a base and luxurious euphoria, and is infused with postmodern irony to illustrate the hollowness of this fixation. Next, “Rana”, a short story, expands on this theme with surrealist absurdity, reigned in by metamodern sincerity to timeless themes like nostalgia and youthful passion. The subsequent prose poem is a reconciling of Nietzsche’s concept of Amor Fati with Rimbaud’s external source of identity and expression, and seeks to advance the conflict between the spiritual and material spheres, by exploring the discord of truth and beauty. The closing poem “Las Perlas de Vida” exhibits the eternal spirit with a childlike naivety, through a symbolist labyrinth of images and feelings.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Rutkovsky, Alexandria Nagarkatti, Mitzi Resveratrol inhibits TCDD-mediated induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and their functions
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Previously, we showed that 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an AhR ligand and a potent and persistent toxicant, induced murine myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) by migration from bone marrow (BM) to peritoneal cavity (PC). In the current study, we show that Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene; RSV), yet another AhR ligand reduces TCDD-induced MDSC induction. The number of Cd11b+Gr1+ cells induced by TCDD in the PC was decreased when assessed by flow cytometry following RSV treatment. Transcriptome analysis of Gr1+ PC cells showed TCDD treatment led to an increase in the quantity of metabolic process pathway genes expressed. The bio-energetic profile of these cells showed that RSV treatment lowered basal and compensatory glycolysis as well as glycolytic proton efflux rate thereby decreasing the energetic demands induced by TCDD. To further examine general metabolic function, we profiled liver cells in the TCDD and TCDD+RSV groups and found RSV significantly decreased ALT levels and the number of IL-17 expressing cells compared to TCDD alone, promoting an anti-inflammatory role for RSV during co-administration. In silico profiling of select metabolic genes in a human hepatoma cell line exposed to the AhR ligands, showed significant alterations similar to changes in transcriptome data from TCDD-treated MDSCs. Additionally, RSV mitigated the suppressive function of TCDD-treated PC MDSCs on conA-induced splenic T-cell proliferation as assessed by the 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. Furthermore, assessment of myeloid marker expression by flow cytometry demonstrated that AhR ligands alter immune cell subsets with tSNE highlighting a pronounced role for the differentiation of PC CD11b+ populations which was not prominent in BM. TCDD also influenced T-cell maturation causing thymic atrophy. Thus, when thymocytes were cultured with TCDD in the presence or absence of RSV, TUNEL assay showed RSV significantly decreased TCDD-induced apoptosis of thymocytes. Overall, the data demonstrated that RSV decreased TCDD-induced immune suppression by altering the dynamics of various myeloid cell populations in terms of numbers, metabolism and immunosuppressive potency. (Supported by NIH grants P01AT003961, P20GM103641, R01AI123947, R01AI129788 and R01ES19313)

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Hodge, Julia Trevors, Gregory First-Generation Student Support: Exploring Imposter Phenomenon, Self-Efficacy, and Test Anxiety
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This longitudinal mixed-method study examines first-generation students (FGS) from a new angle, using the lens of the imposter phenomenon (IP) and the impact of a support program tailored to this population. The Opportunity Scholars Program (OSP) serves low-income, first-generation in-state students. The program promotes retention for low-income FGS. It is worthwhile to evaluate whether and to what degree such a program affects IP among FGS. Specifically, the following research questions guided the study: RQ1. Do first-generation students report higher rates of IP and test anxiety and lower rates of academic self-efficacy compared to non-first-generation students? RQ2. In what ways does a comprehensive academic support program affect the degree of IP, test anxiety, and academic self-efficacy among first-generation students? The random sample consisted of three different groups: non-FGS, FGS, and first-generation OSP students. IP, academic self-efficacy, and test anxiety were assessed via self-reported scales at the beginning of the semester, Time 1 (n=153) and at the end of the semester, Time 2 (n=99) to estimate the effect of OSP on the subsample who experience it in comparison to the other two groups. ANOVA and RM ANOVA showed at Time 1 FGS in OSP had higher levels of IP and lower levels of academic self-efficacy compared to non-FGS as expected (RQ1), but this difference was not observable at Time 2 (RQ2). Paired-samples t-tests were conducted to compare IP, self-efficacy, and test anxiety in each group for Time 1 and Time 2. Compared to Time 1, IP was higher for FGS not in OSP; t(34)=2.45, p=.02, and test anxiety was higher for non-FGS; t(30)=2.18, p=.038 at Time 2. With no significant increases in such factors for OSP students, OSP may be viewed as a protective factor for FGS that promotes resilience against IP and anxiety. This tentative conclusion will be further explored in interviews with a subset of students to gain a deeper understanding. Both quantitative and qualitative results will show important insights into risk factors for this growing population of students and the ways universities can better support their success.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Berrios, Louis Ely, Bert Genes related to redox and cell curvature facilitate interactions between Caulobacter strains and Arabidopsis
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Bacteria play an integral role in shaping plant growth and development. However, the genetic factors that facilitate plant-bacteria interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated the importance of two bacterial genetic factors that facilitate the interactions between plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria in the genus Caulobacter and the host plant Arabidopsis. Using homologous recombination, we disrupted the cytochrome ubiquinol oxidase (cyo) operon in both C. vibrioides CB13 and C. segnis TK0059 and showed that the mutant strains were unable to enhance the growth of Arabidopsis. In addition, disruption of the cyo operon, metabolomic reconstructions, and pH measurements suggested that both cyo operon expression and acid production by strain CB13 contribute to the previously observed inhibition of Arabidopsis seed germination. We also showed that the crescent shape of the PGP bacterial strain C. crescentus CB15 contributes to its ability to enhance plant growth. Thus, we have identified specific genetic factors that explain how select Caulobacter strains interact with Arabidopsis plants.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Phan, Tra Mi Fang, Jing Define the function of p62 in erythropoiesis
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Anemia is a common condition among the United States population. There are different forms of anemia; however, they all result from an inadequate production of healthy red blood cells (RBC). Understanding erythropoiesis, formation of RBCs, could help improve the therapeutic approaches to anemia. During the terminal erythroid differentiation stage of erythropoiesis, the immature RBC will undergo mitophagy, or mitochondrial degradation. Mitophagy is aided by p62, also known as sequestosome 1, wherein damaged mitochondria are transported to an autophagosome for degradation. In a preliminary study, p62-deficient mice showed an upregulation in genes involved in erythropoiesis as compared to wild type mice. In addition, the older p62-deficient mice had higher levels of hemoglobin in the blood and in individual RBCs. This implies that p62 may play a regulating role in erythropoiesis; however, the inactivated p62 cells exhibited only slight inhibition of early progenitor cell functions which indicates that p62 does not have a great effect on the early stages of erythropoiesis. It is hypothesized that p62 may play a role in the late stages of erythropoiesis. To test this hypothesis, bone marrow cells from p62-deficient mice and wild type mice will be collected. To determine the stages of terminal erythroid differentiation, Ter119 and CD44 antibodies and cell size (FSC) levels will be compared using a flow cytometer. To determine mitochondrial mass and activity, flow cytometer analysis of MitoTracker Green (MTG) and Tetramethyl-rhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) staining will be used, respectively. It is expected that the results will coincide with the stated hypothesis that p62 may participate in the late stages of erythropoiesis.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Khatami, Farboud Goharian, Erfan Expanding the view of sustainability beyond Carbon: The relative aggregate footprint of energy production in the southeast United States
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Energy sustainability is a concept that goes beyond just the carbon emissions involved in generation processes. In this study, we calculated the aggregated footprint of various energy generation technologies in the southeast United States by considering their environmental, economic, technical, and social aspects. Further, to evaluate the feasibility of using different technologies in each state, the uncertainties associated with decision-making and available resources were also considered. The results show energies such as wind, solar, and geothermal generally have the lowest footprints in the region, where the main sources of energy production have traditionally been coal, natural gas, and nuclear energy. The feasibility of adopting different technologies in each region was also measured under multiple scenarios with the focus put on different criteria. In the end, the study provides insight on how energy supply mixes can be developed for various regions with respect to the available resources and characteristics of the region.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Davis, Eleanor Dow, Kirstin Won't you be my neighbor? Small business, community resilience, and complex hazards
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Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are experiencing unprecedented decreases in revenue, loss of employees and customers, disruptions to supply chains, and government-mandated restrictions and closures due to impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, In addition to the pandemic, natural hazards and extreme weather events, including wildfires, hurricanes, and floods, have further disrupted SMEs and communities across the country. As small businesses provide two-thirds of net new jobs and almost 50% of the United States workforce, the growing impact of COVID-19 and hazards amplifies the need for SME resilience building. A series of SME surveys have been conducted as a collaboration between the University of South Carolina, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This presentation highlights survey work during COVID-19 in the Carolinas studying SME preparation for hurricanes, adaptation and resilience factors, and community participation and support. As COVID-19 conditions persist, the chances of overlapping natural hazards increases for communities. The genesis of these survey projects began in 2019 with an in-person data collection to study the impact of hurricanes on Charleston, South Carolina SMEs. This paper will present results, lessons learned, and ongoing research synergies to enhance our understanding of SME resilience to complex hazards caused by climate change.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Singleton, Evellyn Reinhardt, Sara Internship to Career; The lessons I learned through the Target Stores Executive Intern experience that landed me a career with Target.
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This past summer, I worked with Target as their Stores Executive Intern. This internship was a 6-week structured program that covered the roles of the stores Executive Team Leads. My store, Target of Lexington, had four Executive Team Leads in the areas of general merchandise, specialty sales, service and engagement, and human resources. As a student passionate about retail with both leadership and management skills, this internship aligned perfectly with my interest and strengths. Over the course of my internship, I spent weeks with each Executive Team Lead, shadowing their management skills, while also being given the opportunity to practice mine. I learned how my management skills must cater toward each team member, and to the responsibilities each role has, in order to best serve our guests. I was also able to learn how to calculate the health of each business unit individually, including general merchandise, specialty sales, service and engagement, and human resources, as well as assess the health of the overall Target store. I noticed how the team spent their time investing in me through performance reviews, with both criticism and praise, all in an effort to ensure I left the internship a better leader then I started. The lessons this internship taught me will impact my leadership in all industry’s but specifically in the field of retail management which will allow me to experience a smoother transition into the career path I’ve chosen. As the internship closed, I prepared for and presented a strong “Final Walk” to Targets Senior District Director and their Human Resource Business Partner which showcased my development through this internship program. I saw the payoff of the hard work of my leaders, and myself and was offered a full-time career with target as an Executive Team Lead in Nashville, TN at the start of summer 2021. My participation in this program not only reaffirmed my passion for retail management but gave me the confidence to move forward into a career with target.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Wilson, Rachael Lewis, Elise The Final Piece
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During the summer of 2019, I went to the Philippines on a medical mission trip for the entire month of June. My interest in becoming a nurse and the connections I had with the Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children (FIMRC) Chapter at the University of South Carolina inspired me to take a dive into the unknown. While abroad, I shadowed medical students in the clinics, helped create a health club in the local primary school, observed doctors giving vaccinations, obtained vital signs of patients, and, most importantly, I shadowed midwives. This experience shaped my career path and provided the final piece of the puzzle in terms of my future. Before this experience, I knew that I wanted to go into the healthcare field, but I did not know where I would fit in. When I shadowed the midwives, I got to bathe, dress, and hold a baby who was barely eight hours old. After delivering the baby boy back to his mother, I knew in that moment that I wanted to be a midwife and help mothers through their experience of pregnancy and birth. After that summer, I decided to take classes on Global Women’s Health and Women’s Health to learn more about the disparities and inequalities of women internationally and locally within the United States to provide more insight of what being a midwife entails. My presentation will discuss the insights I gained through my time in the Philippines as well as the impact it has had on my senior year of college, graduate school, and my future career.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Wakser, Cayla Klusek, Jessica Age and Syntactic Complexity in Mothers with the FMR1 Premutation
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Introduction: The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is essential for cognitive development and function. The Fragile X Mental Retardation human gene (FMR1) codes for this protein. Around 1 in 151 women carry the FMR1 premutation. Mothers pass this mutation to their children, which may cause fragile X syndrome, a common cause of intellectual disability. Although these mothers are not considered to have fragile X syndrome, this premutation can cause a variety of symptoms that may affect their communication abilities starting around 30 years of age. Syntactic complexity is a characteristic involving the use of grammatical rules of language. In this longitudinal study, the relationship between age and syntactic complexity of mothers with the FMR1 premutation was analyzed. Methods: Five-minute speech samples were recorded for 163 FMR1 carriers and transcribed using SALT guidelines. Examiners asked participants to speak about their child continuously for 5 minutes without interruptions. Data were then analyzed using Coh-metrix to measure syntactic complexity. Results: Age was negatively associated with syntactic complexity. This means that with an increase in age there is a decrease in syntactic complexity over time. Conclusions: Therefore, this data calls attention to the necessity of more advanced clinical strategies or therapies that may help combat this decline to maintain the quality of life of the mothers and children involved.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Teresi, Jessica Gudridge, Maegan Promoting Student Mental Wellness as a Changing Carolina Peer Leader
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The transition to higher learning involves drastic changes that impact a student’s mental wellbeing. While these changes often motivate students to seek opportunities or engage with people different than themselves, it is naïve to ignore the large range of challenges college students experience inside and outside of the classroom. Since joining the Changing Carolina Peer Leaders in January of 2018, I have been dedicated to making a sustainable impact on the health and well-being of the Carolina Community. From my Certified Peer Education training, I have facilitated presentations and learning opportunities to peers during University 101 presentations and created campus-wide events along with my peer leaders to educate on various wellness topics and their associate campus resources in areas of mental health, general wellness, and sexual health. From engaging with students at these events, I learned valuable lessons and perspectives that enhanced my empathy and open-mindedness. In turn, this has driven me to educate the Carolina Community on various mental health topics and encourage the Community to adopt strategies to support their mental health that fit within their individual needs. One of my most significant contributions was striving to establish an innovative and inclusive program to encourage help-seeking behaviors for students. Many students feel that their experiences are not valid or worth sharing which can lead to negative mental health behaviors. Through thinking critically how to decrease this barrier, my efforts led me towards developing I Feel UofSC, a campaign to encourage students to validate their emotions through a platform we all can relate to, such as music, to inspire help seeking and open sharing of experiences with vulnerability and resilience. In this presentation, I aim to promote mental wellbeing resources by sharing how my experiences as a Changing Carolina Peer Leader contributed to the development of my leadership abilities and personal attributes during my time at UofSC.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
McDonald, Kelsi Lewis, Elise Taking Initiative to go Beyond the Job
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During my sophomore year I took UNIV 290 where I had the chance to gain more knowledge on what it takes to navigate different leadership roles. I have always seen myself as a natural leader and not afraid to go above and beyond in any situation and believed that this course would allow me to further develop those skills. As a class we were required to participate in a service project where I took the initiative and set up a time with the Ronald McDonald house to come and cook a meal for the families staying there. This experience allowed me to expand my network and also become more familiar with setting up meetings and working with directors. Being more comfortable in leadership roles inspired me to become a University 101 Peer Leader during the fall of my junior and senior year. As a Peer Leader I co-taught a class of 19 first year students where I facilitated discussions and executed activities to help them adapt to the campus culture. I was simultaneously in EDLP 520 during my junior year, where I developed skills and abilities to write lesson plans and deal with different situations and obstacles. By taking what I learned in this course and actively applying it in my own classroom I was able to enhance my experience and become a better leader while also bettering the experience of my students. The Society of Supply Chain Operations Excellence is a student run organization that I joined my junior year in order to get more involved and gain information about my major. Through this organization I had the opportunity to go on corporate tours and see how different industries work up-close. By attending all the tours and participating in every way I could, I was able to see my future more clearly and find the industry I want to work in after I graduate. Through all of these experiences I found ways to get involved and make the most out of everything I did which allowed me to grow professionally and learn more about myself.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Laurendeau, Megan Dail, Robin
Everhart, Kayla
Research Apprenticeship on the PATH Study: Examining the relationship between body temperature and blood transfusions in preterm infants
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Background/Significance: At 14.1 per every 100 preterm babies born, the United States has one of the highest preterm birth rates amongst developed countries. Preterm infants experience anemia due to frequent blood testing, which often necessitates a packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion. PRBCs are stored in a freezer and rarely is warmed above room temperature prior to infusing. Researchers have noted anecdotally that preterm infants experience hypothermia (<36.5C) with PRBC transfusions. Hypothermia can cause increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Purpose: The purpose of this analysis is to examine infants’ body temperatures, before, during and after blood transfusions for incidence of hypothermia and thermal gradient patterns. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from infants from a study conducted in a North Carolina neonatal unit. Abdominal and foot temperatures were recorded every minute for 28 days, in infants who were less than 33 weeks GA and between 500-1500 grams at birth. Infants received 1-4 transfusions each. We compared body temperature (abdominal and foot) 4 hours before, during, and after blood transfusions with descriptive statistics and examination of temperature plots computed using Microsoft Excel for hypothermia and abnormal thermal gradients. Results: Through analyzing the temperature differentials in the infants, the time of a blood transfusion, the infant’s central and peripheral temperature decreases. This decrease in temperature is seen in both infant’s central temperature and the peripheral temperature. However, it appears that the infant’s peripheral temperature has a larger temperature change during the transfusion than the central temperature. Conclusion: The change in the infant’s body temperature in response to a PRBC transfusion causes the infant’s central and peripheral temperature to drop, sometimes to hypothermic levels, due to the circulation of the blood stored in the freezer. The infant’s peripheral temperature drops lower than their central temperature due to the infant trying to maintain homeostasis by keeping their core from becoming hypothermic. Understanding that this NICU doesn’t routinely warm PRBC transfusions, and the abnormal thermal gradients these infants experienced at the time PRBC transfusions, further research is warranted on thermal stability during PRBC transfusions in preterm infants.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Morton, Zoey Schammel, Christine
Jorgensen, Jesse
Trocha, Steven
Cardiac Amyloidosis and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
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Aortic stenosis (AS) is one of the most common valvular pathologies and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of AS in the United States in people >75 years is approximately 12.4%. Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is caused by the deposition of insoluble abnormally folded proteins, mainly light chain or transthyretin, causing restrictive cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of transthyretin CA is estimated to be 196.2 per million adult patients. CA associated with AS leads to reduced quality of life, heart failure, and death. The prevalence of CA within all AS patients is approximately 8%, with a higher prevalence of 16% in an older cohort (> 74 years) of AS patients. Patients with AS combined with CA had significantly higher (56%) 1-year all-cause mortality than patients with only AS (20%). Until recently there were no specific therapies for cardiac amyloidosis, but advances in immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and treatments designed to stabilize transthyretin or stop its synthesis have shown positive results for CA patients. Advances in diagnosis that no longer require a biopsy and the emergence of effective treatments make CA diagnosis more valuable in patient care. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is used to treat severe AS. This procedure has become more common with the number of TAVR procedures increasing 338% between 2012 and 2016. Aortic valve replacement is a current treatment strategy used for CA patients to address their AS. TAVR is frequently used as the replacement technique, but outcomes for CA patients following the TAVR procedure have not been well documented. The goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate the presence of CA in patients undergoing TAVR at a single regional medical center. The study aims to determine how CA affects outcomes following TAVR to develop this as a predictor to facilitate early detection treatment and promote optimal patient outcomes.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Phillips, Kaylee Skipper, Tracy Overcoming Communication Barriers to Maintain Professionalism and Build Community
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Walking through the halls of the hospital, I approached the foreigner interpretation office with great anticipation. I had no idea how much I’d learn throughout my internship abroad. As a Spanish minor, I wanted to study abroad, but as a pre-physician assistant student, I wanted a more health-specific approach to my time abroad. That’s why I ended up interning at La Clínica Santa Isabel in Seville, Spain for a semester. While interning at the hospital for 3 months, I was able to shadow many medical professionals in different specialties including internal medicine, emergency medicine, pediatrics, and surgery. My favorite part of my internship was talking to the patients and the doctors. Not only was I able to have this incredible shadowing experience, but I also had the opportunity to do frequent problem solving because my entire internship was in Spanish. Every day, I had to figure out what was happening around me and adapt—whether there was a patient asking me for directions or the doctors and nurses were using complex Spanish vocabulary. I also was able to effectively communicate more fluently, building on my relationships with staff members. As a future PA, I will be sensitive to common communication barriers and will strive to display empathy to all patients regardless of their preferred language because I now share a common and stressful struggle where my native tongue isn’t as widely spoken in an intense environment such as the hospital. Having good problem-solving skills, self-motivation, and improved oral communication skills allowed me to have a great internship and make life-long friends.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Boyt, James Richardson, Susan
Aziz, Tareq
DBPs Due to Pollen: More Than Just a Runny Nose
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The disinfection of drinking water is considered one of the largest modern achievements in public health. Drinking water plants use disinfectants, such as chlorine, to disinfect water by killing any harmful pathogens that may be present. While this process helps make water safer to drink, the chemicals added form harmful byproducts known as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). DBPs are associated with adverse health effects, such as bladder cancer, birth defects, and miscarriage. While only eleven DBPs are monitored under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations, hundreds more exist and go unmonitored, despite the known toxicity of many of these. DBPs are an important health and safety problem today, and are present in all of the disinfected water we drink. DBPs are formed when common disinfectants react with organic material found in source water. Pollen is composed of a large amount of organic material, primarily amino acids, triglycerides, and phospholipids, all of which can be precursors to DBPs. Because of the structure of pollen, it can be assumed that the addition of pollen to local river waters would lead to an increase in DBPs found in water that has been treated by nearby drinking water treatment plants. During the Spring season, our lakes and rivers are saturated with pollen. Although this saturation of water sources with pollen is well known, and the correlation between organic compounds and DBP production is clear, no previous studies have ever been done to find a relationship between pollen and DBP production. A deeper look into the effect that pollen has on our drinking water is necessary, as it is important to know how water disinfection should change and adapt with the environment. Without looking more into the seasonal changes of the composition of our water systems, disinfection plants run the risk of generating unsafe levels DBPs that nobody is testing for. In this project, we seek to determine the identity and concentration of DBPs formed in pollinated waters, and compare these DBPs to those of unpollinated water to understand exactly how pollen affects the formation of DBPs in drinking water.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Turk, Brooke Jelsone-Swain, Laura The Effect of Acetaminophen on Brain Activity During a Pain Observation Task: An EEG Study
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Motor resonance is a system network of regions in the brain that regulate theory of mind, the perception of another’s actions and sensory experiences which can produce brain activity very similar to if oneself were to have the same experience. While observing electrical activity in the brain, when an individual performs a motor action or when he/she visualizes performing a motor action, mu wave patterns are suppressed. Therefore, increased mu suppression positively correlates to increased motor resonance activity, which can ultimately produce stronger feelings of empathy towards others. Acetaminophen, the active ingredient found in Tylenol, is among the most common pain medications consumed. However, there is new evidence that suggests this common analgesic may also dampen empathic processes and prosocial behavior. Further, this relationship has not been examined in the context of neural oscillations, as measured by EEG. We recruited 49 (14 males, 35 females) participants who were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in a double-blind experimental research design. Participants in the experimental group were administered 1000mg of Acetaminophen or placebo (each divided into three capsules) an hour before beginning the EEG task. During this hour, participants were asked to complete the Empathy Quotient, a demographic survey, and a bias check to make sure they were unaware of their group assignment. We hypothesized that participants in the experimental group would have less mu suppression while observing others in action-based painful situations, while the placebo group will have more mu suppression. This decrease of motor resonance in the experimental group supports the suggestion that acetaminophen interferes with the neural response associated with the observation of others in pain. The results of this study followed our hypothesis that the placebo group would have more mu suppression and the acetaminophen group would have less mu suppression. Furthermore, this supports the belief that acetaminophen may interfere with brain processes involved in seeing others in pain, hence and thus, dampen our empathic response. The implications of these findings may redefine how we administer this common drug.   

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Pandala, Niharika Valafar, Homayoun A Preliminary Investigation in the Molecular Basis of Host Shutoff Mechanism in SARS-CoV
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Recent events leading to the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 have demonstrated the effective use of genomic sequencing technologies to establish the genetic sequence of this virus. In contrast, the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the absence of computational approaches to understand the molecular basis of this infection rapidly. Here we present an integrated approach to the study of the nsp1 protein in SARS-CoV-1, which plays an essential role in maintaining the expression of viral proteins and further disabling the host protein expression, also known as the host shutoff mechanism. We present three independent methods of evaluating two potential binding sites speculated to participate in host shutoff by nsp1. We have combined results from computed models of nsp1, with deep mining of all existing protein structures (using PDBMine), and binding site recognition (using msTALI) to examine the two sites consisting of residues 55--59 and 73--80. Based on our preliminary results, we conclude that the residues 73--80 appear as the regions that facilitate the critical initial steps in the function of nsp1. Given the 90% sequence identity between nsp1 from SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, we conjecture the same critical initiation step in the function of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Waltz, Hanna Goldberg, Kelly Pedagogical Analysis of Biological Anthropology: Remote vs. Traditional Instruction
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The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed heavily to recent unprecedented changes in academia. Over the past decades, the mechanisms of education have remained largely unchanged; a traditional lecture-style classroom environment has been widely assumed to be the most effective method for learning. However, social distancing guidelines and other restrictions surrounding COVID-19 have forced educators at all levels to reevaluate their course delivery methods. The instructional mode of many courses at the university level abruptly shifted to online in March 2020 without adequate time for instructors to prepare. Financial constraints and public health concerns have contributed to many courses remaining online since then, including laboratory sciences. However, there is limited data on the efficacy of laboratory sciences taught online, especially given that many lab courses traditionally include a tactile and/or practical component. This pilot study investigated the recent shift to digital delivery with two primary objectives: 1) to evaluate the pedagogy of online and traditional delivery of the lab sections of Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Human Origins (ANTH 161) at the University of South Carolina, and 2) to identify the perceptions of both students and professors regarding student mastery of material when utilizing an online learning environment. ANTH 161 professors and teaching assistants were interviewed using a semi-structured format, and anonymous surveys were conducted with both current and previous ANTH 161 students. FERPA-compliant final grades from current and previous semesters provided quantitative data. Conclusions drawn from this pilot study will inform future remote education policies and facilitate student success in this new learning environment.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Freitas, Alison Harrison, Theresa Learning About Culture Through Travel
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In Spring 2019 I was a student on the Business in Central Europe Maymester through the Darla Moore School of Business. It was an 11-day trip throughout Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic visiting cultural sights and businesses such as Raiffeisen Bank, Johnson & Johnson, GE, OPEC, and the UN. I decided to go on a Maymester because I wanted to gain experience traveling outside the United States without family or friends before going on my semester abroad in spring 2020. Since the Maymester counted for one of my International Business course requirements, it was a natural fit. While on the trip I learned a lot about the culture of central Europe and developed an appreciation for the local food and history. Additionally, the business environment is much more relaxed in this area of the world compared to businesses in the US. This experience helped me learn how to navigate unfamiliar situations and a country where I do not speak the language. Everything I learned made me more understanding of the general and business culture of this area. For example, Austria cares more about family and home life than work so stores close down much earlier than stores in the US even in major cities. Very few things are open Sundays or later in the evening which came as a surprise to me. Because of this trip, I am now more comfortable and capable of traveling in unfamiliar areas. I want to show others the importance of understanding a place and not being afraid to go somewhere new. The next step for me is to begin a career in international business and this trip has helped prepare me.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Kleinman, Danielle Childs, Matthew Learning to Make Well-Informed Decisions through the Capstone Programming Council
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As a Capstone Scholar, students are not limited to academic success within the classroom. Rather, we are encouraged to enhance our capabilities through leadership and service opportunities. I became a member of the Capstone Programming Council during the 2019 academic year to serve Capstone students through an organization that plans and executes events that add value to the student experience beyond the classroom. Some of these events previously included Scarowinds, tubing down the Congaree while participating in river clean-up, and working on arts and crafts while learning about mindfulness and overall well being. In addition to implementing events alongside my council members, my responsibility resided in public relations to market our events by collaborating with organizations within and outside the Capstone community and planning social media posts with the goal of creating greater brand awareness and increasing event attendance. Through this experience, I was able to deliver successful outcomes with effective planning, research and risk management. This experience, coupled with my studies in Finance and Management at the Darla Moore School of Business, further allowed me to hone and refine these organization and marketing skills. As a result, I now have a more thorough and experiential understanding of their significance in producing knowledgeable decisions in any leadership position as I pursue a career in finance.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Crane, Jon Pou, Jay Learning about Compassion in Healthcare Abroad
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During my time at USC, I embarked in two study abroad experiences. My first one was through the Atlantis Fellowship in which I had the chance to shadow different doctors and surgeons in a public hospital in Spain. This experience was very important to me because I am a biology major with a minor in chemistry. I have known for years that the medical field is where I belong and was pretty determined to pursue dentistry. I wanted to use this time in Spain to see if it were possible that my passion lied in another healthcare profession. I returned home beyond grateful for the hospital experience I got and the people that I met along the way but was even more excited to continue down my path to becoming a dentist. My second experience was embarking in a spring semester of studying abroad at Anglo-American University in Prague. This was something I knew I wanted to do since I was in high school. I have always enjoyed travelling, doing things on my own, and learning new things from and about people and places I had never seen or even heard of. As a dentist, I want everyone to be comfortable from the time they step foot in my office to the time they return. I know that I will be working with people from all walks of life and want to be able to appreciate and understand their wants and needs on a personal basis. Getting to spend time immersed in cultures where I do not speak the language well helps me to step outside of my comfort zone and allows me to learn from people firsthand. Being abroad during the midst of the COVID outbreak helped me see how other countries confront something so serious compared to the U.S. and showed me how important remaining compassionate in the field of healthcare truly is. These experiences helped me to see how I can begin my journey to becoming the best version of myself both in and outside of the office.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Jackson, Caden Lowell, Randy Meditation as a Means of Reducing Aggression and Racial Implicit Bias within an Eyetracking Shoot/No-Shoot Task
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Unprecedented violence against African Americans by police officers in the United States has drawn national attention, highlighted by recent cases like Eric Garner, Philando Castille, and George Floyd. The death of African Americans at the hands of police has created a need to address what can be done to prevent more of these tragedies, such as interventions to mitigate the effects of racial implicit bias. Recently, mindful meditation has become a subject of discussion in reducing implicit bias (Lueke & Gibson, 2014; Sun, 2015), but no one has tested to see if meditation reduces the particular form of aggression present during the aforementioned police encounters; they also have not looked at the attentional processes unfolding during this type of encounter (i.e. eye movements). The current study will serve as a starting point in assessing the viability of mindful meditation to reduce both racial implicit bias and racially disproportionate aggressive reactions within this type of computer-generated scenario among a civilian sample of participants. During their first lab visit, USC Union students will complete surveys regarding mindfulness and personality, and will be randomly assigned to meditation, control attention, or control condition. The meditation group will undergo brief mindful meditation training and, in between visits, will practice this meditation daily. The control attention group will hear a story and listen for a target word. Finally, the control group will listen to a story, but not attend in any particular way. Next, eye-tracking will be used during a computer-generated shoot/no-shoot task, including a male character who is 1) holding a weapon or non-weapon, 2) is African American or Caucasian, and 3) has a fearful or angry expression. The participant will press a key as quickly as possible to “shoot” if a weapon is present or “not shoot” if no weapon is present. Then participants will take a race Implicit Association Test. During the second lab visit a week later, participants will repeat these tasks. If mindful meditation succeeds in reducing racial implicit bias, our findings will shed light on how much that spills over into participants’ accuracy and attention on our shoot/no-shoot task.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Doll, Lillian Jones, W. Joe Ecological Monitoring of Huntington Beach State Park for Conservation via UAS Survey
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Dunes are a critical feature of coastal landscapes, and more specifically, coastal ecosystems. A number of organisms, from coastal grasses to nesting birds and sea turtles depend on these structures in some capacity. The structural and ecosystem support they provide therefore makes them a prime target of study for coastal conservation research. In my research, I studied the geomorphological features of Huntington Beach State Park via drone to understand how dune features related to Loggerhead sea turtle conservation interests. My research focused primarily on how dunes can be mapped using drone technology and how specific dune characteristics like elevation, width, hind dune zone width, and distance from the coastline are related. Data on dune characteristics was collected from computer generated models of the study site built by data from a summer of 2020 via drone survey conducted by my research mentor, Dr. Joe Jones in the Environmental Health Sciences Department. The geomorphological data were tested for correlation between specific variables and compared with nest data from the study site to reveal trends in nest distribution as they relate to dune features. My investigation found significant correlation between dune elevation and dune distance from shoreline, as well as correlation between dune width and dune distance from shoreline. It was also found that foredune height correlated strongly with hind dune zone width, the area located behind the foredune and in front of the tree line. Additionally, many of the nests of the 2020 breeding season were located on or behind the foredune, indicating that dunes were of importance to the Loggerhead sea turtle reproduction process. The findings of my research indicate that the area immediately in front of the foredune, the dune itself, and the hind dune zone behind it should be shielded from human disturbance. My independent study also contributes to the increasing utility of drones in ecology and the natural sciences, as the use of this technology provides a means to conduct less invasive surveys on a large scale of coastal habitats and their geographic features.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Chenworth, Allison Wellman, Denise Accounting is the Language of Business
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The summer before my senior year, I had the opportunity to work at Eaton Corporation as a finance and accounting intern, as a member of a financial planning and analysis (FP&A) team located at one of the company’s two aerospace division headquarters. During the internship I was able to experience 3 month-end processes, create a fixed asset cycle count for test lab assets and assist are various other projects. I worked with plant controllers located globally and presented my ideas for the cycle count to corporate level leadership in the aerospace sector. While this internship was considered to be nontraditional as an accounting major, it allowed for me too confidently make a plan for my next steps and how to launch a career in manufacturing accounting and finance. This experience taught me that accounting can be used in so many ways within a business setting and it allows us to communicate actual performance, projections and goals within an organization. While a decision or career path may not the traditional choice for a major, it does not mean that it is wrong, and I hope to share this with other accounting students. I became an advocate for what I wanted to do with my career and how to set myself on the right track to become a plant controller one day. After graduation, I will be completing a 3-year rotational program with Dana Incorporated where I will complete rotations in shared service center accounts payable/receivable, plant operations controlling and internal audit.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Barfield, Matthew Jackson, Benjamin A Cost Analysis of Ankle Fractures Treated by Orthopedic Surgeons With or Without Foot and Ankle Fellowship Training at Ambulatory Surgery Centers and Hospitals
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Ankle fractures are commonly treated by many different types of orthopedic surgeons. Fellowship vs non-fellowship training often adds different perspective, use of specialty specific implants, comfort with outpatient procedures, and may contribute to cost differences between surgeons. Additionally, whether a surgery is performed in a hospital as inpatient or outpatient or performed in an ambulatory surgery center may affect the cost of these procedures as well. In an era of cost containment these factors should be evaluated to optimize the value to our patients. To assess the impact of fellowship training on the value of care provided, the difference in cost of ankle fracture open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) procedures between foot and ankle trained orthopedic surgeons (FAFTOS) and non-foot and ankle trained orthopedic surgeons (NFAFTOS) over the past 10 years was retrospectively evaluated. We additionally evaluated the cost differences of ankle fracture ORIFs between hospitals, hospital-owned ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs), and physician-owned ASCs. The study also assessed the costs effects of inpatient versus outpatient procedures and ankle ORIF procedure volume of the surgeon observed within the timeframe of the study. Data was collected for patients who underwent an ankle ORIF procedure performed by an orthopedic surgeon in our hospital system and local ASCs in the past 10 years. Statistical analyses were performed to observe potential cost differences amongst all variables. It was found that procedures performed by FAFTOS were significantly less costly than those performed by NFAFTOS when performed at ASCs but not at hospitals. Procedures performed at ASCs were found to be significantly less costly than those performed at hospitals. Additionally, it was found that procedures performed at hospital-owned ASCs were less costly than physician-owned ASCs. It was also found that procedure cost decreased with an increase in surgeon volume. Based on our results, a procedure performed by a foot and ankle trained orthopedic surgeon in a hospital-owned ASC is the lowest cost option available for an ankle ORIF, and an increase in volume of ORIFs is associated with a further decrease in cost.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Damron, Hunter Székely, László Enumerating Symmetrical Domino Tilings of Rectangles
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In 1961, Temperley & Fisher and Kasteleyn independently found a closed form solution for the number of perfect matchings of an n×m lattice graph, a quantity used in the field of statistical mechanics to solve the 2D Ising problem. However, in the context of domino tilings, which are equivalent to perfect matchings on a lattice graph, two tilings may be considered equivalent if one can be transformed into another by a symmetry action. In this paper, we aim to count the number of orbits (equivalence classes) of domino tilings under symmetry. We begin by providing closed form solutions for the number of orbits of n×m domino tilings when m is at most 4. Finally, we show how Kasteleyn's 1967 algorithm can be used to count the number of domino tilings invariant under rotational and line symmetry in general.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Brantley, Mia Henderson, Andrea Title
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Dominant definitions and research on mothering and families have limited our understandings of the unique experiences of Black women. As a result, Black feminist scholarship looks to center Black women’s experiences and reimagine Black motherhood as a powerful force of resistance to society’s attempts at relegating them to a place of despair. This work utilizes the theory of “motherwork,” which highlights the ways Black mothers ensure the success and survival of their children in the face of micro- and macro-level structures that perpetuate racism and inequality. Contemporary research on racial socialization is almost synonymous with concepts from the theory of motherwork, which consists of three spheres: (1) physical survival, (2) collective power, and (3) identity. This work looks to contribute to current knowledge at the intersection of race, gender, and family within sociology. More specifically, I look to further our understanding of the practices and labor Black mothers engage to protect and empower their children in the face of racism. To examine these practices, I explore the possible parallels between motherwork and racial socialization within contemporary Black motherhood. This paper addresses the following research question: How do Black mothers engage in motherwork around their adolescent’s experiences of racism? Using a grounded theoretical approach, I am transcribing interviews and coding them to identify and differentiate recurring concepts, themes, and categories. Preliminary results suggest that Black women’s motherwork is rooted in the three spheres of physical survival, collective empowerment, and identity through three distinct themes: (1) delaying milestones, (2) preserving their innocence, and (3) constructing self-image. Particularly, Black women are engaging in motherwork by negotiating, and sometimes delaying, acts or milestones that are generally considered rites of passage during adolescence in an effort to protect their children when dealing with racism. Additionally, Black women look to maintain the innocence of their children in the wake of controlling images – i.e., stereotyping. Lastly, Black women are constructing a positive sense of self for their children that is rooted in their race and community.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kahler, Sophie Harrison, Conor The Evolution of Columbia’s Neighborhoods: 1937 to Present
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The residential area in which someone lives can determine their lifestyle — from with whom they interact to where they shop, eat, and visit — as well as their life outcome, through factors such as school zoning and mortgage availability. Historically, American cities have developed along racial and socioeconomic lines as a result of federal, state, and local policies, lending practices, and explicit social pressures. No more is this clear than through the creation and use of the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation redlining data, a set of maps produced by the federal government that divided cities into neighborhoods, rated those areas based on factors of desirability, and encouraged lenders not to provide mortgage loans to residents of low-rated neighborhoods. In this project, I study the socio-geographic evolution of Columbia’s neighborhoods by documenting how neighborhoods were created, maintained, and transformed throughout the twentieth century with a focus on racial and socioeconomic segregation. I find that racially discriminatory policies of redlining and urban renewal profoundly shaped the residential neighborhoods in Columbia and the lasting impacts are seen in today’s landscape. The urban landscape is a reflection of what society considers important, historic, and worth investing in, and the physical environment reinforces social norms and attitudes. Yet typical public history initiatives focus on select areas and landmarks – often spaces of privilege and whiteness – which erase the history of marginalized communities. This project seeks to recognize the Columbia community as a whole, including traditional “historic” neighborhoods as well as overlooked neighborhoods, by producing an interactive online map and accompanying research article that illuminates the processes that created physical and racial divisions in the city.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Mayan, Danel Nottingham, James Racial Disparity in the Surgical Treatment Options for Breast Cancer
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Among the available surgical treatment options for breast cancer, mastectomies and breast conservation surgeries such as lumpectomies stand at the forefront. Racial disparities in choosing which operation to undergo has remained controversial. This observational retrospective review study aimed to define any racial disparity among Caucasian and African American patients from 2000 to 2019 treated for ER-PR-HER2- or Er+PR+HER2- breast cancer at Prisma Health- Richland, Baptist, Baptist Parkridge and Upstate (GHS). A total of 6,009 patients were included in our sample size and a treatment disparity was not observed. For ER-PR-HER2- and ER+PR+HER2- breast cancer, both African American and Caucasian patients were preferentially treated surgically with lumpectomies. 

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Melville, Alex Vannucci, Aaron Anion Pool Synthesis of Strong Nucleophiles for Developing Reactivity Trends with Carbon-Fluorine Bonds
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This study investigates the reactivity of compounds containing carbon-fluorine (C-F) bonds. Previous research has proven that, under the correct conditions, applying an electrical potential to a solution containing amines causes deprotonation, leading to the formation of negatively charged anions. A pool of these very reactive anions may be easily and cheaply synthesized in solution using renewable energy. This study focuses on leveraging the high reactivity of deprotonated amines in order to selectively react with the carbon bound to a fluorine atom in certain compounds. The main objectives of this study are to determine reactivity trends of C-F bonds with nucleophilic amine anions and to discover new synthetic routes to forming compounds containing C-F bonds.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Hampton, Sydney Lewis, Elise Teaching and Encouraging Others
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Being in a student organization that enhances your knowledge, provides you with leadership and professional development skills, and introduces you to novel ideas is a crucial aspect of becoming a well-rounded student and member of society. This is why I chose to be an EcoRep. During my sophomore year of college at the University of South Carolina, I along with other EcoReps taught and promoted the topic of sustainability to students living in residence halls through interactive conversations, events, and activities. This may have included games to test your knowledge on sustainability, introducing environmentally friendly dietary options, or DIY projects that could be implemented inside a dorm room. We were also able to spread and introduce the topic of sustainability to the greater campus through larger events and fundraisers that could benefit the Columbia community. One of these events included Give It Up for Good, in which students could donate items from their dorm at the end of the semester. After being collected, EcoReps sort and sell the items, and all profits are donated to Habitat for Humanity and other local businesses. Through this experience I was able to share my love for the environment with others, while learning from like-minded individuals about what more I could do in my daily life to live more greenly. In the future I hope to have a career focusing on Marine Conservation, so participating in an organization like EcoReps has allowed me to foster my knowledge on the subject as well as positively influenced my desire to be an advocate in this field.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Sangtian, Stacey Behroozmand, Roozbeh
Wang, Yuan
Fridriksson, Julius
Impairment of Speech Auditory Feedback Error Detection and Motor Correction in Post-Stroke Aphasia
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The present study investigated how damage to left-hemisphere brain networks in persons with post-stroke aphasia (PWAs) impairs their ability to overtly detect errors in speech auditory feedback. We used the altered auditory feedback (AAF) paradigm to externally induce speech errors by randomly shifting the pitch frequency of the online auditory feedback up or down at ±100 cents in 34 PWAs and 25 neurologically healthy control participants under two experimental conditions: 1) active vocalizations of a steady speech vowel sound “ah,” and 2) passive listening to the playback of the same self-produced vocalizations. Randomized control trials were included between AAF trials where no pitch-shift stimuli were delivered to the auditory feedback during vocalization or listening tasks. Following each vocalization or listening trial, participants pressed a button to indicate whether they heard a change (i.e. error) in their speech auditory feedback (“Yes” or “No”). Analysis of A, a non-parametric measure of sensitivity to signal presence, revealed a significant main effect of group with PWAs performing closer to chance compared to controls in both vocalization and listening conditions. Moreover, we found that speech error detection deficit during listening in PWAs was significantly correlated with their impaired vocal error correction magnitude in response to pitch-shifted auditory feedback during vocalization. Further analyses of behavioral measures and corresponding EEG signals are forthcoming. These preliminary findings support the idea that overt detection of speech errors in auditory feedback is impaired in PWAs and that damage to left hemisphere brain networks contributes to this impairment.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Regmi, Hem
Saadat, Moh Sabbir
Sur, Sanjib
Nelakuditi, Srihari
ZigZagCam: Pushing the Limits of Hand-held MmWave Imaging
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This poster proposes ZigZagCam, a system that approximates traditional Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging on mobile millimeter-wave devices. The system is capable of imaging through obstructions, like clothing, and under low visibility conditions. Unlike traditional SAR that relies on mechanical controllers or rigid bodies, ZigZagCam is based purely on the hand-held, fluidic motion of the mmWave device. It enables mmWave imaging in hand-held settings by re-thinking the traditional motion compensation, compressed sensing, and voxel segmentation. Since mmWave imaging suffers from poor resolution, specularity, and weak reflectivity from objects, the reconstructed shapes could often be imperceptible by humans. To this end, ZigZagCam designs a machine learning model to recover the high spatial frequencies in the object to reconstruct an accurate 2D shape and predict its 3D features. We have customized ZigZagCam for security applications, but the model is adaptable to different applications with limited training samples. We implement our system on off-the-shelf components and demonstrate performance improvement over the traditional SAR, qualitatively and quantitatively.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Rhymer, Emma Wellman, Denise Women Empowering Women
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As a leader in the Greek community, the idea of women empowering women has become my daily inspiration and vision behind my goals. This past year, as Vice President of Service of the College Panhellenic Association (CPA), I had the opportunity to serve as the liaison between CPA and a non-profit organization called Circle of Sisterhood. The mission of Circle of Sisterhood is to unite sorority women to use their privilege of receiving a college education to break economic barriers that surround education for women and eliminate the burden of oppression and poverty across the world. Through various fundraising efforts, we had the opportunity to fund two grants to the Circle of Sisterhood foundation for a total of $20,000 supporting women’s empowerment. Through these donations, we are making a difference both domestically and globally in the lives of women by taking action to address the prevalence of gender inequality in our world. Although this experience allowed me the opportunity to support organizations in need, this experience provided immense change and growth within myself, both personally and professionally. I have gained a stronger sense of confidence, gratitude for education, vision for my future, and desire to improve the current healthcare system. As a future leader in healthcare, it is integral that I continue this work after college. I plan to address inequalities that influence the health of all patients, regardless of gender, ethnicity, race, or any other factor that has commonly created division and unequal treatment.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Bland, Sydney
Krachman, Haley
Schammel, Christine Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia
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Patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer on biopsy typically have a consistent treatment plan over the course of their disease; however, there are discrepancies regarding the significance and appropriate treatment of pre-invasive lesions identified on biopsy, including atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). Following IRB approval, all females diagnosed/treated with breast cancer at a single institution between 2016-2019 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients who underwent a breast core biopsy that revealed ADH only and had a subsequent resection for their disease were included in the study. Resection histology was noted and patients were classified as 'upgraded' if the resection specimen contained DCIS/IDC or ILC. Patients were classified as 'not upgraded' if resection histology was atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) or ADH only. Overall, 110 patients met the study criteria, but only 97 underwent resection including 51 (53%) of which exhibited upgraded histology upon resection (23 DCIS, 13 LCIS, 13 IDC/ADH, 2 ILC/ADH); 15 were not upgraded (52%). Treatment for upgraded patients was mastectomy (65%), radiation therapy (27%), and anti-hormonal (83%). Only four patients (3.67%) had a documented recurrence (follow-up 2 years). While some literature has recommended imaging as appropriate follow-up for ADH only biopsies, our data suggests that while the morbidity of resection and anti-hormonal cannot be ignored, the morbidity of an under diagnosed lesion also must be considered, warranting conservative therapy.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Edwards, Matthew Gudridge, Maegan Camp SAY Work Experience: Supporting Children Who Stutter
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During the summer of 2019, I worked at Camp SAY, a summer camp that provides life- changing opportunities for young people who stutter in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania. In my role as a camp office staff member, I worked under the office manager and communicated with camp directors, bunk counselors and office staff colleagues to satisfy various camp-wide needs and fulfill all tasks as needed in a behind-the-scenes capacity to maximize the overall experience of each and every camper. As a person who stutters myself, I face difficulties everyday with my speech, but I also know someone cannot be defined by one attribute about themselves they cannot control. I reached out to get involved at Camp SAY to lend a hand in any way I could to help make the campers’ experience at camp the best it could possibly be. Throughout camp, I organized and distributed mail sent from home by the campers’ loved ones and caregivers, helped guide campers through various activities, and served as a dependable overnight counselor in the cabins with campers on occasion. All in all, the genuine dedication of every staff member moved me to do my best to support the campers in any way I could. I learned being a person who stutters is not what makes someone different from the majority of everyone else at their school growing up, but it is what makes them unique. People who stutter may take longer to say what they have to say than people who do not stutter, but they also have the ability to teach others how to listen. Throughout my time at Camp SAY, I met campers and fellow staff members from all over the country and world, and I had ample opportunity at Camp SAY to interact with these extraordinary people. Collectively, we all worked together to support the camp’s overall theme that every voice matters and deserves to be heard, even if some people may take more time to speak or sound different than others.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Hill, Kathleen Kennedy, Ann Blair
Natafgi, Nabil
Nourse, Anna
Kirby, Haley
Virtual Patient (VIP) Engagement Studio: Mid-Project Evaluation and Preliminary Assessment of Using Technology to Engage Patients in Research
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Background: Patient engagement in research involves patients and caregivers as experts and collaborators who impactfully contribute to research. Traditionally, patient engagement activities are facilitated in-person; yet the COVID-19 pandemic disallows for in-person meetings. This project aims to build capacity for and implement a diabetes-focused Virtual Patient (VIP) Engagement Studio, to facilitate engagement efforts along the diabetes continuum of comparative effectiveness research and patient-centered outcomes research (CER/PCOR). Objective: The purpose of this project is to evaluate the process of virtual patient engagement efforts. Methods: A survey was created using Qualtrics that consisted of a mix of open-ended and multiple-choice questions about the VIPs experiences. The survey was sent to all 25 VIPs with 20 of them completing the survey. Results: The results of the survey indicated that VIPs felt that technology used to chat between meetings was quite or extremely easy to use (59.1%) as was the technology for video conferencing (81.8%). The topmost reasons cited for helping with engagement were the video conferences, flexibility of attending from other locations, and ability to change between meeting times. 90% of the VIPS were quite or extremely satisfied with the engagement initiative and 95% indicated they felt at least some sense of belonging in the group. Opportunities for improvements were also indicated, including more opportunities to get to know one another and spending more time in one-on-one breakout sessions with other VIP members. Conclusions: The results of the survey indicate a multi-faceted approach of virtual interaction can be effective to remotely engage patients in research efforts. In the future, it may be beneficial to allow participants more opportunities to get to know one another to facilitate a greater sense of belonging and satisfaction in the VIP experience.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Flores, Christine Holland, Alice HealthCare Safe Zone Ally Training Pilot
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Members of the LGBTQ+ community have unique health needs that differ and vary from their cis-gender and heterosexual counterparts. A history of systemic marginalization, exclusion, and discrimination in healthcare exists today and affects access to care for LGBTQ+ individuals. Numerous health disparities stemming from a lack of culturally competent care affect this minority population. Consequently, this can predispose members of the LGBTQ+ community to multiple health risks due to fear of stigmatization. Many health care providers do not receive formal training, adding discomfort and reluctance of this marginalized group in sharing sexual orientation, behavior, or gender identity with members of the health care system. To address the lack of training, a pilot Health Care Safe Zone Ally training was developed as an honor’s component and was presented to a cohort of students majoring in Nursing and Public Health on the USCB campus. The training introduced and provided application for use of terminology and concepts related to gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation. The training applied common LGBTQ+ language, utilized invitation counseling theory, listed health disparities, and developed strategies for allyship. The purpose of the training is to create a deeper understanding and increased awareness of concepts and language regarding LBGTQ+ communities. After each session, attendees completed a post training questionnaire. The pilot included a total of 35 participants. Participants found the session to be enlightening as many were not consciously aware of their own privileges. The overarching themes among the responses were to provide education and spread awareness. These training sessions introduced new concepts of which can be later brought into the workforce.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Moran, Mariah Farber, Naomi Where the Home Fires Burn: The Heart of Geographic Mobility in Rural Southern America
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The presentation will report on findings from research using in-depth interviews to identify the social and psychological factors of geographic mobility that are evaluated and negotiated by rural Southern residents. Multiple mobility patterns are examined among three groups: people who leave their rural community and later return, those who left and do not intend to return, and those who have stayed in their rural community. The intersection of those mobility patterns with age, race, gender, and socio-economic status will be discussed. This research is situated within the emergent findings on the reasons people move that challenge the prevalent explanations of geographic mobility based on economic and life course theories (Henderson & Akers, 2009; Stack, 1996; von Reichert, Cromartie, & Arthun, 2014). Since approximately 2005, researchers have also questioned assumptions that moving is a conclusive life event. Rather, mobility is a continual and iterative process that includes social and psychological aspects which are sometimes accompanied by a physical move. This more fluid understanding of mobility challenges the assumptions made in the predominant theories about what it means to be mobile. Emerging themes from the findings will be presented that suggests blurring between mobility and immobility and argues that mobility is far more complex and nuanced than previously understood. Despite evidence of multiple pragmatic reasons people move related to employment, finances, family concerns, and social resources, there is important new evidence that reveals deeply personal meanings and processes that also influence these decisions about whether or not people move. Data from a rural sample in the Southern U.S. will be discussed that substantiate the need for a deeper understanding of social and psychological factors to better understand mobility, and in particular, rural mobility. Specifically, the findings include themes such as sense of comfort and belonging, the importance of relationships and being known, community responsibility, and the role of identity formation in seeking locations. The findings also include personal processes such as the complex negotiation and compromise between obligation and opportunity, and the conflicting desires, goals, and expectations that people have for themselves and their loved ones.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Mehrabi, Amir Hair, Nicole EXAMINING PARENTAL PERCEPTIONS AND DECISIONS TO UPTAKE CHILD INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATIONS: ASSESSING THE H1N1 PANDEMIC’S IMPACTS ON VACCINATION RATES
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Introduction: The historical 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic resulted in a declared state of emergency nationally, with ensuing diminished vaccine confidence and amplified fears of infection. Examining previous literature, a void exists in relation to parental perceptions and decisions for U.S. child immunizations. Methods: National Immunization Survey (NIS) data was used as a series of weighted consecutive annual surveys to synthesize a longitudinal panel dataset (2003 to 2018). Population adjusted measures of influenza like illness (ILI) by state and season from CDC’s FluView and ILI Net were also used. Quasi-experimental (QE) approaches including segmented interrupted time series (ITS), and fixed effects model (FEM), logistic estimations were executed. Results: The segmented ITS regression for NIS-Child yielded statistically significant post-estimation average marginal effects (AMEs). The pandemic yielded a 12.57 percentage point (pp), 95% CI [10.28, 14.32], immediate level increase in the probability of a child being immunized, on average, and a 3.77 pp, 95% CI [-4.32, -2.55], sustained slope decrease annually post-pandemic. Pre-pandemic, a 1.64 pp, 95% CI [1.47, 1.81], sustained increase annually was evident. Restricted scale epidemics (RSEs) yielded AMEs that were statistically significant for RSEs in 2012, 2013, and 2014. AMEs were 1.79 pp, 95% CI [-2.22, 0.38], 5.23 pp, 95% CI [-6.27, -4.77], and 1.92 pp, 95% CI [2.74 1.10], decreases, on average, respectively. The respective trend increases post RSEs were 0.85 pp, 95% CI [0.74, 0.96], 0.34 pp, 95% CI [0.28, 0.40], and 1.24 pp, 95% CI [1.12 1.35], on average. Sensitivity analysis FEM regressions for NIS-Child yielded AME coefficients that were generally statistically insignificant. For NIS-Teen, AMEs were statistically insignificant with the exception of three variables, indicating a 1.31 pp increase, and a 0.135 pp, and 0.212 pp decrease, on average. Conclusion: Preliminary escalations in the probability of uptake were evident post-pandemic, followed by gradual annual decreases. Public health immunization professionals should expect these trends and adapt accordingly. They should anticipate decreases following smaller scale epidemics. Uptake behavior is not sensitive to weekly fluctuations in ILI severity for children, but slightly sensitive for teens during peak and late phases of the influenza season.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Eley, Emily Bulusu, Subrahmanyam
Trott, Corinne
The concurrence and air-sea interactions of Hurricanes Marco and Laura (2020)
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The formation, maintenance and intensification of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is remarkable due to its high ocean heat content (OHC) and ability to rapidly recover sea surface temperatures (SST) following the passage of a storm. During August 2020, Hurricanes Marco and Laura existed as temporally consecutive and spatially adjacent storms. This study aims to investigate the atmospheric and oceanic conditions that influenced the maintenance and intensification of the two coincident cyclones, and to specifically determine why GoM conditions were favorable for intensification of Hurricane Laura as a category 4 storm despite Marco’s existence. Additionally, this study aims to analyze the biophysical responses of the surface ocean to Marco, Laura and the combined effect of both storms using a combination of satellite observations and ocean model outputs. Marco weakened due to increased wind shear and interactions with a Loop Current (LC) cold core ring (CCR). Hurricane Laura’s intensification, and apparent disregard of Marco, is attributed to a high-pressure system shifting its track westward, reduced wind shear, and lack of interaction with the CCR. The eastern GoM, particularly the CCR, had the greatest biophysical oceanic response. Reduction of sea surface temperatures (SST), increased sea surface salinity (SSS), deepening of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a thickening of the barrier layer thickness (BLT) as well as heat and moisture fluxes and the basin’s thermodynamic conditions are further studied in this work.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Hall, Sarah Bulusu, Subrahmanyam Surface Freshwater Fluxes in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas During Contrasting Years of High and Low Summer Sea Ice Extent
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Freshwater (FW) flux between the Arctic Ocean and adjacent waterways, predominantly driven by wind and oceanic currents, influences halocline stability and annual sea ice variability which further impacts global circulation and climate. The Arctic recently experienced anomalous years of high and low sea ice extent in the summers of 2013/2014 and 2012/2016, respectively. Here we investigate the interannual variability of oceanic surface FW flux in relation to spatial and temporal variability in sea ice concentration, sea surface salinity (SSS), and sea surface temperature (SST), with focus on years with summer sea-ice extremes. We find that in 2012, a maximum FW flux of 0.32x103 m2s-1 passed over a large portion of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean at 53°N. FW flux also has a decreasing trend through the Fram Strait over this time period. We also find that in years with high (low) sea ice extent, the relationship between SSS and SST (sea ice concentration) was most coherent on timescales of 1-6 months in the North Atlantic. This study highlights the large changes currently happening in the Arctic and Subarctic Seas and the importance of continued remote sensing monitoring of key variables to understand the dynamics behind these ongoing changes. Observations of FW fluxes through major Arctic routes will be increasingly important as the polar regions become more susceptible to warming, with major impacts on global climate.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kelley, Mathew Greytak, Andrew
Chandrashekhar, MVS
Solution Processed Quantum Dots: Nanoscale Materials with Large Scale Applications
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As global energy demands continue to grow, the urgency to develop innovations that meet and exceed them rises in parallel. This is particularly relevant in consumer electronic and optoelectronic spaces which are currently dominated by silicon-based devices necessitating costly high temperature and high purity manufacturing conditions. Solution processed alternatives such as colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are attractive low-cost candidates for flexible, high efficiency solar cells, lighting, and many other applications, due to their favorable characteristics including size-tunable bandgap energies spanning the ultraviolet to short wave infrared, and large absorption coefficients that minimize required material thickness. These QD-based optoelectronic devices operate on the basis of efficient charge migration within QD solids, and charge separation and recombination at electrical junctions, underscoring the need for (1) processing strategies that facilitate charge transport and (2) characterization techniques that robustly interrogate charge separation at QD interfaces. Here, I will introduce our work on the purification of near-infrared (NIR) bandgap PbS QDs by gel permeation chromatography, a repeatable post-synthetic QD purification method along the road to device fabrication. Secondly, I will describe my work on the formation and study of hybrid PbS QD/epitaxial graphene/SiC (QD/EG/SiC) devices that function as photovoltaics and as NIR detectors, where we achieve NIR responsivity due to the incorporation of NIR bandgap (~1300 nm), ligand exchanged PbS QD films. We utilize scanning photocurrent microscopy to reveal a characteristic transfer length (LT) for charge carrier collection across the QD/SiC interfaces, demonstrating a large-area response even with a small ohmic contact area. The scanning photocurrent measurement also allows the QD film resistivity and QD/SiC junction resistance and capacitance to be obtained by modeling the film as a lumped element transmission line. I will show that this approach can be used to accomplish spatially resolved Fourier transform impedance spectroscopy, a novel technique to quickly build and map the frequency response of optoelectronic devices using optical probes. Finally, I will describe recent work on environmentally benign semiconductor QDs, with a focus on the formulation of ligand exchanged AgBiS2 nanocrystal inks for the direct deposition of photoconductive devices.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Frick, Marla Fadel, Jim
Somera, Brandy
Changes in microglial activation following orexin loss
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The basal forebrain (BF) is comprised of several nuclei including the substantia innominata, medial septum, nucleus basalis and diagonal band of broca which are involved in cognitive functions including attention, motivation, and arousal. BF neurons are particularly vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in aged humans and, more dramatically, in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-related BF dysfunction may reflect diminished neuronal regulation as well as an altered local glial environment. We have previously shown reduced orexin/hypocretin innervation of BF in aging, a phenomenon that may link afferent dysfunction with altered microglial homeostasis. There is little research examining these relationships involving afferent neuronal and glial cell populations in the BF as it relates to aging. The purpose of this study is to compare specific neuronal and glial populations to identify anatomical factors susceptible to age-related homeostatic dysfunction in the BF. To show that loss of orexin afferents affects inflammation in the BF via microglial dysregulation, we administered a miRNA-expressing lentivirus designed to knock down orexin expression (LV-prepro-OX) in the BF in young and aged rats. We then analyzed phenotypic changes in microglia using immunohistochemistry and ELISA against a panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate changes in morphological and cytokine correlates of microglial activation. Together, these studies compare specific neuronal and glial populations of young and aged rats to identify anatomical factors susceptible to age-related dysfunction.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Schroers, Faith Kubickova, Marketa Building Competency in Research Skills through Sports Science Research Testing
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During my last two years of undergrad, I’ve worked as a Research Intern for the USC Sports Science Lab directed by Dr. Shawn Arent. When I entered college, I had a strong desire to get involved in research because I wanted it play role in my future career as a physical therapist. Moreover, I wanted to finally apply the knowledge I learned in my Exercise Science lectures in conjunction with gaining more experiences and skills in the research process. One of my main responsibilities was to aid in performing testing. The VO2max test—a measure of cardiorespiratory endurance—was one I had the opportunity to administer on a variety of athletes and myself several times. I would also regularly attend the Women’s Volleyball practices to collect data on heart rate and workload using the Polar system, which would help us track the athletes’ fitness levels. Out of all of the tasks I’ve carried out, those two have been the most impactful on my research experience as I realized that research is a constant learning process. I became more skillful and informed through participating in the research process as opposed to simply recalling information I memorized from class. When I started, I had doubts about my capabilities as a research intern because I thought I had to be very skilled before being a part of research. My team showed me that was a common misconception. Despite my lack of significant experience in executing fitness tests and real-world application of exercise science concepts, my lab supervisor put me in the driver’s seat of the test sessions to let me learn from research firsthand. Once I was in, I quickly became competent in research testing. In the future, I will eventually complete a research project as part of my Doctor of Physical Therapy degree. I will approach it with the mindset that I will continue to discover more as the field of exercise science research and sports technology evolves.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Padula, Sara
Pelton, Mary
Senner, Nathan Estimation of population size and habitat-use of the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) in Seabrook and Kiawah Island, South Carolina
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The rufa red knot is a long distance migratory shore bird that breeds in the central Canadian Arctic and spends its winters anywhere between the Gulf Coasts of the United States and Tierra del Fuego. During their spring migration, rufa red knots rely on a number of food-abundant areas along the Atlantic coast to rest and refuel. Unfortunately, along their journey there are a myriad of man-made threats impacting these important stopover sites -- such as coastal development and reduced food availability -- resulting in a drastic decline in the red knot population in recent years. As of 2014, they were listed as endangered in Canada and threatened in the United States. One of the biggest hindrances for red knots and other migratory birds is consuming enough food at each stopover site to get them to the next stop on their journey. Thus far, researchers have concluded that one of the major red knot stopover sites -- Delaware Bay -- provides less and less of a major food source for red knots -- horseshoe crab eggs -- every year. Their inability to refuel could prevent them from completing their migrations successfully. However, most research has focused on only this one area, and in order for conservationists to effectively protect this vulnerable population, they must have accurate data from every stopover site along their migratory path. Recent estimates suggest that upwards of 4,000-8,000 red knots gather on the Kiawah-Seabrook complex in South Carolina. In our study, we aimed to estimate the rufa red knot population size and determine what percentage of that population utilize the study site. We did so by performing weekly resighting of flagged and unflagged red knots on the islands and creating capture histories for the flagged individuals using bandedbirds.org. We are currently still collecting data, but, so far, we cannot dispute the importance of this habitat for the rufa red knots.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Hensing, Caroline Weaver, Glenn
LaFlamme, Chantal
Seasonal Variability in Children's 24-Hour Movement Behaviors: A Systematic Review
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Background Physical activity and sleep in children aged 5-12 may vary throughout the year due to seasonal factors such as weather, daylight, and climate. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing literature on the seasonal variation in physical activity and sleep in elementary-aged school children. Methods PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science and Embase were searched through February 2021 for relevant studies. The seasonality search terms included season, fall, winter, summer, spring, solstice, photoperiod, daylength, day-length and day length. The physical activity search terms included physical activity, exercise, energy expenditure, sedentary and screen time. The sleep search terms consisted of sleep, nap, circadian and diurnal. To be included studies had to (1) measure elementary aged children and (2) and include outcomes related to sleep and/or physical activity during at least two meteorological seasons (spring March 1st – May 31st, summer June 1st – August 31st, fall September 1st – November 30th and winter December 1st – February 28th). Results A total 18,542 records were identified after database searching and 5 additional records were collected through other sources. After duplicates were removed 8,565 articles were screened. After screening, physical activity data was then extracted from 41 studies and included 29,498 participants from 12 countries. When compared to fall and winter, spring and summer had higher total physical activity, step counts and MVPA. Winter had higher weekday sedentary time overall, and fall had a higher step count than winter. Insufficient evidence existed to draw conclusions about the differences between spring and summer as well as fall and winter. Sleep data was extracted from five studies and included 4,163 participants from 5 countries. When compared to other seasons, total sleep time was greatest in winter while children napped more in the summer. Conclusions These findings are important may help to identify optimal timing for physical activity and sleep intervention in children. The lack of data on seasonal variation in sleep indicates a need for further research in this area.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Schuck, Percy Stewart, Jason CST interacts with the cohesion complex and promotes sister chromosome cohesion
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Sister chromatid cohesion is established during DNA replication by loading of the cohesin complex on newly replicated sister chromatids. Cohesin must then be maintained until mitosis to prevent segregation defects and aneuploidy. Aneuploidy is a driver of tumorigenesis and cancer evolution. How sister chromosome cohesion (SCC) is established and maintained until mitosis remains incompletely understood and emerging evidence suggest that replication stress can lead to premature loss. Here, we report that the RPA-like, single strand DNA-binding protein CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) aids in SCC. CST primarily functions in telomere length regulation as well as less characterized roles in general DNA replication and repair. Following depletion of CST subunits, we observed an increase in the complete loss of SCC. Furthermore, we find that CST interacts with the cohesion complex and that their interaction is increased following treatment with various replication inhibitors. Based on our findings, we propose that CST aids in the maintenance of SCC at stalled replication forks to prevent premature cohesion loss.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Bhamani, Sabah Steck, Susan
McCall, Mike
Association Between Anxiety and Diet in College Students: Potential Mediation by Gut Microbiome
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Anxiety is the most prevalent mental health disorder yet is typically not given the same level of medical attention as other health related conditions due to subjectivity in diagnosis and presented symptoms. It is estimated that 64.3% of US college students felt overwhelming anxiety at any time in 2018 while 22.3% were diagnosed/treated by a mental health professional. Anxiety can have a negative impact on students’ academic progress and needs to be addressed on a larger academic scale. The purpose of this study is to review the literature on diet and anxiety to examine effects of nutrient intake on anxiety symptoms as well as to study the overwhelming presence of anxiety on college campuses. An initial review of current literature suggests that the intestinal microbiome can affect mental processes and may mediate the association between diet and mental health. The chemical implications and definitions of anxiety are studied to better define the problem. Diet and anxiety are also holistically studied to understand the relationship between the two with a focus on the effects of specific nutrients (e.g. fats and caffeine) as well as the gut microbiome on anxiety symptoms. Preliminary research shows that increasing variety in diet as well as reducing sugar and fat intake can have a positive effect on mental wellbeing and anxiety levels.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Flannery, Thomas Spence, Gina Educational Unorthodoxy and the Value of Disruption.
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My poster will be about my experiences as a University 101 Peer Leader, my experience teaching, and how educational unothodoxy helped me during my two years teaching. I will first talk about how this experience helped shape me into an educator, which I am attending grad school for in the fall, and how it helped me find my passion for educating in an environment far more unique than other student teaching opportunities. This will allow me to transition into talking about the University 101 program, why it is so important to both me and USC as a whole, and how it differs from other classes via factors such as check-ins, study days, etc. Finally, this will allow me to talk about how, as an educator, I can translate my skills learned from this BTC experience into my future career and teaching pedagogy.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Jenkins, Aliyah Pou, Jay Equity Versus Equality: What Raising Funds for Women's Health in Ghana and Sierra Leone Taught me About Leadership
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I believe that education is a right that every person should have access to regardless of any accommodations that need to be made. One of my greatest and most notable accomplishments in my college career would be the philanthropy project I researched, designed, developed, as well as implemented in my sorority, Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Incorporated, where we raised over $200. Wo Ye Bra is an organization that provides sanitary pads for women in Ghana and Sierra Leone while also assisting in the development of entrepreneurial skills by providing women with sewing machines and items to help them sell sanitary pads for profit. This organization is fundamental because without it, many women in these regions fail to benefit from necessary educational opportunities due to their menstrual cycle and their inability to afford sanitary pads. After realizing this was a national initiative of my sorority that was often overlooked, I began to do research to educate my sorority sisters as well as my peers about its importance and developed a plan to fundraise. The plan to fundraise was slightly intricate due to the financial strain and restrictions COVID-19 has placed on many Americans, but I became adaptable to these changes and developed two separate fundraisers which opened the opportunity for various donors to be able to donate to the project. This project was extremely impactful to me because education is vital, especially when women are missing school due to reasons that are avoidable when the adequate resources are available. This is where equity and equality are important in advocacy services because it is vital to realize the variations of needs across communities. My initial goal for monetary donations were set at $100 and I was extremely joyful to have raised more than double of what was desired. Raising money for this cause allowed to me increase the development of how I develop and conduct service projects which I found to be impactful while also enhancing knowledge and understanding in equity.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Pizii, Connor Flory, Kate College Student Study
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This presentation documents involvement with the College Student Study, a multisite survey study at universities across the U.S. The study examines ADHD, risky behavior (e.g. unsafe sex, substance use, etc.), and procrastination in college students. Participants also may opt for their parent or guardian to fill out a separate survey, so that researchers may document the developmental pathways and a more objective perspective of their child's attention and impulsivity issues.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
D'Amico, Cassandra
Bennett, Brooke
Shorter, Kimberly L-methylfolate’s effects on dendritic spines in SH-SY5Y cells
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Following a surge in the cases of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), many of those affected are left with many unanswered questions as to what caused this developmental disorder and how to treat it. Previous studies have suggested a possible link between oversupplementation with pre-natal folic acid (FA) and ASD risk. This is interesting because many ASD patients have a mutation in MTHFR, a gene whose enzyme product metabolizes FA to a 1-carbon methyl group. Other articles suggest the potential benefits of L-methylfolate (L-MTHF), the more bioavailable form of FA, for ASD patients, due to its location in the 1-carbon metabolic pathway. Therefore, we wanted to further investigate whether L-methylfolate has an effect on dendritic spine densities, which are increased in cortical tissue in ASD. In this experiment, we treated cells with FA or L-MTHF with and without a knockdown in MTHFR. We stained for dendritic spines and counted for analysis. The data indicates L-MTHF alone doesn’t affect dendritic spine densities; however, in conjunction with the FA treatment, it significantly reduces spine densities.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Vossberg, Raeann Crouch, Elizabeth Defining Septicemia Incidence and Mortality in South Carolina Through Access to Health Care, Behavioral Health, and Low Socio-economic Status
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This study aims to provide an in-depth view at septicemia mortality and incidence in the state of South Carolina through the lenses of socio-economic factors, access to healthcare, and behavioral health factors. This study was conducted using data from the South Carolina Revenue of Fiscal Affairs, utilizing their Hospitalization, Inpatient, Emergency Department, and Outpatient data, along with additional data sources for support (see works cited). We hypothesize that the higher rates of septicemia mortality and incidence in the southeastern United States, as well as in South Carolina in particular, could be associated with rurality, low socio-economic status, and risky behavioral health choices. Bivariate analyses were conducted with SAS 9.4. We found higher rates of septicemia mortality among residents in rural areas, minority residents, and areas with high economic inequality.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kittikhunnatham, Preecha Shustova, Natalia Fundamental Understanding of the Electronic Properties of Hybrid Frameworks as a Function of Metal Node Structure and Composition
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are organic-inorganic hybrid crystalline materials with ultra-high porosity constructed by connecting metal nodes (e.g., metal ions or metal clusters) through organic linkers. This class of material can have remarkably high surface areas and well-defined pores, and these unique characteristics allow MOFs to be ideal candidates for many applications, such as gas storage, gas separation, sensing, energy storage, and heterogeneous catalysis. Recently, MOFs have displayed semiconducting properties that could be achieved through their rational design. These semiconducting properties can enable MOFs to be utilized for various electronic applications, such as chemiresistive electronic sensor. Among many efforts to tune the electronic properties of MOFs, which has a strong relationship with its semiconducting behavior, one attractive strategy is the modification of the metal nodes by engineering heterometallic nodes i.e., incorporation of a second metal. Although the presence of such metal sites has been shown to cause significant changes in the electronic structure of MOFs, systematic studies to understand the effect of the metal nodes on electronic structures of MOFs are still needed to unlock the full potential of these systems for their electronic applications. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the metal nodes (i.e., their composition and geometry) and the electronic properties of MOFs using a variety of experimental techniques in addition to theoretical investigations. Our investigation on metal node modification allowed us to systematically establish structure-electronic property trends in several MOFs, that will be discussed in this presentation. Furthermore, I will also highlight the necessity a comprehensive analysis of trends in the various extended structure motifs, which are critical for engineering heterometallic systems with on-demand electronic properties.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Collie, Emily Scott, April
James, Kathleen
Mental Health Ambassadors and Effective Storytelling in Suicide Prevention
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Research has shown that personal storytelling plays a crucial role in suicide prevention. Because of this research, a program called Mental Health Ambassadors (MHA) was created. MHA is a grant-funded initiative sponsored by Student Health Services Mental Health Initiatives department. Ambassadors undergo extensive training to receive certification as an ambassador. Each Mental Health Ambassador has a unique personal story about their experiences with mental health and/or mental illness. We share these stories to normalize asking for support when it is needed, promote emotional wellbeing, and reduce the stigma that surrounds mental illness and suicide. Through Ambassador presentations, listeners will walk away with the knowledge of university mental health resources that are available to them, as well as the understanding that they are not alone, they are supported, and there are people who care about their wellbeing. My experience as a Mental Health Ambassador has allowed me to take the learnings from my mental & behavioral disorders course and apply them into mental health advocacy across the Carolina community. Concepts, such as understanding various mental illnesses, their warning signs, the stigma around them, and storytelling and having open conversations about mental health, that I have learned within the classroom has optimized my abilities to be an effective Mental Health Ambassador and overall mental health advocate. Research consistently demonstrates that people are most responsive to advice or education when it comes from someone they consider similar to themselves, this is the concept behind having peer advocates (Davidson et al., 2018). As a mental health ambassador, I apply this research in being a relatable figure that educates and promotes mental health across the Carolina campus. In this presentation, I will be going in depth with the research and evidence-based practices that support the creation and implementation of the Mental Health Ambassadors program as well as how my coursework within the classroom has enhanced my personal experience as a Mental Health Ambassador.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Bradley, Tyneisha Hancock, Nathan Identifying the Location of ORF1 and TPase Proteins in Arabidopsis
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Transposable elements are DNA sequences that can move around within the genome of an organism, causing mutations. The transposable element that will be used in this project is mPing. mPing is mobilized by ORF1 and TPase proteins from the Ping and Pong elements. Prior localization results in yeast showed ORF1 appearing in the nucleus while TPase was primarily found in the cytosol. The goal of this project is to locate the ORF1 and TPase proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. A construct previously designed by the Hancock lab will be used to express the Pong TPase:GFP protein. I have cloned the ORF1 SA1 gene into pEG104, which adds the YFP protein onto the N-terminal of ORF1 (YFP:ORF1). These constructs will be transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana and visualized by confocal microscopy, allowing us to determine their location within the cell. It is expected that the ORF1 SA1 protein will be found in the nucleus and we will be able to assess how the presence of ORF1 effects the location of the TPase protein.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Pfannes, Zachary Harrison, Theresa Meaningful Lessons From a Moment of Darkness
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During the winter break of studying abroad experience during the 2019-2020 school year, I took an independent trip to Krakow, Poland to visit the Auschwitz-Birkenau II Concentration Camp. Due to a lifelong passion for learning history and my time in classes such as Comparative Genocide here at UofSC, I had a great interest in seeing first hand the concentration camp and learning from experience rather than just relying on in class discussions and definitions. Among the lessons during the visit, my greatest takeaway was how important preserving this history was not only to Jewish victims of the Holocaust but the Polish and other ethnicities, cultures, and nationalities that were targeted as well. The experience opened my eyes to how moments in history influence a group’s development. Furthermore, it highlighted how the way those moments are preserved and remembered is just as important and influential as the event itself. With this in mind, I hope to help educate others on the importance of shifting their perspective away from simple discussions and definitions and recognize the long term cultural impact of how we remember history. Moving forward, I expect my pursuit of an L.L.M. in Human Rights Law at Queen’s University Belfast will allow me to deepen my understanding of this complex issue in order to better participate in both the remembering and education processes.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Cushing, Mia Bodrick, Jabari Mia Cushing Professional and Civic Engagement GLD
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Throughout my time at the University of South Carolina I have had the opportunity to experience a variety of events that will prepare me for my future career. I held multiple leadership positions in the Carolina Beekeeping Club, became a U101 Peer Leader, and participated in the Operations and Supply Chain Capstone Project. As an operations and supply chain major, I was also able to obtain an internship with Advance Auto Parts that taught me about the importance of advertising, which I learned about in my WGST 112 class. Throughout my classes and experiences, I learned about how to embrace uncertainty, remain confident through conflicts, the important role that advertisements have in society, and overall become a leader in my professional and personal life. Throughout my presentation I will talk about insights I gained through the different experiences I was able to have at the University of South Carolina. These experiences prepared me for my professional career that I will have after I graduate in May of 2021 and start working full time as a Keyot Consultant in June of 2021.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Ng, Minnie Spence, Gina Pharmily
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My four years of undergrad were filled with numerous learning experiences and professional development opportunities, which allowed me to explore deeper into my goals and future career. After being early accepted into pharmacy school, I knew I was one step closer to my dream – becoming a hospital pharmacist. First semester of pharmacy school was undoubtedly difficult, but our class, consisting of 110 students, all became very close and helped each other. Soon, I obtained an internship at Kroger Pharmacy where I could apply my skills and knowledge that I learned in class to a real pharmacy setting. Through this internship, I practiced receiving a prescription, entering it into the computer, filling the medication, and releasing it back to the patient. This job has also allowed me to learn and recall popular prescribed drugs from brand to generic and vice versa, and the key counseling points for each of them. I believe that Kroger Pharmacy has impacted my learning experience and helped me grow the past two years. As a future healthcare professional, patients’ lives are in my hands and they will depend on me to give them accurate information with confidence. Working at Kroger Pharmacy has definitely helped me tremendously in terms of enhancing self-confidence and building patient relationships. This internship has truly influenced and reshaped the person I am today and the pharmacist I will become. I hope to use the experience and skills I gain now to make an impact on patients’ lives in the future.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Robbins, Thomas Sherman, Brett Trust, Reliance, and the 'Stag Hunt'
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Researchers from a variety of academic disciplines have taken up a common question in recent years; “What is trust?”. Political scientists might be concerned with how we trust governmental institutions or voting systems, economists may be interested in how trust interfaces with their assumptions regarding rational agents, and ethics researchers might be concerned with how we use trust to live a good life. All these different research avenues are similar in that they require some working definition of trust. Despite the variety of this interest, there have generally been two sorts of methodologies employed to define trust. First, trust might be approached empirically by considering the sorts of situations in which we experience trust. Alternatively, trust might be considered on a more abstract level to define it out of its basic content and structure. Both methods have been used by a variety of researchers and thinkers for approaching trust, and both have their own corresponding strengths and weaknesses. This project combines both methodologies as a way of approaching trust from a mutually informed perspective, thus maximizing the benefits and minimizing the weaknesses of both methodologies. To do so we consider a quintessential environment which trust emerges from, known as the ‘stag hunt’ or the ‘trust dilemma’, and analyze it for its abstract and fundamental elements. In doing so we establish two necessary conditions for the emergence of any instance of trust. These are a specific uncertainty, possessed by the trustor or subject of trust, and a situation of reliance.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Baquet, Jacqueline Nunley, Peyton Assessing the Anticipated Needs of Transgender Patients in Cancer Genetic Counseling
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Most cancers are sporadic and happen by chance, but about 5-10% of all cancer is hereditary, or caused by a heritable genetic mutation. Genetic counselors (GCs) use guidelines based on the patient’s personal medical history, family history of cancer, which gene has the mutation, what body systems are at an increased risk for developing cancer, and the availability and accessibility of interventions to make recommendations for cancer-risk management. Transgender patients have healthcare needs that differ from those of cisgender patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations and needs of transgender individuals who may seek cancer genetic counseling. We aimed to determine where current practices of cancer genetic counseling could be improved to increase comfortability and inclusivity of transgender patients, while also assessing options for how to adapt genetic counselor training and education to optimize transgender patient care. 87 individuals who identify as transgender were eligible to participate in the study and were asked about their comfortability and preferences regarding current genetic counseling practices. These individuals completed an online questionnaire regarding their personal perspectives on their anticipated wants and needs during cancer risk assessment and genetic testing for hereditary cancer. Most participants reported that they would feel comfortable sharing their pronouns, hormone therapies, and surgical history on an intake form before their genetic counseling appointment, demonstrating the need for inclusive paperwork. Preliminary results suggested that comfort levels between the different current documentation practices had no statistical differences, however a large majority of participants indicated that they would not be comfortable being represented as their sex assigned at birth on an official pedigree. When assessing motivations, preliminary evidence demonstrated that most participants would want to discuss how hormone and surgical therapies impact personal cancer risk and many have already had or considered hormone and surgical transitioning. The findings of this study reinforce the recommendations for existing literature regarding the adaptation and evolution of current practices to meet the need of transgender patients while highlighting the need for standardized education and training in order to provide comprehensive, inclusive care for all patients, regardless of gender identity.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Surface, Lauren Reinhardt, Sara Psychological Development in Elementary Aged Children
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Throughout my college years I had the privilege of working at an afterschool program for Charleston County School District. I worked specifically at Charles Pinckney Elementary school as a counselor and then was promoted to lead counselor. I worked with children ages third through fifth grade and engaged them in many learning activities, helped them with their school work and got to be a team leader among other employees. I chose this job because I have always loved children and have always wanted to help make a difference and be a role model. I was able to get connected with this job through a fellow peer in high school and worked on my breaks during my time in college as well as full time during the summer. During my time in this job I was able to relate many concepts I learned in my developmental psychology class back to the things I saw during my time. One example of this is Erikson’s psychological stages of development. I was able to see how elementary aged children begin to grow their skills in the academic and social world, and just how early specific pressures and comparisons grow about t a young age. This was important to me as I took developmental psychology as a pre-requisite for nursing school at MUSC, which I will be attending this fall. I also want to go into pediatrics, so this was really important to me to learn a lot about children during this job. I was also able to become CPR and first aid certified in infants, children, and adults. I was also able to have experiences on other school sites during my time working for Charleston County. This included some title I schools, which was also important to me given I hope so someday work as a nurse with children and families that do not have the same access to health care as others. I learned a lot about diversity and just how quickly children develop ideals at a young age, I plan to take this into my career as a nurse.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Meadows, Taylor Easley, Elizabeth My Journey from Student Leader to Future Healthcare Leader
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My college experience has been a season of gaining knowledge and awareness. I came to University of South Carolina-Lancaster (USCL) to become a Registered Nurse. After four years of a competitive nursing curriculum and peer leadership, I will be a Registered Nurse, and an informed community member. Early in my college career, I was a research assistant and coordinator for the IRB-approved SMART study. The SMART study focused on rural community health indicators in college students which piqued my interest in community health nursing. This led to my internship with the Arras Foundation where I studied the health benefits of a walkable and thriving downtown. I was also introduced to the idea of USCL partnering with Lancaster County DHEC to implement a satellite clinic on campus. Collaborating with USCL and DHEC on The Hubb as a student leader was my most significant college experience because this opportunity allowed me to make a meaningful impact on my campus and within my community. Furthermore, I practiced within the classroom concepts in a beyond the classroom experience and I truly saw integrative learning come to life. For example, resiliency is based on risk and protective factors. Not having access to resources increases risk factors for health conditions, whereas The Hubb acts as a protective factor therefore improving the community’s resiliency. My leadership experiences through research, the internship, and The Hubb involvement strengthened my understanding of health disparities and assumptions healthcare providers make and encouraged me to become more open-minded. As a result of my integrative learning, I will be a more capable nurse who provides care to the holistic patient by considering access to all community resources.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Shah, Smit Sen, Souvik Evaluation of Developmental Venous Anomaly with Capillary Telangiectasia: A Case Report
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Developmental Venous Anomalies (DVAs) are benign radially arranged medullary veins that are interspersed in the normal brain parenchyma, mostly within white matter that act as venous conduits into superficial, central or deep veins. They are most commonly found supratentorially with frontal lobe predominance with rare occurrences in caudal neural-axis including brain stem or spinal cord. However, their co-existence with Capillary Telangiectasia has been infrequently reported. In this case report, we discuss an interesting clinical presentation and imaging findings of a 64-year-old male who initially presented with symptoms of Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) and was later found to have supratentorial DVA with Capillary Telangiectasia. Main goal and purpose of this case report is to give readers an overview on this very interesting clinical presentation that was masqueraded by left periventricular DVA with associated Capillary Telangiectasia.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Witt, Kathryn Skipper, Tracy Gamecock in Bangkok
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Spring semester of 2019 I studied abroad through a partner program, CIS Abroad, at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand. As a public health major pursuing a career in global health, I wanted the opportunity to travel this particular region of the world and experience a culture vastly different than my own. I took four courses at Mahidol’s International College alongside fellow international and Thai students that expanded my knowledge of Thai culture and built upon my public health coursework at UofSC. I explored a large portion of Southeast Asia through my travels to Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia, and throughout Thailand in which I gained a better understanding of Southeast Asian culture. I experienced cultural and socioeconomic differences that were sometimes uncomfortable and unfamiliar but forced me to grow and learn. This experience was significant to me because, prior to this, I had only left the country once and was largely unfamiliar with Asia or Asian culture. I made the decision to study abroad alone, without any friends, to challenge myself and truly step outside of my comfort zone. This allowed me to grow immensely as an individual during my four months in Thailand. I gained self-confidence, independence, and most importantly, ignited my passion for travel and my future career goals in global health.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Bouknight, Abigail Holden, Laura
Dodson, Cortney
Rhodes, Derek
Automatic dispensing cabinet optimization in a large, academic medical center
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BACKGROUND: Automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) have been utilized as a component of the decentralized pharmacy model since the late 1980s as a strategy to improve efficiency (ISMP). While the benefits of ADCs are certainly recognized, assessing optimization of such machines is important to ensure operational efficiency in the healthcare system. Mathematical algorithms are one approach to optimization by evaluating inventory management and adjusting maximum and minimum par levels. The hope with this method is that once an ADC is optimized, there will be a reduction in the number of stock-outs and improved vend:fill ratios. The purpose of this study is to implement a mathematical algorithm on pre-identified machines and evaluate its effectiveness at improving ADC output. METHODS: Four ADCs, two intensive care units and two cardiac telemetry units, will be selected for optimization via a previously validated mathematical algorithm. The algorithm will be applied to each medication that has been identified as standard stock. Minimum and maximum par values for each of these medications will be manually adjusted in the ADCs based on the algorithm. Each machine will be analyzed after 60 days of operating under the optimization algorithm. Overall total stock-outs and vend:fill ratios will be evaluated in the before and after periods. RESULTS: In progress CONCLUSIONS: In progress

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Pizzuti, Morgan Justo, Julie Validation of Local Pseudomonas aeruginosa Risk Factors in Patients with Community-Onset Bacterial Pneumonia
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Presentation Objective • At the conclusion of my presentation, the participant will be able to describe validation methods for local Pseudomonas aeruginosa risk factors in patients with community-onset bacterial pneumonia. Purpose • The international management guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia encourage development and validation of institutional treatment guidelines based on local risk factors. Previous research from our health system identified local risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in adult, hospitalized patients with community-onset bacterial pneumonia. The study demonstrated that individuals with bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease, prior airway colonization with P. aeruginosa within the last 12 months, and recent exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics within the last 3-30 days had a greater risk of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Our institution developed local pneumonia treatment guidelines focusing on use of empiric antibiotics for patients with risk factors for P. aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to validate the local P. aeruginosa risk factors in patients with community-onset bacterial pneumonia. Methods • This was a retrospective, observational cohort study. Patients were screened from reports of respiratory specimens and admissions with MS-DRG codes associated with pneumonia between January 1, 2017 to March 31, 2020. Enrolled subjects were adult patients aged ≥18 years, admitted to Prisma Health Richland, Baptist, or Baptist Parkridge hospital campuses with: a diagnosis of pneumonia, receipt of inpatient antibiotic therapy within 48 hours after pneumonia symptom onset, and receipt of >48 hours of antibiotic therapy. Patient comorbidities, culture results, antibiotic therapy, and acute severity of illness were collected. Statistical analyses include sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, overall accuracy and over and under treatment proportion. Results: In Progress Conclusions: In Progress

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Wigmore, Cameron
Nag, Ritwik
Mandal, Krishna Crystal Growth, Characterization, Fabrication, and Evaluation of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Selenide (CdZnTeSe) Semiconductor Detectors for Nuclear Radiation Detection
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Currently, there is a great need for ‘direct read-out’ semiconductor based nuclear radiation detectors. For this purpose, in recent years, Cadmium Zinc Telluride Selenide (CdZnTeSe) has emerged as a high-performance nuclear detector at room temperature (RT) operation. There is a strong need for nuclear detector grade crystals that can be grown and fabricated in large area devices at high yield and at a lower cost. CdZnTeSe, a wide bandgap (~ 1.6 eV at 300K) semiconductor that is an ideal candidate to satisfy the requirements of nuclear radiation detections and imaging devices. Through the Magellan program, we have grown CdZnTeSe single crystals using a vertical Bridgman method. The grown crystals have been characterized thoroughly for structural, optical, electrical, and electronic charge transport properties. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) revealed the zincblende structure and determined the lattice parameters of the grown CdZnTeSe crystals. Optical absorption measurements confirmed the bandgap of 1.6 eV at 300K. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements determined the resistivity of the grown crystals to be ≥10E10 Ohm-cm and revealed low leakage currents which contribute to low detector noise.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Crowley, Archie Chun, Elaine “We have to get behind words”: Approaches to Language in Trans Communities
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Debates about language within transgender communities often take place as individuals articulate themselves within personal, local, and national discursive scales of trans representation and identity. While prescriptive arguments about language often are framed as aspiring to articulate one “correct” linguistic form that should become the norm, in fact, many members of trans communities recognize that multiple interests are at play and that different linguistic practices are necessary for each context. This sociolinguistic study draws on multiple methods of data collection and analysis, including 6 months of participant observation in 2 trans organizations in Columbia, South Carolina; 9 ethnographic group interviews with 18 community members; and methods of interaction analysis, allowing for the identification of locally salient ideologies that participants draw on when rationalizing their lexical and grammatical choices. During the interviews, participants talked about language with an awareness of the multiple projects that are being served. I highlight how the participants primarily orientated to two distinct approaches to language and language use within trans communities: a “political” approach to language and a “philosophical” approach to language. On the one hand, the political approach to language presumes that the function of language is goal-oriented and attentive to the outside world, and presents a single, unified truth of language. On the other hand, the philosophical approach to language centers affect, personal discovery, and a plurality of truths. They negotiate how both of these approaches to language are useful and salient for trans communities. In fact, they highlight specific types of people who ascribe to one singular orientation to language as part of how conflict about language use arises both inside and outside trans communities. They hold that it is crucial to simultaneously make space for both of these theories of language in order for trans individuals to utilize the power of language for self-determination and for trans communities more broadly to move their political goals forward and push for social change.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kennedy, Benjamin Testerman, Traci Detection of Helicobacter Species in Veterans Through Polymerase Chain Reactions
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Background: The growing understanding of Helicobacter pylori as a pathogen has raised questions about potential pathogenicity of other Helicobacter species. Several non-pylori Helicobacters have been associated with enterohepatic diseases. Despite the known pathogenesis of these species, there is a lack of literature in their epidemiology. There is no current diagnostic test for determining if Helicobacters other than H. pylori are present in the gut. Therefore, an efficient detection method for Helicobacters needed to be created. The use of colonoscopy waste samples could generate a large collection of data but required confirmation of a threshold met for DNA concentration. Detection through PCR was the method of choice for its cost-efficiency and high specificity. Methods: Samples were collected from patients who have undergone a colonoscopy procedure for unknown pathology. Samples taken from each patient were cultured with Helicobacter friendly medium. Separately, any DNA present was extracted and isolated from the patient samples. The concentration of DNA was determined from each sample before performing PCR. Three sets of primers were used for each patient. The first primer was bacteria specific, then Helicobacter genus specific, and finally Helicobacter pylori specific. The PCR products were run on a 2% agarose gel and analyzed under UV light. Results: All patients tested positive for presence of bacteria as expected. Of the 60 patients tested, 4 tested positive for Helicobacter specific bacteria. The 4 patient samples were then sent off for sequencing. All 4 patients were determined to have H. pylori. Conclusion: The collection method contained a sufficient concentration to detect Helicobacter if they were present in the patient. A set of primers needs to be created that can exclude H. pylori while detecting the other Helicobacters.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kennedy, Benjamin
Deal, Patrick
Jackson, Benjamin The Surgical Learning Curve for Modified Lapidus Procedure for Hallux Valgus Deformity
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Background: Hallux valgus is one of the most common orthopedic deformities of the foot, affecting as much as 23% of the population age 18 to 65.I In addition to its high prevalence, it has a complex multifactorial pathogenesis. Surgical correction options have variable rates of success and new techniques are being developed. The modified Lapidus procedure attempts to correct in three planes of deformity which may create a steeper learning curve for those newly adopting the technique. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent hallux valgus reconstruction with a modified Lapidus procedure between March 2018 and July 2020. Exclusion criteria included: revision surgery, 6 or more concurrent procedures, or a flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer for adult acquired flatfoot correction. Results: There were a total of 81 modified Lapidus procedures for hallux valgus within the study time frame and 68 were included in the study. Over a period of 2 years there was a significant decrease in overall surgery duration from 78.93 minutes at month 0 to 61.80 minutes at 24 months (P = .036). The rate of non-union was 4.41% (3/68) and the rate of recurrence was 5.88% (4/68). There was not a significant difference in rate of non-union as the surgeon increased in experience (P = .817). Conclusion: Although there is a significant learning curve for the modified Lapidus procedure it is largely overcome by the 23rd case. Additionally, experience with the technique does not appear to affect the patient outcomes of non-union or recurrence.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Keschinger, Victoria Spence, Gina Peer Leadership in the Green Quad Community
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Living in a residence hall is the first time most students will be living on their own and without their family. Inside the residence halls students will learn how to establish relationships with others, start working towards their goals they have to graduate from college, and learn many new things about themselves as they go through new experiences at the University of South Carolina. Throughout my time at the University of South Carolina I have served as a Resident Mentor and an EcoRep in the Green Quad community. In these positions I have been able to grow personally as I learned how to lead others, organize events, facilitate difficult conversations, how to be a good support system to others and how to problem solve. During my time as an EcoRep I was able to teach other students about sustainability, environmental issues and how they can live a more sustainable lifestyle. As a resident mentor I was able to create a welcoming community for the residents, build relationships and teach them skills they can use later. In my presentation I will be discussing my experience as both a resident mentor and as an Ecorep, how it has impacted me, the Green Quad community, and how I will be using these skills in the future.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Durbin, Luke Schammel, Christine Factors Influencing Discharge Location following Ischemic Stroke
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There are greater than 7 million stroke survivors within the United States alone with over half afflicted with impaired mobility necessitating rehabilitation. There is greater potential for improved functionality when post-stroke acute care includes an inpatient rehabilitation facility when compared to a skilled nursing facility or home with home health; however, only approximately 10% of patients hospitalized for a stroke are admitted into inpatient facilities upon discharge. The goal of this study was to evaluate the actual discharge locations of post-ischemic stroke patients receiving a consultation for admission to a single hospital based IRF and the criteria utilized in the case manager and patient decisions were evaluated. Following IRB approval, a single institution, retrospective review of patients diagnosed with an ischemic stroke, were hospitalized and evaluated for admission into a hospital based IRF at hospital discharge between 1/1/2016 through 9/5/2016 was performed. Overall, 100 patients were included in the study. Patients with private insurance were approved for the inpatient facility more (72%) with low approval for all others (p=0.0832). Private insurance patients utilized the inpatient facility (56%); public insurance patients utilized skilled nursing facilities (30%; p=0.1349) despite no significant difference in discharge NIHSS scores (p=0.2333). No significant differences were noted between insurance status and denial codes (p=0.7141). Of those approved for inpatient, 35% declined secondary to patient or family refusal; 80% of skilled nursing patients and 93% of those discharged home with services were denied inpatient admission (p<0.0001).

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Stone, Benjamin Chandrashekhar, MVS
Weaver, Glenn
Armstrong, Bridget
A transducer agnostic method for frequency domain detection of heart rates for long-term health monitoring
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Purpose: Heartrate is an important indicator of physical activity energy expenditure. PPG is a simple, non-invasive optical technique that measures volumetric changes in peripheral blood circulation. A variety of consumer wearable fitness trackers traditionally worn on the wrist incorporate Photoplethysmography (PPG) to estimate HR. However, placement of PPG on the wrist has been shown to produce inferior estimates of HR due to motion artefacts from rapid movement of the arm. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the comparability of chest placed PPG against a gold standard ECG estimated heartrate. Methods: Heartrate was estimated from PPG and ECG simultaneously on four participants (20-37years old, 100% white, 3 male) at 45hz for ~15 minutes while in a seated position. Heartrate trace data was processed via Fourier analyses for both the ECG and PPG via a 20 second rolling epoch in order to produce PPG and ECG estimated heartrate (i.e., beats per minute). Single absolute intra-class correlation coefficients examined relation of PPG and ECG estimated heartrate. Root mean squared error (RMSE) and absolute mean bias were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were constructed to assess mean bias for PPG heartrate estimates when compared to ECG estimates. A priori limits of agreement were set at 5%. Results: A total of 154,272 PPG and ECG heartrate traces were collected. Mean PPG and ECG estimated heartrate was 84.0 (SD=10.2) and 85.6 (SD=10.4) beats per minute, respectively. ICCs examining the association between ECG and PPG estimated heartrate were strong 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82, 0.84). Mean bias between PPG and ECG estimated heartrate was 1.5 beats per minute. Absolute mean bias between PPG and ECG estimated heartrate was 4.2 and RMSE was 5.9 beats per minute. A total of 70% (n=107,214 of 154,272) of the heartrate estimates of PPG were within the 5% a priori limits of agreement. Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study shows that chest placed PPG has the potential to accurately assess heartrate. Future validation studies that examine PPG in a broad range of activity intensity levels and in a large and representative sample of participants are warranted.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Seymour, Hannah Pou, Jay Adventure is Out There: Why Everyone should Participate in Domestic Study Away
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I believe that every adventure is an opportunity for great learning. In the fall of 2018, I was given the chance to participate in the National Student Exchange, which is a domestic study away program. While it is possible to go on exchange to almost every state in the US, Canada, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands, I chose to spend a Semester at the University of Alaska, Anchorage. During my time away, I was able to take the engineering classes that I needed for my Mechanical Engineering major as well as some fun classes. I did not have to worry about them transferring back to UofSC, as the necessary paperwork that I filled out guaranteed their transferability. Beyond the class, I was able to see the beautiful Alaskan wilderness. Almost every weekend involved some adventure, whether hiking up Flattop Mountain, visiting the Anchorage beach, or driving to a small town nearby. What made this semester incredible, though, was the community of people with whom I did these activities. I am still in frequent contact with them and have even been invited back for their weddings. I have heard many different reasons for students to participate in the NSE, but my reason was the travel. Alaska was the furthest and longest I have ever been away from my home, but I learned how to be more independent and self-reliant. Beyond that, in a global market, being able to adapt to a different culture is a valuable skill. My NSE adventure taught me about independence, networking, encouraged me to consider graduate programs, and opened the possibility in my mind to live and work anywhere. I have a better understanding of who I am and who I want to be because of this experience. I believe that everyone should at least consider NSE, because it is a very customizable program that allows you to see the diversity within our own country.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Thoppil, Julia Becker, Kimberly
Chu, Wendy
Evidence-Based Strategies Used to Address Multidimensional Barriers to Mental Health Treatment Engagement
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Low treatment engagement is a pervasive problem in mental health services. Given that it is associated with poor treatment outcomes, a nuanced understanding of engagement barriers and the solutions that can be used to address these barriers is needed. One framework to conceptualize treatment engagement is the REACH framework, which outlines 5 domains of engagement: relationship, expectancy, attendance, clarity, and homework. Some studies indicate that coordinated action, or using the appropriate strategies for a given barrier or problem domain, may contribute to improved treatment engagement outcomes. Using the REACH framework, the current study aimed to describe (1) the frequency of engagement barriers encountered by mental health providers, (2) the strategies used to address engagement barriers, and (3) the strategies most commonly used in a specific REACH domain. Participants (N = 38) were mental health providers who were surveyed about their encounters with 20 engagement barriers and utilization of 23 strategies. Specifically, providers indicated the extent to which barriers interfered with youth and caregiver engagement on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Never, 5 = Always) and how often they used specific engagement strategies in their first five sessions with a new client on a 6-point Likert scale (0 = Never, 5 = 5 sessions). Results revealed that providers reported encountering homework barriers (M = 2.71, SD = 0.61) and using homework strategies (M = 3.07, SD = 0.73) most frequently. Results also revealed that for providers who frequently experience barriers in relationship, attendance, or clarity domains, the most common strategies they used were in the homework domain (Ms = 3.15–4.81, SDs = 0.64–0.96) and thus were not of the same domain. In fact, for these three domains of barriers (i.e., relationship, attendance, clarity), strategies of the same domain were used the least often of all the strategies (e.g., relationship strategies were used the least often for providers who frequently experienced relationship barriers). Findings support continued research utilizing a multidimensional approach to understand mental health treatment engagement. Additionally, they highlight the need for improved coordination of engagement strategies, particularly for barriers related to relationship, attendance, or clarity.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Nilsson, Alexandra Lewis, Elise Taking Care of the Me in Social MEdia
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Over the course of my junior and senior year at the University of South Carolina, I have worked as the Social Media Coordinator for Curtsy. Curtsy is a fashion-resale App, in which users can both buy and sell the clothes in their closet they no longer want or need, providing a sustainable solution to the fashion-waste problem our nation faces. Before working for Curtsy, I became obsessed with the app, as an avid thrift-shopper who is passionate about sustainable fashion. When I saw the position of “Social Media Coordinator” come up, having already worked as the social media director for my sorority on campus, Chi Omega, I knew I had to apply. As a marketing major, my job at Curtsy continues to provide me with real-world experience in content creation and social media marketing. I manage and oversee the official Curtsy Instagram, creating content daily for the platform that markets and promotes the app to new users, as well as content that creates a conversation surrounding sustainability. I also started up our platform on TikTok, using the increasingly popular app as another marketing tool for the company. As the social media coordinator I also managed our influencers and college ambassadors, having to find a way to keep them engaged amidst the ongoing pandemic. Most recently, I have taken over email marketing as well, sending out weekly emails to our users promoting weekly sales, and fostering the Curtsy Community. Working with Curtsy over the past year and a half has combined my love for sustainable fashion with the creative marketing skills I have learned throughout my time as a student in Darla Moore. It has reaffirmed my choice to pursue social media marketing as a career, as well given me an outlet to work professionally in a field I am passionate about. As I graduate, I hope to continue working with Curtsy in San Francisco under the new Vice President of Marketing, in hopes to one day earn that title myself.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Stringfellow, Isabel Corbett, Cynthia Patient Perceptions of Post-Hospital Discharge Medication Adherence: A Meta-Synthesis
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 7.9% of Americans experience overnight hospital stays every year. In addition, the percentage of people using at least one prescription drug in the past 30 days in the United States was 48.4%. Proper medication adherence has benefits such as controlling patients’ chronic conditions and preventing further health problems. Approximately 50% of patients do not take medications as prescribed which leads to increased morbidity and mortality and costs up to $100 billion per year. Many factors impact a patient’s ability to take their medication, such as cost, side effects, or time management necessary to take all medications at the prescribed times. The goal of this study was to evaluate and synthesize published research results on patients’ perspectives regarding why they do and do not take medicines as prescribed after being discharged home from the hospital. The Joanna Briggs Institute Model of Systematic Reviews is being used to conduct a meta-synthesis of existing qualitative literature. PubMed, CINHAL, and PsychInfo databases were searched for full-text articles published between 2010 and 2020 that focused on qualitative studies of patient medication usage post-hospital discharge. The search yielded 94 total data-based articles with 28 relevant, non-repetitive articles. Common themes and exemplars will be identified via low inference content analysis among two primary investigators and three secondary readers. The initial findings from the search and categorization of the articles revealed clear differences in findings from international and domestic publications. In addition, preliminary results indicate that themes affecting post-hospital medication adherence include access to the medicine, perceived side effects of the medicine, and perceived positive effects on the chronic illness. Final study results are expected in March 2021.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Storlazzi, Sophia Jones, Emily
Nettesheim, Mitch
UofSC Bike Refurbishment and Redistribution Feasibility Study
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Some of the most obvious yet most overlooked areas in need of improvement around our campus are bike-related. Abandoned bikes left on bike racks and other objects such as street posts, benches, rails, and trees are both visually detracting and hazardous. In 2018, preceding my attainment of the Sustainable Magellan Grant, I conducted a campus-wide Needs Assessment consisting of two volunteer days which analyzed the availability of bike racks. It was found that an overwhelming percent of bike racks were consistently occupied, likely forcing cyclists to park illegally in alternative places as mentioned above. This provided evidence for the need of 1) removing abandoned bikes and 2) installing new bike racks. This Bike Rack Project would enhance campus life by promoting healthy behaviors of physical activity, provide a basic resource to enable sustainable transportation, and align with the campus aesthetic excellence. Following the success of the Bike Rack Project, it became evident that this project should not end here -- an additional initiative should be constructed. To be environmentally, financially, and socially sustainable, the bikes should be refurbished and redistributed back to their original community: UofSC students. Doing so would reduce waste and provide more resources to students. This realization was the inspiration for the UofSC Bike Refurbishment and Redistribution Feasibility Study, which was the focus of this Sustainable Magellan Grant. This Feasibility Study was conducted to determine if it is within South Carolina State Laws and University Policies to refurbish the abandoned bikes collected from around UofSC campus in order to redistribute them back to students. Through extensive outreach, collaboration, coordination, surveying, and investigation, favorable results were found to support the successful implementation of this initiative. An emphasis was placed on establishing key resources and campus stakeholders which would enable the sustainable longevity of this initiative. The following presentation will address the research process used, specific findings, and suggestions on ways to ameliorate the life cycle of bicycles at UofSC.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Dijkhoff, Stephanie Kubickova, Marketa Going Paperless in the Human Resources Department
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From June until December of last year, I got the opportunity to serve as a Human Resources intern at the Bucuti & Tara Beach Resort in Aruba. The Bucuti & Tara Beach Resort is a Certified Carbon Neutral hotel and has been recently awarded the Global United Nations 2020 Climate Neutral Now Award, the first hotel to ever win this award. Their commitment to sustainability is the main reason why I chose Bucuti & Tara Beach Resort for my internship. During my internship, I was responsible for the Paperless Project which entailed for the Human Resources department to transition from paper to digital, as much as possible. I digitalized various administrative forms, as well as create new ones. These forms facilitated processes such as recruitment, onboarding, assessments, exits, and more. The transition from paper job applications to email applications allowed me to gain experience in screening job applicants before moving them forward. My internship allowed me to put my knowledge in Human Resources Management into practice while also combining this experience with my passion for sustainability. I learned that, upon graduation, I want to work in Human Resources at a company that is committed to sustainability because it allows me to make a positive impact on employees and the environment. I believe that it is beneficial to complete internships at companies where you see yourself working in the future. I had such a great experience working at Bucuti & Tara Beach Resort Aruba that I hope to work there again in the future.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Sealy, Emily Schammel, Christine
Devane, Michael
Embolization of Corona Mortis in the Setting of Pelvic Trauma: A Case Series
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The corona mortis is an anatomic variant that involves anastomosis between the internal and external iliac systems, which lies posteriorly over the superior pubic ramus. Given its location, the corona mortis is at risk for injury in pelvic trauma and a variety of pelvic surgeries, including acetabular fracture repair, inguinal hernia repair, radical cystectomy, Burch colposuspension, and mid-urethral sling placement. Here, we present two cases of hemorrhage from the corona mortis in the setting of pelvic trauma that were successfully treated using catheter-guided embolization.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Quire, Hannah Grace, Breanne
Marsh, Allison
Gifted Education in South Carolina in the Age of COVID-19
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The purpose of this project was to gauge how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted gifted education across the state of South Carolina. I disseminated a survey in July of 2020 and again in January of 2021 across social media in order to capture responses at two different points in the pandemic, and the main target audience were the parents and guardians of children currently enrolled in gifted and talented programs across the state. Questions included personal information regarding respondents’ demographics, the schools their student(s) attended, and the type of gifted and talented program their student(s) was/were enrolled in, as well as qualitative short answers regarding how virtual education occurred for their students, how they felt about it, and how things differed with the gifted and talented programming. The sample consisted of 38 respondents, representing 20 distinct elementary and middle schools across the state. Of those who completed the survey, 18 had more than one child enrolled in a gifted and talented program. This project aims to contextualize their responses amidst a body of literature on virtual learning and virtual gifted education in particular, in order to better help us understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected our K-12 students and their families as well as our gifted and talented education processes, while also allowing us to make a plan for more accessible and positive virtual gifted education experiences after the pandemic.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Fielding, Seth Myslinski, Joseph Flash pulmonary edema resulting in hypoxia refractory to positive pressure ventilation
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Abstract Text: Pre-Hospital Course: An 80 year old male presented by ambulance to the emergency department (ED) following a low-mechanism MVC, without obvious signs of damage. The patient initially had no complaints and did not want to be transported to the hospital. While waiting 20 minutes for the fire department to help open his car door, the patient became short of breath. When he became cyanotic the paramedics placed him on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with 100% oxygen, but the best oxygen saturation obtained was 84%. Initial blood pressure was 200 systolic. The patient then went into ventricular tachycardia and was electrically cardioverted. ED Course: Patient presented extremely short of breath and cyanotic. He was immediately placed on CPAP and bedside ultrasound revealed significant pulmonary edema, but no other injuries. Shortly thereafter he became apneic and lost his pulse. CPR was initiated and he was intubated. ACLS was performed for 7 minutes, during which he received 2 rounds of defibrillation, epinephrine, amiodarone, magnesium, bicarbonate, and calcium. Patient then attained return of circulation with initial post-arrest BP of 130/70. An EKG showed left bundle branch block without evidence of myocardial infarction. Despite multiple ventilation strategies and high levels of PEEP, oxygen saturations remained below 82%. CT scans revealed consolidated pulmonary edema but no other significant findings. He was transferred to the MICU with stable blood pressure but persistent hypoxia. Hospital Course: In the MICU, the patient was placed in a prone position, but his oxygen saturations remained 78-80%. He also developed hypotension requiring vasopressors. His oxygen saturations gradually improved 8 hours later and he was then extubated and weaned off vasopressors. Patient had multiple runs of ventricular tachycardia requiring placement of an implantable cardioversion device. Cardiac catheterization revealed no obstructive lesions and troponins were negative for myocardial infarction. Echocardiogram revealed chronic but undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. He was discharged six days later neurologically normal, with normal oxygen saturations. Conclusion: Despite persistent hypoxia for greater than 8 hours due to severe pulmonary edema, supportive care allowed his lung function to improve and he was able to be discharged home completely normal.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Lauber, Meagan Klusek, Jessica
Friedman, Laura
Quantitative Analysis of Phonatory Parameters in Female FMR1 Premutation Carriers as a Potential Biomarker of Preclinical Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome Symptoms
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While fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals possessing >200 CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene, those possessing 55-200 repeats are classified as FMR1-premutation carriers. Previously, FMR1-premutation carriers were believed to be unaffected; however, research now shows they display distinct phenotypes, with the largest concern being their risk of developing fragile-X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, parkinsonism, cerebellar-gait ataxia, brain atrophy and neuropathy. Given the premutation effects 1-in-148 women and 1-in-290 men, and the inability to predict which carriers will develop FXTAS later in life, it is necessary to develop methods of identifying potential pre-clinical FXTAS symptoms that are accessible to medical professionals, reliable, and non-invasive. Phonation is the production of speech via modulation of laryngeal tension to allow airflow that causes the vocal cords to vibrate. The neuromuscular sensitivity of the phonatory system makes it an idea bodily system for detecting subtle neuropathologies that may occur before the onset of noticeable symptoms. Sustained /a/ phonation samples were obtained from 21 FMR1-premutation carriers and 28 neurotypical controls and were run through Praat Linguistic Analysis software to calculate key phonatory parameters. Parameters of interest were mean, median, and standard deviation of pitch, number and degree of voice breaks, noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR) and harmonics-to-noise-ratio (HNR). Results showed significant differences in standard deviation of pitch and NHR between the premutation and control groups. Within the premutation group, significant correlations were found between the number, degree, and numerator of voice breaks and scores on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), as well as scores on the pain, energy-fatigue, and physical health limitations subscales of the RAND Health Survey. Significant associations between median and mean pitch and scores on the NIH Balance Test were also found. 57% of FMR1-premutation carriers met pathology thresholds for either NHR or HNR, with 33% meeting both, compared to the control group where 14% met one and 7% met both. This research supports the merit of phonatory parameters as a potential biomarker of subtle neuromuscular degeneration that could be used as an early diagnostic tool of pre-clinical FXTAS symptoms.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Boggs, Jill Dubinsky, Stanley
Gavin, Michael
The plight of Tajikistan’s Pamiri population and their search for recognition
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The development of language rights plays an important role in analyzing the evolution and resolution of ethnolinguistic conflicts. Understanding the significance of language provides valuable insight in determining how and why conflicts develop between different groups, where language can serve as a marker of religion, social background, ethnicity, educational background, and political affiliation. Ethnic conflicts are complicated and amorphous subjects, and language remains an effective method of identifying differences in individual identity and group self-perception. This case study outlines the development of ethnolinguistic conflict in Tajikistan between the Pamiri minority and ethnic Tajik majority as part of a larger project that provides an accessible online resource for the public cataloguing ethnolinguistic conflicts. For centuries, the Pamiris lived in relative isolation in Tajikistan’s mountainous Gorno-Badakhshan province until their assimilation into the Soviet Union in the twentieth century. Rather than the Russian and Persian languages that are spoken by ethnic Tajiks and dominate Tajik politics and society, Pamiris speak several related Eastern Iranian languages. These typically lack written forms and are referred to as Pamiri languages. Pamiris suffered under Soviet governmental policies, including forcible resettlement in the 1950s, the elimination of Pamiri languages in schools in favor of Russian or Persian, and proposed 1989 legislation that advocated limiting Pamiri languages’ use in legal, governmental, and business proceedings. During the 1980s and 1990s, tensions grew between the Pamiris and the Tajik government while passive social discrimination against Pamiris continued, contributing to a Pamiri separatist movement in the 1980s and 1992-1997 civil war. Today, tensions remain between Pamiris and Tajiks, who remain suspicious of the Pamiris’ separatist history. This is compounded by the government’s refusal to recognize the Pamiri ethnicity or language, further disenfranchising an already disadvantaged group. A range of academic and news publications were used to compile this case study, which involves the suppression of the Pamiri minority by the dominant Tajik ethnicity and emphasizes the role language rights played in the conflict. In addition to writing on the historical and linguistic backgrounds and events, several contemporary anecdotal stories are included to humanize the conflict and demonstrate its modern-day impact.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Ferrante, Annabella Spence, Gina Learning to be a Leader
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The Greek organizations at the University of South Carolina (UofSC) provide students a door into involvement in the community and the opportunity for leadership. My time as an Executive Officer for my sorority Zeta Tau Alpha (ZTA) challenged me as a student and a leader. When I first joined ZTA I felt like I had an opportunity to enhance my experience at UofSC. In my position as Historian and in managing the media for my sorority, I gained experience in my major of public relations while also enhancing my personal knowledge of the subject. At this same time, I was enrolled in a Speech 140 class at UofSC. The combined experience of a public speech class, while speaking in front of the chapter and working on my leadership skills, helped propel me into the position of Historian. The speech class taught me how to present professionally while also focusing on anxiety-management tips. The things that I learned in this class applied outside of the classroom in the ways that I spoke to my sorority and to others. I had my first real leadership role while learning and using speech skills that I will use for the rest of my life. These experiences allowed me to grow as a person, learn to communicate effectively, and meet the people who shaped my college career. My presentation will discuss the things I learned about myself as a leader, as a student, and the ways that Greek life allowed me to expand my experience in many positive ways.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Fedel, Gabi Conde, Tiffany Global Learning
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In Spring of 2019, I studied abroad and attended the University of Costa Rica in San Ramon, Costa Rica. I was assigned to live with a wonderful Tico (native Costa Rican) host family. I traveled to almost every corner of the small country and gained insight on social norms, both in my new home and through my travels. Growing up in Milton, a suburb North of Atlanta, I always had a strong desire to live in an environment where every experience is unfamiliar. I spent my entire life constructing my reality based on the American experiences that I had encountered. Studying abroad provided me with the opportunity to expand my perspectives on the world and test my personal viewpoints. Through countless discussions over meals with my host family, studying new topics within the university, and busing around the country, I found appreciation for differences and a love for the majority of new social norms. From America to Costa Rica, there are variances in what is socially acceptable. I found some of the Costa Rican norms, one of which being the consumption of cow tongue, extremely uncomfortable. However, I found myself enjoying my newly shifted lifestyle in the majority of the experiences. I never expected the difficulties that came during my time in Costa Rica; breaking almost every single habit or routine I was familiar with in my lifetime proved to be challenging, to say the least. As humans we are creatures of habit. Far too often, we fall into the trance of routine and fail to question our daily choices. As a woman who has always had strong beliefs, studying abroad allowed me to reform and reorder the beliefs that I hold closest to my heart. It is of immeasurable importance that we question the impact of our daily decisions. Together, we co-exist on this diverse planet. Together, we are socially diverse. The more often each of us takes the time to create new stories with different people, the more empathy we are able to give each day.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Evans, Anna Reinhardt, Sara The Power of Legal Defense
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During my sophomore year of college, I became a legal runner for a small defense law firm here in Columbia, South Carolina. The firm deals with civil litigation, criminal defense, professional licensing issues, and sport and entertainment law. Because of all of the areas of concentration, I was able to experience broad range of legal cases. My favorite thing that I was able to do through the position was being able to work with the Palmetto Innocence Project. The Palmetto Innocence Project is a non-profit that works to prevent and reverse the conviction of wrongly convicted people in South Carolina. My role in the process was opening letters from these incarcerated individuals and reading their stories. One similarity that I saw across all of the letters was that all of the convicted individuals requested another chance at a trial and explained how dedicated representation could give them the opportunity for a new life. These people had limited resources, so the ability to obtain free legal services could mean the difference between a new life or remaining in jail. Through the program, I was able to witness the correlation between a defendant’s financial condition and the effect it has on their legal standing. I was shown the power of remedying inequities through pro bono legal defense. By interacting with these clients and their cases, it illuminated an issue that is widely known about the U.S. justice system - the ability to pay for an effective legal defense is often key to a legal determination of a person’s guilt or innocence and there to maintain a criminal record. Through this job, it affirmed my decision to attend law school after graduation. I want to attend so that I can further explore this correlation and determine the role that I can play in affecting this issue within the United States legal system. I am hoping to study criminal law and work for a non-profit to provide probono legal defense for underrepresented individuals.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kelly, Julia Lewis, Elise Broadening My Perspective
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During the Spring semester of 2019, I studied abroad at London Metropolitan University in London, United Kingdom. Prior to beginning college, I went on a one month study abroad trip with my high school to Oxford University in the United Kingdom. This experience was so integral in my preparation and transition into college life, that I was sure I wanted to return to England. As a biological sciences major, I was unable to take my core science courses while abroad. This setback, however, turned out to be an asset to my experience. Since I was only able to take general education courses, I was able to gain a deeper understanding and appreciation for topics that I do not usually study, such as Computer Science and Film Studies. This experience also translated to my experiences living in a foreign country. I was able to travel to new places, meet interesting people, and experience life in a new way. My work in the classroom and my experiences outside of the classroom during these five months challenged me both as a student and as a person. I gained a deeper understanding of the world around me, and I now am able to strive to continuously further that appreciation.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Wilson, Sarah Pou, Jay Student by Day, Healthcare Provider by Night
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I was preparing for 2020 to be the most fun, successful, and insightful year that I had lived. However, the universe had something different in store for me. The Coronavirus pandemic swept the world within the first few months of 2020, while I was supposed to be sweeping UofSC’s campus by storm in my last year of undergraduate studies. My name is Sarah Wilson, and I am in my eighth semester here at the University of South Carolina’s Honors College, majoring in Mass Communications. One year ago, I was stressed about starting my Honors thesis, working three part-time jobs, and trying to rope down a summer internship. However, I was sent home in March of 2020, left without any idea of what my thesis would be, out of work completely, and completely unsure if the world would be standing by summer time. I quickly picked up where I left off in my hometown of Watchung, New Jersey, volunteering as an Emergency Medical Technician for my town as well as our neighboring town, Warren Township. During the pandemic, the Watchung Rescue Squad and the Warren Township Rescue Squad were extremely short staffed due to fears of the pandemic. I had to step up to ensure that these agencies were prepared for the worst. I was volunteering at least 72 hours of my week in addition to taking classes fully online. Since March of 2020, I have stayed in New Jersey, working as an EMT and picking up more healthcare jobs along the way. My background in Mass Communications has made capacities as a leader much stronger, in addition to proving myself as a key personnel around town due to my increased knowledge of strategic planning, also attributed to my studies at UofSC. One year later, I reflect on my undergraduate experience as a student by day, and a healthcare provider by night.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Erichsen, Jennifer Woodruff, Jennifer
Grillo, Claudia
Reagan, Lawrence
Fadel, Jim
Molecular effects of intranasal insulin in the rodent brain
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As brain insulin resistance has been identified as a pathological feature of age-related cognitive decline (ARCD), intranasal insulin (INI) is being explored as a potential treatment for patients with ARCD. Previous studies have demonstrated that INI enhances memory, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate the mechanistic basis for the pro-cognitive effects of INI, insulin receptor (IR) signaling and the expression of glutamate receptors and transporters, due to the role of the glutamatergic system in hippocampal synaptic transmission, was examined. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral hippocampal injections of a control lentiviral vector (LV-Con) or a lentivirus containing a selective insulin receptor antisense sequence (LV-IRAS) to induce hippocampal-specific insulin resistance. Seven months later, these animals were administered INI 30 minutes before euthanasia. In a separate cohort of Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid male rats (no virus) we investigated the effects of acute and chronic (10 days) INI dosing paradigms in young (3 months old) and aged (26 months old) rats, with a final INI administration 30 minutes before euthanasia. In both experiments, the hippocampus was processed for immunoblot analysis to assess changes in central IR signaling and phosphorylation/expression of glutamate receptor subunits and transporters. We previously observed that LV-IRAS injection selectively downregulated hippocampal IR expression and insulin-stimulated IR phosphorylation without affecting peripheral insulin sensitivity. Additionally, LV-IRAS animals showed reduced hippocampal basal glutamate levels and decreased phosphorylation/expression of glutamate receptor subunits. In this study, vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) expression, but not vGluT1, was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of LV-IRAS animals after INI administration. In the other cohort, age- and dosing paradigm-dependent effects were observed vis-à-vis IR signaling and glutamate receptor phosphorylation/expression. More studies are needed to fully understand the mechanistic changes following INI and to determine the most effective treatment strategies, but these data indicate that INI may improve cognition through the enhancement of IR signaling in the brain and/or through exerting synaptic effects on glutamate neurotransmission. It is important to understand the mechanism of action, as INI could eventually be used in the broader clinical setting to treat ARCD.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Thomas, Asia McQuillin, Samuel Screening Utility of the Classroom Performance Survey for Virtual or In-Person Learning
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The proposed study will help to aid school leaders during COVID-19 in their educational decision-making after evaluating a commonly used yet under-researched measure of school functioning called the Classroom Performance Survey (CPS). The CPS has been modified during the current study to assess students’ academic skills, attitudes, and behaviors in both the virtual and in-person learning context. In light of a national pandemic, the results of the study will help to promote continued or adapted use of a measure that can be used to predict high-stakes academic and behavioral student outcomes during a time when students' needs are considerably high. As a screening tool, the modified CPS can also be used to inform targeted intervention for schools participating in Multi-tiered Systems of Support. In previous research investigating the utility of the most recent version of the CPS with adolescent populations, Brady et al. (2012) provided results for both reliability and construct validity. The current study, however, will be used to evaluate predictive and incremental validity of a modified version of the CPS using an Elementary School population. The CPS subdomain scores (i.e., academic and interpersonal skills subdomains) will be used in isolation and combination to forecast future student outcomes including GPA, standardized test scores, discipline history, and attendance. Finally, educators will also gain a sense of how students school-wide are performing across areas that are important for school success during dual-modality instruction.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Kupneski, Taylor Fairey, Jessica Primary Care Provider Comfort with Utilization of Genetics in Practice
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Primary care providers (PCPs) are often the first opportunity for individuals at risk for a genetic condition to be identified and they must care for patients with known genetic conditions. However, PCPs lag behind other providers in incorporating genetics into their practice. This study aimed to understand which genetics related concepts/topics PCPs (1) find relevant to practice, (2) are currently comfortable utilizing in practice, and (3) desire further education on. A mixed methods survey was sent to internists, family medicine providers, OBGYNs, pediatricians and geriatrics providers in South Carolina via email to assess this information. This included physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants providing care in these fields. A total of 71 complete responses were analyzed. The survey found that the majority of providers felt 8/13 items analyzed were relevant to their clinical practice. Furthermore, majority of providers did not feel comfortable utilizing 17/24 items (expanded from the 13 items used when assessing relevancy) in their clinical practice. For the five items that majority of respondents did not find relevant for practice, majority of respondents also indicated that they were not comfortable utilizing these items in practice. This suggests some type of correlation between perceived relevancy and provider comfort, though the exact relationship is unclear. Majority of providers reported their prior education has been inadequate for what is needed in clinic on 10/14 items questioned. It was found that PCPs were less comfortable reaching out to genetics health professionals than other specialty providers and the majority of providers were unaware of 10/13 genetics-based resources available to them. Overall, the study concluded that there are multiple opportunities for genetics health professionals to aid in furthering the education of PCPs, and specific topics per specialty and provider type were identified. Additionally, it is important for genetics health professionals to recognize the need to aid these providers in remedying the education gap, as well as continuing to find ways to be more accessible to PCPs.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Pham, Mai-Trinh
Spangler, Luke
Vaughan, Andrew
Rhodes, Morgan
Bornemann, Paul
Artificial intelligence Technology in Point of Care Ultrasound Training
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Background: Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) has been shown to decrease the use of expensive diagnostic studies and improve quality outcome measures. This project will add to current literature by showing that there can be increased access to training and decreasing training time to achieve competency in ultrasound. This pilot study aimed to train primary care trainees in POCUS by using a portable ultrasound with auto-labeling and real-time corrective feedback artificial intelligence (AI) technology. This project compared clinical competency in point of care cardiac ultrasound using traditional ultrasound training to traditional training supplemented with 4 hours of AI technology. Methods: This was a pilot study in the Prisma Health Family Medicine Center (FMC), an outpatient family medicine teaching clinic in Columbia, South Carolina. The AI technology was made available through an unrestricted grant from Echonus. Participation was optional for medical students and residents completing rotations at FMC. Students and residents were randomized to standard ultrasound training or standard ultrasound training with 4 hours of AI as a supplement. Outcomes were scores on the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and time to obtain and measure ultrasound views (apical 4 chamber view of the heart, parasternal long axis view of the heart, components of left ventricular systolic function). Analysis included direct comparison of the scores between the two groups, as well as and mean and standard deviation of time to obtain cardiac parasternal long axis and apical four chamber ultrasound views. Number of cardiac ultrasounds performed during the rotation and self-perceived experience with ultrasound was also reported.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Troy, Catherine
Brunson, Ashley
Friedman, Daniela
Hebert, James
Internet Search Trends Analysis to Demonstrate Relationships Between Cancer Incidence and Search Volume Index (SVI) for Cancer Related Information
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The purpose of this study is to analyze relationships between internet search trends using search volume index (SVI) for cancer related information and the cancer incidence rates across South Carolina counties. Internet activity will be evaluated from 2005-2017 using Google Trends. Google Trends is a free online service that provides data on the volume of search results for a given query that is normalized to the time and geographic location of the query. This value, which is normalized to a scale ranging from zero to 100, is known as the Search Volume Index (SVI) and will be used in our statistical analysis. Tables and maps of South Carolina cancer incidence and mortality data generated from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) will then be used to evaluate both in situ and invasive cases of cancer that have occurred for South Carolina residents in each county for each year being examined. SAS will be utilized to conduct statistical analysis to determine associations between the change in SVI and cancer incidence rate for each South Carolina county over time. A Partial Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Partial Spearman Rank-Order correlation analyses will be performed to determine the statistical relationship between the SVI for cancer symptom, cause, and treatment searches compared to cancer incidence data. These three queries were determined through Google Trends, which classifies search queries into “Related Topics” allowing them to be sorted by relevance with the highest search frequency topics being listed as most relevant. Partial correlations will be performed on the SVI and SCDHEC cancer incidence data by county, and further partial correlations will be performed so that census data with population demographics for each county can be used to control for all possible variables that are accessible. The partial correlation will allow us to determine if any of our control variables influence the association between SVI and Incidence. The data will be aggregated to provide a statewide overview of the association between the longitudinal change in search volume index for the target search terms and the cancer incidence data.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Antosz, Kayla Bookstaver, P. Brandon
Kohn, Joseph
Justo, Julie Ann
Al-Hasan, Majdi
Milgrom, Alexander
Tabor, Benjamin
Cost Effectiveness and Clinical Outcomes of Long Acting Lipoglycopeptides Used in Transitions of Care
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Background: Dalbavancin and oritavancin are long-acting lipoglycopeptides (LaLGPs) FDA-approved for one-time only dosing for skin and skin structure infections. The use of these agents in serious, deep-seated infections requiring protracted antibiotic courses is of increasing interest. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical use of LaLGPs in patients requiring protracted antibiotic courses who are not ideal candidates for oral or outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy. Methods: This is a retrospective, observational, matched cohort study at Prisma Health Midlands of adult patients who received a LaLGP or standard of care for deep-seated infections due to gram-positive bacteria. Patients who received a LaLGP were matched 1:1 to standard of care by age +/- 10 years, infection type, microorganism, and socioeconomic factor. Cost effectiveness is evaluated as total health care related costs between the two groups. Clinical success is determined as a composite endpoint of mortality, recurrence, or need for extended antibiotics. Secondary outcomes include hospital length of stay and total antimicrobial related cost of care. Results: In progress Conclusions: In progress

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Washburn, Caroline Bulusu, Subrahmanyam
Trott, Corrinne
Investigating the Response of Temperature and Salinity in the Agulhas Current Region to ENSO Events
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The Agulhas Current is a critical component of global ocean circulation and has been shown to respond to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events via its temperature and salinity signatures. In this research, we use sea surface salinity (SSS) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite and sea surface temperature (SST) observations from the Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC). Sea surface height observations are from altimetry and data is correlated with the Oceanic Nino Index. We see warming and high salinities after El Niño and cooling and fresher surface waters after La Niña and a stronger temperature response than that of salinity. About one year after the 2015 El Niño there is a warming of the entire region except at the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. About two years after the event, there is an increase in salinity along the eastern coast of Africa and in the Agulhas Current region. About two years after the 2016 and 2018 La Niñas there is a cooling south of Madagascar and in the Agulhas Current. There are no major changes in salinity seen in the Agulhas Current, but there is a highly saline mass of water west of the Indonesian Through flow about two years after the La Niña events. Wave coherence analysis finds that SSS and ENSO are most strongly correlated a year after the 2015 El Niño and two years after the 2016 La Niña. Changes in SSS and SST following ENSO events during 2015-2020 are furthered studied in this work.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
2020 Cohort, Smart Start Nursing Program Dawson, Robin
Heiney, Sue
“Just be safe and be aware”: UofSC undergraduate student experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic
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Background/Significance: The COVID-19 global pandemic has taken thousands of lives, sickened even more, and changed the daily routines of many. It has also resulted in significant challenges for universities, including the need for rapid development of COVID-19 guidelines to mitigate community spread (e.g., mask use, social distancing) and alternative educational delivery strategies (e.g., virtual, and asynchronous). Students have also had unique experiences adapting to this “new normal”. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the experiences of UofSC undergraduate (UG) students living on campus during the 2020 fall semester. Methods: This study was guided by the Transitions Theory Framework. Participants were recruited via convenience and snowball sampling. Data included audio-recorded, semi-structured phone interviews lasting from 10 to 45 minutes. After transcription, data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach, including open/axial coding and identification and naming of emergent themes.  Results: Participants included thirty-four UG students. The majority were female and white. Seven over-arching themes captured the UG student experience during the COVID-19 pandemic: COVID-19 knowledge and personal safety behaviors; Making the decision to be on campus; Sources of COVID-19 information; Online classes, isolation, and quarantine; Perceptions of the university response to the pandemic; Perceptions of others’ pandemic-related behaviors; and Suggestions and recommendations as the pandemic continues. Conclusion/implications: Overall, the University implemented successful policies that, although at times met with student confusion, resistance, and noncompliance, were viewed positively by the participants. Student suggestions to enhance the university response included: 1) eliciting student input on the UofSC COVID-19 policies, similar to a course evaluation; 2) the development of a COVID-19 policies module to be completed by students prior to return to campus, similar to the mandatory AlcoholEdu course; and 3) faculty should demonstrate more empathy regarding the unique pressures the COVID-19 pandemic has placed on students.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Patel, Tarak
Vincent, Zachary
Privette, Troy Atraumatic Tongue Type Calcaneal Fracture in a 13-Year-Old Male
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Calcaneal fractures are a rare form of fracture pediatric patients making up 0.005-0.41% of all pediatric fractures(1). Most commonly, this fracture type is seen in young adults involved in significant trauma-classically with fall from height(2). Symptoms at presentation involve ankle and heel pain, inability to weight bear and occasionally skin tenting on the posterior ankle. We herein report a rare presentation of tongue type calcaneal fracture in a 13 year old male who presented to the emergency room with a tongue type calcaneal fracture atraumatic mechanism of injury. He presented with complaints of significant pain and inability to weight bear after feeling a “pop” while jumping from ground height during soccer practice. Physical exam was remarkable for non-blanching skin over the posterior ankle concerning for progression to skin necrosis. Ankle X-ray revealed significantly displaced tongue-type calcaneal fracture. The patient underwent emergent internal reduction, external fixation for correction. Management of calcaneal fractures ranges from non-operative to operative with the majority of fracture types in pediatrics able to be managed conservatively(3). However tongue type calcaneal fractures, as well as significantly displaced intra-articular fractures require urgent surgery given their high risk for disunion and local soft tissue and skin necrosis due to the pressure the calcaneus exerts on overlying soft tissue. This case is notable due to the rarity of the fracture type in pediatric patients as well as the unique injury mechanism.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Salrin, Allie Grewe, Maureen Leading with Integrity
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Through the 2020 calendar year, I served as the president of the Carolina Judicial Council (CJC). CJC is an affiliated student organization which trains members to serve on student-requested disciplinary hearing panels. Additionally, CJC members act as ambassadors of the Carolinian Creed. My experience as president of CJC was both the most challenging and most rewarding of my college career. As president, my aspirations were to support our membership's personal and professional growth, expand CJC's campus impact, and further develop member accountability. In any normal year, the role requires a significant amount of flexibility and responsibility. In the year 2020, the role of president required an even greater degree of flexibility and responsibility. By March of 2020, when campus closed, I and my fellow executive board members had already started planning and programming initiatives to be continued throughout the year. Because of the challenges posed by COVID-19, we had to cancel the majority of our events for the spring 2020 semester, including our largest event, CreedX. This is when my leadership skills were greatly tested. To continue to see that CJC and its members were successful, I lead our executive team through moving all of our operations online. This transition required me to exercise my leadership skills to ensure the functionality of CJC, and both the development and accountability of our members. I was able to still accomplish these goals by leading with integrity and compassion. I aim to use this experience and my growth as a leader as I enter the field of law enforcement after graduation.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Cameron, Jenna Grewe, Maureen Leadership Through Vulnerability
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As a Changing Carolina Peer Leader (CCPL) I have had the opportunity to develop, implement and support initiatives surrounding mental health on UofSC’s campus. The negative stigma surrounding mental health is something that I have worked against as a peer leader but have also been impacted by in my personal life. I am passionate about mental health because of my personal struggle with depression; something I used to keep hidden. The Mental Health Ambassadors program provided me with training on how to share and use my personal experiences to help my peers know that they are not alone, as well as the importance of seeking help. I have had the opportunity to share my story through the online magazine Her Campus as well as through interviews with the Hear Me Out Podcast and the College of Social Work. After each of these experiences I received very touching feedback from my peers who were inspired to seek help or be more open about their mental health. I have been able to utilize vulnerability in other settings as a Body Project Facilitator, an opportunity within CCPL. The Body Project consists of two, two-hour sessions surrounding the topic of body image and how we as college-aged women can combat toxic beauty standards. I am able to share my own experiences with body image and encourage my peers to be open as well. This has allowed for in-depth conversations and very productive sessions. I have found that if I as a facilitator am not willing to share my personal experiences, then the participants are not going to be forthcoming with their stories either. Becoming comfortable with leading through vulnerability has made me more outspoken within the classroom as well, even when I have insight that goes against the norm. In the social work field, it is common to work with groups across different disciplines, and it is essential to be open to sharing your perspective even if it might vary from the expectations of others. This is how meaningful change occurs; we must be willing to be vulnerable and share our thoughts.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Selzer, Paige Bodrick, Jabari Fulfilling a Purpose
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During my junior year of college, I was presented with the opportunity to attend a medical mission trip to Alajuela, Costa Rica. For seven days we set up and ran a free health clinic in a very underprivileged town called La Carpio. Throughout the trip, we served around 173 patients, working closely alongside doctors to diagnose patients. We measured vitals, recorded the patient history and participated in an injection and suture class. In addition, we were able to communicate with Spanish speaking individuals who resided in the deprived village. I decided to partake in this opportunity not only for the experience or knowledge but because of how life changing it would be. Being able to change the lives of others and get out of my comfort zone allowed me to see the world through a completely different perspective. The trip fostered compassion, selflessness and sympathy within myself. I was able to participate in this opportunity thanks to a particular organization at USC, the Association of Pre-Physician Assistant Students. I found it to be an amazing learning opportunity that truly shaped my character and vision. My presentation will discuss the insights I gained from fulfilling a purpose not only for the less fortunate but for myself. This experience ignited my inner fire, making me realize that finding a career that not only helped people medically but allowed me to build relationships was all I ever wanted. I want others to realize that being in healthcare is so much more than the facts or the knowledge of diagnosing. You can make a real difference in someone’s life that reaches far beyond the physical. I’m confident that I will never forget my experiences in Costa Rica, as it reaffirmed my decision to pursue physician assistant school.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Lucht, William Placek, Matthew
Damrel, David
The Effect of Economic Satisfaction on Trust in Government and Support for Normative Democracy
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This research attempts to observe how economic satisfaction, economic perceptions/hopes, perceptions of regime norms, effects of trust in government and support for normative democracy, all through differing spatial lenses, plays in democratic norms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Historical events showed, that with the Tunisian uprising that spread across the region, eventually forming the Arab uprisings, that the rest of the Arab world demanded to democratize their countries as well as modernize them. Old regimes have been replaced in almost all countries within (MENA), with nothing more than oppressive autocratic rulers. It seems that only Tunisia succeeded in its demands to democratize and is now experimenting with normative democracy, yet struggling to maintain a coherent economic system designed to procure security for its now democratically ruled citizens. With a lack in satisfaction, which has had a negative effect on trust in government, Tunisians surprisingly, still support democracy, and this is a phenomenon that was looked at during the research. Along with research focused in (MENA), there has been serious consideration and attention given to other regions struggling with democratic regime norms, illiberal regimes, and autocratic, from Eastern Europe, China, and Latin America. Methods used to gather information were taken from data sets compiled by Arab Barometer wave V, published literature, and peer reviewed papers. The concluding results shows that as satisfaction with economy goes up, both trust in government and support for democracy, go up. In conclusion it was discovered that satisfaction with economy plays a salient role in how Tunisians, as do other states functioning under various regimes, view their government.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Hopler, Sam Grewe, Maureen The Show Goes On (Safely)
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The Show Goes On (Safely) In March of 2020, the entire University of South Carolina campus came to a halt. The campus was silent, gatherings were banned, and classes were happening through a screen. Everyone was just hoping for a return to normal. Gamecock Entertainment was preparing for the new reality. The question I get most often when I tell people where I work is, “There are still events?” I do not blame them for their disbelief, I was once in their same shoes. I joined the Gamecock Entertainment team in August 2020 and it has been a wild ride since. We have had our ups and downs, but most importantly we have never stopped. Through the pandemic we have continued putting on fun and free events for students. One other intern and I have led the charge as we continue to push the limits of what many think can be done during COVID times, all while complying with the required safety measures. During this ever-changing environment, we have managed to put on goat yoga, haunted houses, comedy shows, and much more. I have used a four-step process to do all of this, and I hope to share what I learned in using that that process with the USC community.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Hutchful, Frances Marsh, Allison
Grace, Breanne
The Dilemma : An Analysis of Deciding Factors and Experiences of Africans Considering Applying for Graduate School Abroad.
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This study was conducted during the 2020-2021 pandemic period. It fills the gaps in research that talk about African immigration to developed countries. However, there seems to be very little data on deciding factors for emigration especially among the youth. Many studies also focus on surface information such as whether or not people are willing to migrate and potential destinations they will consider, without delving into reasons why or why or not (Appiah-Nyamekye, J., Logan, C., &Gyimah-Boadi, E., 2019). This report captures data concerning happenings in the United States concerning immigration laws within the said time period, the global educational system, and how the African community was reacting to this. Answering the following three research questions, the research hopes to report findings of African university students and graduates flirting with the idea of applying for graduate school in the U.S. and other destinations. The study includes a comparison of the U.S to other countries with more student-friendly immigration rules, a section that ranks the most influential information sources in the application process, and an attempt to help graduate schools understand the African target audience in their bid to construct marketing or social media strategies to increase application rates. Research Question 1: What factors relate to a graduate in Africa applying to graduate school in the U.S. Research Question 2: Are African students more likely to apply to other countries for graduate school than the U.S? Research Question 3: Which information sources are relevant in the school selection process? This study stands out because it took place in a season of change and uncertainty. We sought to record the reconstruction of mindsets and opinions that African youths have had about schooling destinations. Participants for this study had to fit a criterion, if not, the SONA system kicked them out. The conditions to satisfy were: 1. African 2. Residing in Africa 3. Graduate or current undergraduate. 4. Considering pursuing post-graduate studies even slightly This research project aims to bring a unique perspective on the subject of higher education, immigration, and all that happens in-between from students in the African continent.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Corley, Kennedy Lewis, Elise Knowledge is Our Greatest Inheritance
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Creating the opportunity for individuals to reimburse their communities with the knowledge and experience gained is crucial to their success and development. As a student in the Moore School of Business, I was informed of the significance the passage of knowledge has on the ability to improve the economic and educational standing of a community through a study abroad experience in Greece. Many areas of the nation were plagued with a lack of educational support and a limited ability to broaden their exposure. After noticing this trend in my surroundings both on campus and hometown, I began serving as a U101 Peer Leader and a local volunteer in the Junior Achievement (JA) program to promote the academic success and personal growth of my students. Through these experiences, I learned how to effectively lead and engage with diverse groups of people while creatively curating and presenting beneficial lessons. Going forward, I plan to use this insight to establish an educational and vocational program that broadens the scope of my community’s ability to invest in our future. My presentation will discuss the insights I have gained about the importance of applying the education one has received to uplift and expose the next generation.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Spangler, Daniel Eller, Robert Left Subclavian Pseudoaneurysm: A Case of Palsies in the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve, Phrenic Nerve, and Brachial Plexus
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A patient developed a subclavian pseudoaneurysm following placement of an intravascular catheter for cancer treatment. The patient presented with palsies in the phrenic nerve, brachial plexus, and recurrent laryngeal nerve. This is a rare presentation, similar to Ortner’s syndrome, which has not been previously presented in the literature. Furthermore, this case highlights the importance of early laryngoscopy in patients with persistent voice change, especially after a neck procedure.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Zhao, Liang Wang, Song Scene Text Detection and Recognition in Marine Corp Archives
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Text detection techniques in computer vision has recently advanced substantially with the development of the deep neural networks. However, most are focusing on modern eye-catching images and sharing a strong assumption that text instances are roughly in a complete linear shape and therefore adopted relatively simple context to describe them such as the highlighted billboard in studies. In our MIRC datasets, the images are captured in random scenes and the text instances are highly interrupted by other objects. So we try to develop a more flexible representation that can fit well the text instances of these arbitrary shapes, orientations, distortions in these random and complex contexts. Specifically, the collection of MIRC videos with 16mm and 35mm were randomly captured. First, an automated process having high efficiency and accuracy of the cataloging capability while also providing the depth of information at the frame level will be predominately needed to sort out the historical films. Second, we are focusing on utilizing deep neural network techniques to refine the detection and recognition process of complicated scene texts.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Marigliano, John Small, Mark
Sierra, Michael
Pilot Usability Study of the Hamilton Depression Scale in the Resident Outpatient Psychiatry Clinics
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The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) has been employed as the gold standard in clinical research for decades as a tool for assessing the level of depression, and tracking changes in this metric has been used to assess the efficacy of medication trials monitoring treatment response. Despite the wide use of the HDRS in clinical research, it is not often utilized in clinical practice. In contrast, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was originally designed to screen for depression in primary care settings, and has been widely incorporated into most electronic medical records leading to widespread adoption. While multiple studies have demonstrated the validity of the PHQ-9 to effectively identify patients who may meet criteria for a major depressive episode, attempts to correlate this metric to the HDRS have been met with mixed results. As such, the use of the HDRS by a trained psychiatrist remains the standard for assessing and monitoring response to treatment for patients being treated for depression. In this pilot usability study an EPIC dot phrase was created and shared with all of the current psychiatry residents. A video lecture was created to educate these residents on the use of the HRDS and additional print resources were shared to aide training residents to use this metric in their clinical practice. To assess the usability in the Prisma Health Upstate outpatient resident psychiatry clinic, residents will be surveyed at 3 and 6 month intervals to assess ease of use, clinical relevance and willingness to incorporate the HDRS into their practice of psychiatry.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Petersen, Kirklen Biswas, Saptarshi Pandemic Paradox: Trauma Trends During the COVID-19 Pandemic Despite the Safe Haven of Home. Experiences From a Rural Trauma Center
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Background As the early peak phase in the coronavirus outbreak has intensified, stay at home mandates were enacted requiring individuals to remain home to prevent community transmission of the disease. Further mandates escalated isolated environments including school closures, social distancing, travel restrictions, closure of public gathering spaces, and business closures. As citizens were forced to stay home during the pandemic, the crisis created unique trends in trauma referrals, which consisted of atypical trends in injuries related to trauma. Methods A retrospective review of all trauma registry patients presenting to a rural American College of Surgeons (ACS) verified Level I trauma center with associated trauma activation before and during the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, integral dates January 1, 2020, to May 1, 2020. A comparison was made regarding trauma trends based on the previous year (January 1, 2019, to May 1, 2019). The data collected included patient characteristics, grouping by trauma activation, injury type, injury severity score (ISS), alcohol screen, drug screen, and mode of injury. Results A statistically significant increase was found largely among males (p = 0.02) with positive alcohol screens (p < 0.001). The statistically significant mode of injury among this trauma population included falling, jumping, pushed (p = 0.02); self-harm-jump (p = 0.01); assault (p = 0.03); and assault with sharp object (p = 0.036). Conclusions Although overall trauma volume was reduced preceding and during the COVID-19 stay at home mandates, a significant increase in specific trauma trends was observed, including falls, jumps, and pushed; self-harm-jumps; assaults; and assaults with sharp objects. Largely, the trauma trends were among men with higher levels of alcohol than previously reported.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Hutchens, Lilian Kupfer, John Improving Conservation Planning for the Congaree Biosphere Reserve
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The Congaree Biosphere Reserve (CBR), which is located in the South Carolina Midlands, is recognized by UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme for its extraordinary biodiversity. Intended to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature, biosphere reserves endeavor to conserve the landscape and ensure the success of the species within, promote sustainable practices in the surrounding communities, and educate the public on the importance of conservation and sustainable development. The area encompassed by the CBR is highly diverse in terms of habitat types, land use, and conservation protection status. Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation pose significant threats to biodiversity in the CBR by increasing extinction rates for area-sensitive species and reducing the ability of organisms to move across a landscape and respond to stresses such as anthropogenic climate change. The goal of this research is to quantify and map spatial variation in habitat composition and connectivity within the CBR and identify appropriate conservation goals and expectations. To derive the most useful information for local managers, the CBR was divided into subregions using GIS-based clustering of land cover types. Geospatial analyses then provided useful data on a range of landscape properties for each of the subregions, including ecosystem coverage, connectivity, protected status, and potential biodiversity. A subsequent survey, designed to identify conservation management opportunities within each of the subregions, was distributed to local conservation experts. Results from the geospatial analyses and the survey are used here to develop a series of preliminary conservation goals and plans for each subregion.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Jenkins, Tyreek Lang, Hainan Immune cell dysfunction and blood vessel atrophy in age-related hearing loss
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Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affects approximately one in three adults between the ages of 65 and 74 and almost half who are 75 years or older in the United States. ARHL is generally defined as a progressive sensorineural hearing loss due to the dysfunction and loss of cochlear cells and structures. Degeneration of the stria vascularis (SV) in the cochlear lateral wall, marked by an increase in laminin expression and infiltration of immune cells (such as macrophages) is strongly associated with ARHL. It has been shown in pathogenic conditions that laminin expression alters the biological activity of immune cells; however, the relationship between laminin expression, macrophage activation, and strial microvessel atrophy in ARHL has yet to be determined. We hypothesize that age-related cellular degeneration causes an increase in macrophage number and laminin expressing microvessels in the cochlear lateral wall. Auditory brainstem response measurement, confocal microscopy, and quantitative immunohistochemical analyses were performed in young adult and aged CBA/CaJ mice. We found that macrophage number decreased and laminin expressing microvessels increased with age in the apical and middle turns. Contrarily, the inverse relationship between macrophage presence and laminin accumulation was shown in the basal turn. For the SV in all three turns, laminin expression around the microvessels increased with age, while macrophage presence decreased. Moreover, we observed that blood vessels do not completely degenerate during aging but undergo structural remodeling. Our study suggests a causal relationship between age-related changes in macrophage activity and laminin expression level within the cochlear lateral wall. Future studies are needed to identify the regulatory roles of laminins in age-related macrophage dysfunction, strial microvessel atrophy, and hearing loss.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Sivakumar, Nivedita
Sloan, Blake
DePriest, Jack Fluid Overload in the Intensive Care Unit: Are the Drips Going Too Hard?
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Define: Intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is a cornerstone of treatment for patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU). During the early stages of shock, isotonic fluids help restore intravascular volume and perfusion to vital organs. However, many patients also receive IV fluids through other sources, including vasopressors, antibiotics, corticosteroids, etc. These medications routinely add up to several liters of fluid a day leading to significant fluid overload (FO), which has a strong association with higher mortality rates and longer hospital length-of-stay. Norepinephrine is the most common high-volume critical infusions used in the MICU. Measure: Through a retrospective chart review, we identified patients admitted to the PRISMA Health Richland (PHR)–Midlands hospital MICU between the years of 2019-2020 receiving norepinephrine (NE) >15mcg/min. We analyzed the total amount of overall volume of fluids the patient received, the amount of time the patient was on NE, and the amount of time to switch from standard premix NE concentration. Analyze: There is significant variation in practice for max-concentrating NE in patients receiving high doses. There is a clear opportunity to help minimize volume exposure from this critical drug. Key issues to address are lack of knowledge about the impact of fluid overload in the critically ill as well as no systematic process for triggering an order to max-concentrate NE when infusions reach high levels Improve: We will address the knowledge issue with nursing education, working through their Unit-based Council. This will include a narrated PowerPoint that nurses can review at their convenience. We will work with pharmacy and IT to explore options for building triggers into the EMR so that when a patient reaches a threshold dose a message is sent to the patient’s nurse to see if the NE should be concentrated. Control: At 3 months we will prospectively review 20 patients requiring high-dose NE.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Smith, Emma Lambdin, Laura Practicing Ethical Business Internationally
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The summer following my junior year, I worked my first internship that directly coincided with both my majors and my global experiences throughout my time at college. I was offered the opportunity to work as a Global Finance & Business Management Analyst at JPMorgan Chase & Co. This internship would potentially lead to a full-time offer at the end of the summer involving different rotations within different lines of business. The program encompassed areas of the financial firm that I never knew existed, including global outreach with non-profit organizations. At the time of accepting the offer, I understood the positive reputation of JPMorgan Chase & Co., however I was completely unaware of the ethical practices that the firm encourages across borders. There were two major projects I was assigned as an intern to showcase my financial and global background. One of the two projects involved directly communicating with a non-profit organization located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This project allowed me to gain insight on the tasks that a financial firm has to fulfill in order to maintain a healthy relationship with its global partners. During the internship, I came to a realization that prompted me to further my understanding of working with non-profit organizations in international areas. After accepting my full-time offer at JPMorgan Chase & Co., I now feel the need to use my position in my workplace to facilitate more business practices that correspond with morally conscious endeavors.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Rodrigues, Danny Conde, Tiffany Harmony Through Clarity
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During the spring semester of my sophomore year, I learned about the importance of perspective through the teachings of Professor Andrew Spicer’s IBUS310: Globalization and Learning class. Twice a week, we would meet to discuss several real-world dilemmas where there was no clear correct answer, forcing us to recognize the validity of each viewpoint and see the situation as a foreign government official would. Not only did such a format strengthen my awareness of the behaviors and emotions of those around me, but it allowed me to empathize with the struggles of a diverse collection of students 9,000 miles from home. One full calendar year later, I found myself boarding a plane destined for Brisbane, Australia. While abroad, I formed lasting relationships in the wake of a global pandemic, consoling individuals as they dealt with increased isolation and stress. These experiences allowed me to put into practice the lessons of IBUS310: Globalization and Learning, as students of Asian, Australian, French, English and Italian descent shared their stories, problems and perspectives with me over the course of an unforgettable semester. These relationships prompted me to immerse myself further into the melting pot of culture that I had become surrounded by, as I sought out a student organization called the Queensland University of Technology Exchange Buddies (or QUT Exchange Buddies for short). The organizers of this group scheduled a series of excursions for students to participate in and make the most of their time in Australia, providing me with opportunities to climb mountains, intermingle with exotic wildlife, and witness the sheer beauty of the Australian coastline. Each adventure allowed the members of the group to feel more comfortable, accepted and understood, instilling a feeling of harmony unlike any other. To this day, I carry the spirit of unity and camaraderie that I felt in Australia with me in every social interaction that I take part in, preaching the value in developing one’s multicultural lenses wherever I go.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Gregorie, Carolyn
Kubas, Lauren
Blackburn, Melanie A Quality Improvement Project Aimed at Identifying the Etiologies of Unplanned Extubations in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
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Introduction/Objective: Unplanned extubation (UE) is any dislodgement of an endotracheal tube from the trachea that is not intentional. These events can vary in severity from requiring no reintubation to cardiovascular collapse that requires CPR. It is known that various factors can contribute to UEs. We reviewed charts and Apparent Cause Analysis (ACA) forms in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) to assess the patient conditions and environmental factors that were associated with UEs in an attempt to identify opportunities to reduce UE rates. Methods: Over a 17-month period, clinical information was collected retrospectively on all patients who had unplanned extubations while admitted to the PICU. This clinical information included demographic information, restraint usage, medication usage, and other factors. From the information collected, areas of opportunities were identified in order to educate staff on the possible etiologies of the unplanned extubations. Results: From a total of 18 UEs, 77.8% occurred with hands on activities with the patient such as retaping, position change, and hygiene care, 55.6% occurred on night shift, 42.9% of ACA surveys revealed that staff felt sedation was inadequate, 24.2% of patients were given PRN sedation within the hour prior to UE, and 61.1% of UEs occurred in patients who were being weaned or awaiting extubation. Conclusion: After careful review of ACA surveys and patient charts, we conclude that unplanned extubations in the Prisma Health Richland PICU are most associated with inadequate attention to the airway with hands on activities requiring position change and inadequate sedation. In an effort to reduce the incidence of unplanned extubation in the PICU by 50% by January 2022, we suggest that staff be educated on the use of a second caregiver as an airway guardian during activities that require position change and about the use of PRN sedation prior to these activities.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Gettleman, Brandon McFadden, Earl Recurrent Inflammation with Anterior Subluxation of the Sternoclavicular Joint.
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A 66-year-old female presented to the clinic with recurrent pain at the right sternoclavicular joint. Four years earlier, the patient had a successful resection of the medial clavicle. Upon physical exam, the patient repeatedly subluxed at the right sternoclavicular joint and it was tender to the touch. Chronic inflammation and anterior subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint are rare diagnoses with insufficient treatments options. The limitations in treatment options are attributable to its intimate relationship with the mediastinum and forces applied on the joint. Techniques such as K-wire/pin fixations pose a large risk of damaging the mediastinal vessels. In this context, Bontempo et al state that the figure-of-eight semitendinosus reconstruction had superior biochemical properties to other techniques. The success yielded by repairing the dislocation with a tendinous allograft has been inconsistent due to development of laxity in the tendons. One study elucidated that this problem may not be related to the technique chosen by physicians but a lack of consistency in graft selection, leading to variable outcomes. The goal of this case report is to support the literature’s selection of a figure-of-eight reconstruction technique as the gold standard surgical approach while creating an innovative solution. Dr. Earl B McFadden Jr is confident that the use of an Arthrex swivel lock suture anchor with augmentation by Arthrex FiberTape #2 can provide strength and stability that has not been consistently displayed in previous sternoclavicular joint reconstruction procedures. Following a successful operation, post-op appointments occurred at four days, ten days, four weeks, and twelve weeks. To this point the patient has full range of motion and no instability. There has been no tenderness, swelling, erythema, or hypersensitivity at the incision site. A one-year follow-up will be obtained to ensure the clavicle is still in the properly reduced position and the patient is pain free.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Zhang, Li Roninson, Igor
McInnes, Campbell
Design, synthesis, and optimization of novel CDK8/19 degraders as potential anti-cancer agents
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Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8 (CDK8) and its homolog CDK19 play a key role in transcription. They potentiate transcription factors in cancers via both kinase-dependent and kinase-independent activities that contribute to tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. First-generation CDK8/19 inhibitors have entered clinical trials, however, can only block enzymatic functions and thus lead to resistance through mutations. There is a need to develop new drug modalities targeting CDK8/19 by different mechanisms. Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras (PROTACs) are bifunctional molecules that induce target protein degradation, should thus eliminate all functions of the target protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome system and hence represent a promising strategy. Here we present our efforts in the design, synthesis, and optimization of novel CDK8/19 degraders. Based on the CDK8/19 inhibitor Senexin C, a series of PROTAC molecules have been designed, synthesized in-house, and evaluated for their CDK8/19 degradation efficiency. From the resulting SAR information, further optimization was carried out and led to highly efficient PROTAC molecules. A PROTAC library targeting CDK8/19 including both individual CDK8 or CDK19 and CD8/19 dual degraders was generated. Further studies to improve the potency, selectivity, and degradation efficiency of PROTAC molecules are in progress.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Collison, Carlye Wellman, Denise Applying Public Relations Concepts and Learning What I Value in the Workplace
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During the summer between my junior and senior year of college, I was given the opportunity to intern at Ronald McDonald House Charities Columbia (RMHC) as the Events and Marketing Intern. RMHC is a nonprofit organization that assists families with sick or injured children throughout their medical journey through providing a home away from home. As a public relations student at UofSC, I knew I wanted to gain hands-on experience outside of the classroom to apply what I had been learning in my coursework. Before interviewing for my position at RMHC, I did not know what that would look like, as it would be my first internship in the public relations and communications field. However, I loved my time as an intern so much that I returned to RMHC this semester. During my time at RMHC, I have been able to apply what I have learned in my classes through writing press releases, creating social media content, writing newsletters to donors, assisting with maintaining strong relationships with RMHC’s publics, and planning events to benefit RMHC. Because of this experience, I have become more adaptable, strengthened my writing skills, learned about communications in a nonprofit setting, and become more confident in my abilities as a public relations practitioner. Not only this, but my positive experience with my coworkers at RMHC has shown me what I value in company culture and what I want to look for in a job after my graduate studies. Upon completion of my internship in May, I know I will feel prepared and confident to pursue my graduate studies and begin my graduate assistantship position because of my time as an intern at RMHC.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Shih, Yiwen Hung, Peiyin Prevalence of Chronic Pain and High-Impact Chronic Pain Among U.S. Adults Aged 18 and Above By Malignancy
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Research Objective: To assess the prevalence of cancer diagnosis among U.S. adults with chronic pain. Study Design: This cross-sectional study obtained data from the 2019 National Health Interview Survey. Rao-Scott Chi-Square tests were conducted to investigate differences in cancer diagnosis by demographics among adults with chronic plan, using population-weighted distributions. The study further identified respondents by their impact level and utilized the same procedure as above to understand the distribution of malignancy by respondent characteristics among those with high-impact chronic pain. Population Studied: A total of 31,304 respondents, accounting for 50,197,823 nationwide adults, aged 18+ and who reported with chronic pain were included. Principal Findings: About 20.5% of adults had chronic pain in 2019. Of those with chronic pain, 16.2% had ever diagnosed with malignant conditions (95% CI: 15.2-17.2). Females, non-Hispanic whites, those with bachelor’s degree or higher, living in the South region, those were married, and those aged less than 65 with private insurance, and those aged 65+ covered by Medicare and/or Medicaid, living in large fringe metro areas had higher prevalence of cancer burden. Chronic pain with malignancy was prevalent in adults aged 65-84, whereas chronic noncancer pain was prevalent in adults aged 45-64. Nearly 12.7% of adults suffered from high-impact chronic pain; of these adults with high-impact chronic pain, 82.1% were noncancer chronic pain. There were no significant differences in malignancy diagnosis by gender, marital status, urbanicity, regions, and insurance coverage among those with high-impact pain level. Of those with high-impact pain, non-Hispanic blacks, compared to their non-Hispanic whites and Hispanic counterparts, were less likely to have high-impact chronic pain with malignancy. Conclusions: Nearly one in five American adult suffered from chronic pain and about one-fifth of them had been diagnosed with malignancy. About 13% of chronic pain population experienced high impact pain level; one-fourth of them were noncancer pain. Both chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain were prevalent among non-Hispanic whites. The distributions of high impact chronic pain were different in age group, educational level, and race/ethnicity between adults having chronic with or without cancer, although the latter two variables were insignificant.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Laney, Robert Lessner, Susan Development of Machine Learning Approach to Identify Endoleaks Following Aortic Aneurysm Repair
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N/A

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Franklin, Brandon Moore, Robert Examining recovery trajectories for Patients with & without convergence insufficiency
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Patients who have experienced a concussion, often require post-recovery assistance for improving vision, balance and proper binocular functioning. For my Discovery Day project, I will be presenting an overview of my research topic that involves examining the recovery trajectories for patients with and without convergence insufficiency. My research topic, Convergence Insufficiency simply means, the inability a patient has towards maintaining both eyes to work effectively together, while looking at a near distance object along with one eye often experiencing intermittent exotropia (turning oppositely outward toward an object). Within my presentation I plan to discuss my major significant findings according to the statistical data used for examining patients with convergence insufficiency and also those who do not have it. I also plan to use my third key insight which plays a role towards this research project. My third key insight focused on the use of networking, towards achieving a set number of goals. During my within the classroom experience I was required to work with a group of fellow classmates on a class critique project. Similarly, to working on group project with my classmates, I also had to work with my fellow research team members in order to access the statistical data that involved patients with and without convergence insufficiency. I remember during research, I had to discuss why some statistical data were present and also if it was significant or not. My beyond the classroom experience for my third key insight, taught me the importance of how networking allows for proficient collaboration skills, effective communication and also how to use these skills towards working with others in a team. As I conducted my research project, the skills learnt from within the classroom along with beyond the classroom, prepared me for becoming better at networking, communicating and working together with others for examining the trajectories within patients that do have convergence insufficiency versus those who do not. Overall, the use of these skills and experiences learnt from within the classroom along with beyond the classroom allowed for a more meaningful research project.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Abdulla, Osama Nagarkatti, Prakash
Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Using single cell RNA sequencing to understand the nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in healthy and tumor bearing mice
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Several chemicals and drugs have been shown to induce non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which consists of a heterogeneous group of immune cells including T cells that have undergone transformation into a malignant form. EL-4 is a murine T cell lymphoma induced in C57BL/6 mice by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is very heterogeneous and is comprised of different cell types. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are one of the vital components of the TME. Also MDSC are associated with tumor growth, angiogenesis and enhanced metastasis. The aim of this study was to compare MSDCs isolated from TME, splenic MDSCs from tumor-bearing hosts (TBHs) and splenic MDSCs from naïve mice by using single cell RNA sequencing (scRNASeq). For this reason, C57BL/6 mice were injected with 1x106 EL4 cancer cells subcutaneously to induce tumor growth and 14 days later, cells isolated from these three groups were assessed by flow cytometry and scRNASeq was performed. The flow cytometry results showed increase in MDSC recruitment in the spleen from TBHs in comparison with spleens from naïve mice. Analysis of scRNASeq showed most of the genes upregulated in MDSCs from TME and spleens of TBHs were responsible for generation, recruitment and proliferation of MDSCs. These included Lgals5, CXCL10, Alox5ap, CCL6, Il1β S100A8/A9/A11, CCL4 and CCL5. Furthermore, we found several genes such as Lyz2, Plac8, Ifitm3, Vim, S100A6 and Crip1 overexpressed in MDSCs promoted the proliferation and migration of cancer cells as well as tumor formation. In addition, we found some genes have anti-tumor effects by suppressing T and B cells (Lgals5, Ly6c2). In summary, these studies demonstrated that MDSCs from TME and splenic TBHs have unique features for immunosuppression, and also for recruitment and expansion of MDSCs in TBHs, which make these cells critical for targeting a new mechanism for immunotherapy. (Supported by NIH P01AT003961, P20GM103641, R01AI129788, R01 ES030144 and R01AI123947)

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Zhang, Youwen Kiaris, Hippokratis Identification of Rassf1 as ATF4 Target Gene During Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
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Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a protective process that restores cellular homeostasis by controlling protein translation, folding, and degradation in response to ER stress in cells. It is known that ER stress causes cell cycle arrest, however, the molecular mechanisms and the role of the UPR underlying cell cycle arrest still need to be investigated. Gene expression correlation analyses, at the whole transcriptome level, in primary fibroblasts from genetically diverse deer mice following induction of ER stress revealed that Rassf1 was strongly correlated to UPR target genes, including ATF4, GRP78, GRP94 and DDIT3. Exposure of primary Peromyscus fibroblasts to tunicamycin conformed that during ER stress Rassf1 expression is stimulated. Predicted transcription factor analysis in both mouse and human genomes revealed the presence of ATF4 consensus binding sites in Rassf1 promoter. Co-transfection of ATF4 and Rassf1 promoter-luciferase reporter plasmids demonstrated that over-expression of ATF4 significantly activated Rassf1 promoter activity, which indicates the interaction between ATF4 and Rassf1. ATF4, a downstream target of eIF2 phosphorylation, was reported to participate in cell cycle arrest in different cell lines. RASSF1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated in a variety of human tumors. In addition to G1 arrest, RASSF1 promotes growth arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and endogenous RASSF1 also interacts with and stabilizes microtubules. Based on our results, we propose that RASSF1 may be activated by ATF4 under ER stress and mediate cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2/M phases. The study provides important new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which Rassf1 mediates its biological effects on cell cycle arrest under ER stress. Functional studies exploring how Rassf1 activation is integrated during ER stress are in progress.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
York, Mikaela Mathew, Roy Patterns of usage of time angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease in the Veterans Affairs system.
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Background: The cardiovascular benefits of angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) have clearly been demonstrated among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The benefits extend to reductions in heart failure hospitalizations, cardiovascular death, and some studies have also revealed potential renal benefits and safety in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) down to 25 ml/min/1.73m2; however most controlled trials exclude patients with an eGFR < 30. Methods: This study aims to determine current utilization of ARNI and associated clinical parameters in chronic kidney disease patients with its use in this population in a large administrative dataset. The Veteran’s Affairs Electronic Health Record was queried for the first prescription for ARNI between 01 January 2016 and 31 January 2020. All pharmacologic, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted relative to the index ARNI prescription and patients were grouped according to year of index ARNI prescription. Results: A total of 5138 patients were identified with systolic heart failure who were prescribed an ARNI between 2015 and 2020. Of these patients, 111 had an eGFR < 30 (86 with eGFR 15-29; 25 eGFR < 15). There was also an increase in proportion of patients who were de Novo users of ARNI (i.e. no prior ACEI/ARB prescription identified in the VA records) (2020: 15.4% vs. 2016: 6.6%, p<0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that ARNI use in a large VA population has demonstrated an increasing inclusion of patient characteristics including lower eGFR, as well as likely trial of ARNI as first line renin-angiotensin-system inhibition in patients with HFrEF. Further research and trials are needed to examine these characteristics as truly beneficial uses of ARNI.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Cannon, Alkeiver Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Nagarkatti, Prakash
Single Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals Downregulation of lncRNA Gm42031 Expression After Treatment with AhR Ligands in Concanavalin-Induced T Cell-Mediated Liver Injury
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Long-chain non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes and have been shown to have abnormal expression in inflammatory reactions and diseases. Recent studies have been exploring these non-coding RNAs to further elucidate their relationship with inflammatory diseases. Data from our lab has been generated that indicates that Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) triggers dysregulation in epigenetic pathways. Further, we have shown that this environmental pollutant promotes the differentiation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) while an endogenous AhR ligand, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ), exerts contrasting effects and promotes proinflammatory Th17 cells. In an effort to further explore activated inflammatory genes altered upon treatment with these ligands, a murine model of immune cell-mediated liver injury was employed by intravenously injecting 12.5 mg/kg Concanavalin A (ConA), a polyclonal T cell mitogen. Mice were treated one hour after challenge with vehicle, 10 μg/kg TCDD, or 50 μg/kg FICZ intraperitoneally. Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was conducted on infiltrating liver mononuclear cells enriched via a percoll gradient. Upon analysis, immune cell clusters were identified and included multiple B cell and T cell clusters, as well as Kupffer cells, neutrophils, NK cells, among others. We observed a clear increase in the number of T cells and a decrease in the number of Kupffer cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophils upon TCDD treatment. Additionally, Gm42031 was identified as a lncRNA upregulated in vehicle-treated ConA challenged mice but downregulated in both AhR ligand-treated groups, specifically in the B cell, CD8+ T cell, Kupffer cell and NK cell populations. For the first time, this data suggests Gm42031 as a potential player in liver inflammation that was downregulated following AhR ligation. (Supported by NIH grants P01AT003961, P20GM103641, R01ES030144, R01AI129788 and R01AI123947)

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Wilson, Sarah Almor, Amit Lexical and syntactic priming in dialogue
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People will subconsciously imitate one another in gesture, body posture, speech rate, and many other behaviors during a dialogue. Speakers also align with one another across multiple linguistic levels to ensure effective communication. The Interactive Alignment Model (Pickering & Garrod, 2004) assumes alignment is driven by automatic, subconscious priming mechanisms between speakers. This study examines how speakers prime one another to repeat a grammatical structure that has been recently produced, a phenomenon referred to as syntactic priming. Multiple linguistic factors have been shown to influence syntactic priming. In particular, the repetition of specific words such as nouns or verbs has been shown to enhance syntactic priming, an effect termed “lexical boost”. Moreover, the use of a non-repeating verb that nevertheless shares a preference or “structural bias” for a certain grammatical structure with a previously mentioned verb can also enhance syntactic priming. Bernolet and Hartsuiker (2010) found in a priming study in Dutch that a verb’s bias for a particular argument structure modulates syntactic priming: priming was strongest when the syntactic structure contradicted the verb bias. The current study extends upon Bernolet and Hartsuiker’s (2010) study of verb bias effects in syntactic priming in two ways: first, by replicating the verb bias effects in syntactic priming in English, and second, by including a condition with verb repetition in order to compare the magnitude of syntactic priming associated with overlap of verb structure bias to lexical boost effects. The present study tests the hypothesis that verb bias produces greater syntactic priming effects when the priming structure opposes the verb’s structural preference, and that verb repetition between structures will enhance priming effects regardless of a verb’s bias. This study contributes to research on lexical and syntactic priming, which in turn advance the understanding of how speakers make linguistic choices and the development of complex, psycholinguistic models of syntactic priming and linguistic alignment during interactive dialogue. Selected References Bernolet, S., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2010). Does verb bias modulate syntactic priming? Cognition, 114(3), 455-461. Pickering, M. J., & Garrod, S. (2004). Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioral and brain sciences, 27(2), 169-190.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Alexeev, Sergei Kubinak, Jason B-Cell-Intrinsic MHCII Signaling Shapes Microbiota Composition
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Recent studies demonstrate that immunoglobulin A (IgA), the most abundant antibody secreted at mucosal surfaces, is critical for limiting chronic inflammation but the mechanism by which this occurs is undefined. Regulation of the composition of the commensal bacterial community in the gut (i.e. the microbiota) could be one mechanism. IgA can be produced through T-cell-dependent (TD) and T-cell-independent (TiD) pathways. While TiD IgA is the most abundant IgA secreted into the gut, the relative contribution of TD and TiD IgA in regulating microbiota composition is controversial. Antigen presentation by B cells to T cells is essential for TD responses, and this is carried out by MHC class II molecules. Here, we sought to address the hypothesis that B-cell-intrinsic MHCII antigen presentation promotes anti-commensal TD IgA responses that influence microbiota composition. In order to do this, RAG1-/- mice, that lack their own T and B cells, received adoptive transfers of wildtype (WT) T cells along with MHC+ B cells, or WT T cells along with MHCII- B cells. Results of our experiments demonstrate that the presence of MHCII on B cells leads to higher levels of IgA secretion into the gut, is critical to the formation of germinal centers, enhances binding of gut bacteria by high-affinity IgA, and is associated with greater species richness in the gut microbial community. Our results support that TD IgA responses promote species diversity in the gut, which is thought to benefit host health.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Schierlmann, Davis
Herlong, Julia
Gavin, Michael
Dubinsky, Stanley
Language Policy, Ethnic Conflict, and Social Media in Francophone Europe
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In this project, we study two neighborhoods, Molenbeek in Belgium and Seine-Saint Denis in France, home to demographically similar populations. This includes many people of North African Origin, often Arabic speakers. By comparing two similar groups, we get insight into the ways past language conflicts, government structure, and policy decisions are impacting present day language conflict in both nations. Through this comparative analysis, we hope to gain a better understanding of language conflict in Francophone Europe and the policies that have either ameliorated or intensified ethnic resentment. We will investigate how legislation, political events, and ethnic and nationalist sentiment are represented in news reports and social media in Francophone Europe, in French and minority languages, including Dutch and Arabic. The project is designed in the form of a traditional research thesis with elements of data science layered in to support the qualitative research. Following Davies and Dubinsky (2018), we began with an intensive historic analysis to better understand the nature of the conflict to be used to guide the subsequent data mining efforts. This project will address several interrelated research questions. What forms of violence (structural, physical) do language conflicts in Francophone Europe take? What have specific pieces of legislation, related to language policy and educational practice, done to ameliorate or intensify intergroup tensions? In what ways does language policy operate as a political or economic weapon? How are these issues discussed on social media? How do different social media trends differ within the context of Francophone Europe, based on what language is being used? The significance of understanding these questions goes far beyond the conflict between French, Arabic, and in Belgium's case Dutch. The language conflicts in Europe share characteristics with many others going on around the world. By understanding the drivers behind language conflict in Francophone Europe we can shed light on many more conflicts going on around the world today.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Elmore, Amanda L. Boghossian, Nansi Prescription Opioid Use and Use of Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES, 2003-2018
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Introduction: Prescription opioid use and opioid dependency remain prevalent in the United States and have negatively impacted women and children. Given that half of all pregnancies are unplanned and prenatal opioid use poses risk for infants, it’s important to examine prescription opioid use among women of reproductive age. From 2010-2017, the rate of opioid use disorder at delivery increased by 100% or more in 24 states but studies suggest many women with opioid use disorder do not receive the recommended medication therapy. However, recent prevalence estimates of prescription opioid use and use of medications for opioid use disorder among women of reproductive age are limited. Methods: Using the 2003-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we determined the prevalence, trend, and correlates of prescription opioid use, long-term use (≥ 90 days of use), and use of medications for opioid use disorders among women of reproductive age (n=13,558). Prescription opioid use within the last 30 days and prescription duration were collected through interviews and identified using prescription codes. Trend analysis was conducted using NCI’s Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software version 4.7. To evaluate correlates of each outcome, we used chi square tests of independence and survey logistic regressions through unadjusted and adjusted models with SAS 9.4. Results: From 2003-2018, the average prevalence of prescription opioid use was 4.5%, which significantly decreased by about 9% every two-years (p<.05). About 2% of women reported long-term opioid use and 0.6% reported use of medications for opioid use disorder but no significant trends were found for these outcomes. Among long-term prescription opioid users, the mean duration of use was 1,357 days (range: 91-9,855 days). Correlates of prescription opioid use and long-term use included ages 35-44, non-Hispanic White, public insurance, and women with poor or fair health status. Conclusions: Considering recent evidence of an increasing trend in maternal opioid use disorder, the low prevalence of medications for opioid use disorder is concerning. As policy makers and clinicians strive to reduce the negative impacts of the opioid epidemic on women and children, they should determine mechanisms to improve access to effective treatments for opioid use disorder.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Askins, Abby Cuturic, Miroslav Effects of Alcohol on Huntingtons Disease Polyglutamine Mutants of C. Elegans
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This is a preliminary study which aims to examine the impact of alcohol exposure on the onset and progression of Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder which is fatal and has no known cure. It is caused by an abnormality on the Huntingtin gene, and this defect leads to the production of an abnormally long polyglutamine chain, which is toxic to brain cells. The result is progressive chorea, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we used C. elegans, a nonpathogenic nematode whose physiology is suitable for studying neurobiology, polyglutamine strains to model HD in a study organism. The organisms were studied for effects on both longevity and motility with exposure to alcohol. For the motility studies, the worms were subjected to alcohol exposure by flooding plates with 0%, 1%, 5%, and 10% ethanol dilutions. The organisms’ motility was recorded for 5 minutes and scored by ImageJ software. For both strains, there was statistically significant impairment of motility in the 5%, and the 10% dilutions. In the 1% dilution, there was a statistically significant improvement of motility in the wild type, and borderline improvement in the HD strain. For the longevity studies, worms were age synchronized and transferred daily to new plates until death. These longevity trails were done blindly with respect to the 0%, 1%, 5%, and 10% ethanol exposures. No statistically significant difference was found in longevity between the WT and HD strains without ethanol exposure, but at 5% ethanol exposure the HD strain longevity was significantly shorter than that of the WT. This study helps to establish the protocol needed to conduct motility and longevity studies on C. elegans at the University of South Carolina. Further experiment directions include replication of these results, and applications of these protocols in various other neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease and spinocerebellar ataxias.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
He, Xiaofei Fang, Jing FUNCTION OF GPR68 IN NORMAL HEMATOPOIESIS AND MALIGNANT HEMATOPOIETIC DISEASES
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G protein-coupled receptor 68 (GPR68), as a proton-sensing receptor, involves in pleiotropic physiological processes. However, its specific functions in normal hematopoiesis and malignant hematopoietic diseases were unknown. With the Gpr68-/- mouse model, we found reduced B lymphocytes under stressed conditions, such as aging and hematopoietic regeneration. However, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from Gpr68-/- mice exhibited comparable competitiveness, possibly due to the compensatory effects of Gpr68 in non-hematopoietic cells. With Gpr68flox/flox;Vav-cre+ mice that Gpr68 gene was exclusively deleted in hematopoietic tissues, we observed enhanced competitiveness of Gpr68-deficient HSC from aged mice, possibly through a Ca2+ pro-apoptotic pathway. This indicated a cell-intrinsic effect of Gpr68 on regulating HSC function. By performing reverse bone marrow transplantation, we observed decreased frequency of B cells when Gpr68 was deleted in the microenvironment of HSC (i.e. HSC niches), indicating that the function of Gpr68 in non-hematopoietic cells was correlated with B cell formation. Additionally, GPR68 was overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and associated with aggressive outcomes. By screening a series of pharmacological inhibitors that target Ca2+ sensitive apoptotic molecules, we identified that Gpr68 was essential to maintain AML cell survival through activating the Ca2+/calcineurin pathway. To explore the therapeutic potential of GPR68 in AML, we studied the combined effects of GPR68 inhibitors with other drugs, i.e., chemotherapeutic drug Cytarabine (Ara-C) and BCL-2 inhibitor Venetoclax (VEN). We found that GPR68 expression was associated with sensitivity to Ara-C and VEN. Mechanistic studies revealed that chemotherapeutic agents enhanced GPR68 expression, while glycolysis increased GPR68 activity, which was associated with GPR68-mediated resistance to Ara-C. In addition, GPR68 collaborated with BCL-2, leading to enhanced oxidative phosphorylation that was associated with resistance to VEN. In summary, inhibition of GPR68 would improve the function of HSC and induce apoptosis of AML cells. Our studies indicated that the potent effects of GPR68 inhibitors in improving drug sensitivity of AML cells made GPR68 a potential therapeutic target.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Rampalli, Krystal Blake, Christine
Laar, Amos
Frongillo, Ed
Erickson, Ken
Perspectives of urban Ghanaian adolescents on healthy eating habits
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Ghana, a West African country, is no exception to global trends of dietary shifts, rapid urbanization, and rising non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Most of the population is under age 25 (57%), which presents both challenges and opportunities. Adolescents (ages 10-19), in particular, are vulnerable to diet-related health risks as they experience significant life changes alongside environmental changes. There is a need to understand what, how and why adolescents eat the way they do in Ghana. This study explored perspectives of urban adolescents regarding healthy and unhealthy food and relationships to portion sizes. The Measurement, Evaluation, Accountability, and Leadership Support for NCDs (MEALS4NCDs) Project, led by the University of Ghana, measured the degree of unhealthy food marketing to provide evidence for creating healthier food environments for Ghanaian children. In July-August 2020, 48 interviews with government school students (14-17 years old) in six districts across the Greater Accra Region were conducted. Interviews were done in the schools in English, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded with NVivo 12 using a thematic analysis. All students demonstrated basic nutrition knowledge and conceptualized healthy eating as “not eating too much”, “a balanced diet,” “not eating late,” and “not eating cold foods.” Connections between NCDs and consumption of foods high in fats, sugars, and salts were rarely made. All students consumed items differing to what they described as a “healthy diet.” Students expressed food safety as indicative of healthy food, emphasizing food prepared in a “hygienic environment by a hygienic person,” “a hot temperature,” and “covered.” Participants did not understand portion sizes beyond “too much of anything is bad” and stated contexts where they would consume smaller or larger portion sizes, such as around strangers (less) or unsure of next meal (more). Participants admitted peer pressure and food advertising claims informed their food choices and demonstrated minimal knowledge of marketing tactics. Despite having some nutrition knowledge, students voiced limited agency in food decisions, citing financial and cultural constraints. Interventions should include strategies educating students and parents about diet-related NCDs and deceptive marketing tactics used to promote unhealthy foods.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Prisendorf, Danielle Azhar, Mohamad Role of Cardiomyocyte-Specific Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 in Adult Heart Disease
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Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) is a superfamily of multifunctional proteins whose expression and regulation play numerous roles in cellular development, specifically the development of cardiac muscle or myocardium. Dysregulation or overexpression of TGFβ ligands, precisely TGFβ1, causes a plethora of cardiac abnormalities, such as cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyopathy. In this experiment, transgenic TGFβ1 mice were crossed with tamoxifen-inducible Myosin Heavy Chain II Cre recombinase mice (Mer-Cre-Mer). Adult double ‘conditional’ transgenic mice (Tgfb1TG;Mer-Cre-Mer) mice were injected with 5 daily doses of tamoxifen drug in order to activate the expression of constitutively activated form of TGFβ1 in the cardiomyocytes (predominant cell type that form the cardiac muscle). Heart tissue from tamoxifen treated conditional transgenic mice was collected, processed, embedded, cross sectioned and stained in order to be analyzed for cardiac hypertrophy (enlargement of cardiomyocyte) and cardiac fibrosis (excess collagen accumulation) . Through histological examination, it is hypothesized that the upregulation of activated TGFβ1 in cardiomyocytes is the cause of cardiac hypertrophy and/or cardiac fibrosis in adult mice, and potential analysis of these cross-sectioned hearts will allow us to understand the link between dysergulation of TGFB1 and heart failure.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Robinson, Isabelle
Webb, Malorie
Will, Elizabeth
Roberts, Jane
Syndrome-Specific Attention Profiles in Infants with a Neurodevelopmental Disorder
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An important aspect in the development of an infant is their exploration of and interaction with their environment. Children with a neurodevelopmental disorder such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) or Down syndrome (DS) often present with atypical object and social attention. An infant with dysregulated attention or impaired motor development may miss learning opportunities in their environment and delay cognitive development. The purpose of this study is to explore syndrome-specific differences in attention profiles, including object and social attention, disengagement, and dyadic attention, in children with FXS or DS as compared to typically developing children. This project utilizes data from a longitudinal study collected from 12-month old infants from the FXS (n=29), DS (n=24), and TD (n=42) groups. Each attention profile was measured separately using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI) in which infants were given a variety of toys to play with. An examiner prompted interaction and play. To investigate syndrome-specific attention profiles, we will 1) test group differences in object and social attention, 2) test group differences in disengagement, and 3) test group differences in dyadic attention. Based on previous research, we expect that FXS groups will exhibit prolonged visual engagement with the toys and have difficulty disengaging or shifting attention to social bids, while DS groups will spend more time in social attention and have difficulty engaging with the objects. TD groups will successfully regulate their attention between objects and social bids. The purpose of this project is to identify early markers of attentional difficulties. If a child cannot regulate their attention it limits their developmental opportunities. This research will eventually be used to develop intervention strategies to encourage healthy attentional control and cognitive development.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Burroughs, Kellie Kubickova, Marketa Retail Internship
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In the fall semester of my junior year, I was given the amazing opportunity to work as a retail intern for two small business owners in the health and wellness and retail industry. I chose to intern at the Well Collective because their business concept was similar to the type of business I would like to own in the future, which is a fitness boutique. As an intern, I was able to gain firsthand experience about what responsibilities and challenges are associated with owning and operating a small business in the health and wellness and retail industry. I gained insights about financial and managerial tasks that are required of a small business owner as well as possible obstacles and challenges that could occur. This experience was significant to me because I was able to see if this was a career path I would enjoy before taking the leap and investing time and money into starting my own fitness boutique. I also gained many insights which will help me to plan better for my own business in the future and hopefully avoid some obstacles that my bosses encountered.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Lacera, Zara Hancock, C. Nathan
Mendoza, Sarah
Testing the Effect of BUD8 and TAL1 on mPing Transposition
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Transposable elements, discovered by geneticist Barbara McClintock, are segments of DNA that “jump” to different locations in an organism’s genome. Transposable elements are important because they can cause mutations which results in genetic diversity and facilitates evolution. To measure the activity of a transposable element from rice, known as mPing, a yeast transposition assay was developed. Previous results showed that a construct overexpressing the yeast BUD8 and TAL1 genes increased mPing transposition. However, the results did not communicate which of these genes specifically caused the increased rate. To determine which of these genes were influencing transposition, we made separate overexpression constructs for each gene. We will test these new constructs in yeast to measure how mPing transposition is affected. We anticipate that one of these two genes will increase transposition, while the other will not. Knowing the effects of these genes on transposition is important because it helps us understand how organisms regulate the activity of transposable elements.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Kemp, Cassidy
Alkhatib, Bailey
Peck, Lara Foregoing Falls: Identifying Potential Areas of Improvement Regarding Patient and Staff Fall Education at Prisma Health Richland on the Surgical Trauma and Orthopedic Floors
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The purpose of this quality improvement project is to identify opportunities for enhancement of patient education regarding fall prevention following a stay at Prisma Health Richland. Two separate google forms were created to anonymously document feedback from both patients and hospital personnel. All patient information was obtained verbally and notated by the investigators. Data recorded from employees was acquired likewise via an in person interview or via self-submission to the form electronically. The patient interview form included the following: an evaluation of the fall education received, their understanding of the information provided, an assessment of their comfort level in asking questions, and a description of how the patient believes they learn best. The staff form asked complimentary questions to gauge the types and method of patient education provided, the comfort level of conveying this information, certainty level of patient comprehension, and barriers to providing patient education. Data collection is ongoing. The survey results will be analyzed and disseminated within the final poster.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Olson, Aram
Kennedy, Ben
Jackson, Benjamin A Prospective Comparative Analysis on the Outcomes and Complications of Ultrasound Guided Corticosteroid Injection on Tendinopathy of the Foot and Ankle
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Background: Corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are a commonly used method to treat tendinopathy. Though the average orthopedic surgeon performs 20.6 injections per month, the data supporting its use is lacking. A CSI is done by utilizing an ultrasound-guided route to insert the needle into the tendon sheath, as opposed to the tendon itself. Unfortunately, significant evidence exists which shows an increased risk in post-injection tendon rupture via the structural weakening of the tendon itself. Given the average volume of CSIs administered by orthopedic surgeons on a monthly basis, the relative increase in risk for tendon rupture warrants further investigation into the causality and thus needs to be further researched. Methods: The study design is a prospective analysis that examines rates of CSI complications. To be included in the study, patients had to have undergone a CSI of a foot or ankle tendon. Excluded from this study are patients who are considered part of the vulnerable population or those who refuse to be part of the study. Data will be collected via a phone call where patients report the following: binary relief (yes or no), degree of improvement (1-10 scale), number of injections, and medical complications following the CSI. The intervals of the follow-up phone calls are one week and 6 months post-injection. Comorbidity data will be analyzed along with the patient reported data to determine the relationships of these factors. Results: At this time, 49 patients have been enrolled in the study. Of those enrolled, 19 have answered the phone. 17 out of 19 patients reported that the CSI provided relief. The average degree of improvement was 6.35 out of 10. The average number of injections was 1.41. The most commonly reported complication after the CSI was a temporary flare of pain within 24 hours post injection (88.2%). No patients experienced tendon rupture since the CSI. Conclusions: At this time, preliminary data suggest there is no increased risk of tendon rupture following ultrasound-guided CSI. More data needs to be gathered from prospective patients to obtain significant relationships between the comorbidities and risk of rupture.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Harrell, Chad Smith, Emerson Neighbors Helping Neighbors: Non-clinical Prevention of Illness, Disease, Injury, and Premature Death
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In the field of medicine there is an increased focus on primary prevention to improve health outcomes in the United States and worldwide. This is a study of social cohesion, a primary preventative variable, at the neighborhood level, and its relationship to longevity of residents. A literature review suggests a range of studies related to social cohesion, longevity, and neighborhoods, seeking to measure social cohesion. A qualitative survey analysis was performed, interviewing residents of two neighborhoods: Shandon (n =16) an affluent, predominantly white neighborhood (79%) with a life expectancy of 79.4 and Waverly (n =6) a predominantly black neighborhood (80%) with a life expectancy of 71 years. An open-ended questionnaire based on previous studies of social cohesion in the literature was used to gauge self-perceived neighborhood social cohesion among residents in each neighborhood. Preliminary results indicate that there is no clear difference in social cohesion between the two neighborhoods; however, it was also determined that certain residents may be excluded from the benefits of the larger Waverly community. Interviews in Waverly were all with older residents who had years of experience with the neighborhood. Limitations of this study include a small number of people interviewed, lack of age variation among subjects, and the subjectivity or the researcher. A quantitative study based on a random sample of residents is needed.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Sharpe, Sarah Wellman, Denise Finding a Mentor
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In the middle of my sophomore year, I met Katie Wilson at Drip Coffee on Main Street. I had been following Katie Wilson Photography on Instagram for a while and was incredibly inspired by her work. When my photography professor assigned a human element project, I knew it was the perfect excuse to get to know Katie. From that moment on I worked with Katie. I traveled to Charleston and Greenville on multiple occasions to second shoot weddings and meet couples from across the state. I gained confidence in not only my technical skills, but also my client interaction skills. I helped her shoot large group graduation sessions and she helped me begin to book my own. As we continued to meet, she taught me editing tips, business tips, gallery delivery practices, and so much more. When I met Katie, I was second guessing visual communications as my major, through her I regained my confidence. I was able to give reason for my creative decisions when in class and pick-up work of my own. I learned that often times help doesn’t come find you. If you realize there is a knowledge gap, it is your job to seek out another teacher. Katie and I still meet today. I still travel to shoot weddings with her and know that she will play a vital role in my future, all because of one in-class project.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Stallings, William Dubinsky, Stanley
Gavin, Michael
Sub-National Identity and the Development of Nationalism in Basque Country and Catalonia
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This research looks into the relationship between Spain and two of its regions, the Basque Country and Catalonia, and looks to discuss how each of the regions showcases a symbiotic relationship with Spain. Each region ultimately shaped the other in terms of their development of identity. Through the development of Spanish identity and its imposition on the whole of the nation throughout the 18th century and onwards, each region was given a framework against which to react. Catalonia’s strong economic development outpaced the rest of Spain and this created a dissatisfaction that was expressed in regionalist and then in nationalist terms in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Basque Country, in contrast, developed civic and ethnic nationalist factions that ultimately merged under one party but ultimately failed to find long-term success until the 1930s. These nationalisms coalesced into their modern forms during the Francoist regime, where suppression of regional identity solidified the association between language and nationalist ideology that had been previously in motion in both regions. While Catalonia expressed it largely in cultural protest through movements such as La Nova Canco and the revival of Catalan literature, the Basque Country expressed it largely through political means, notably through support for the terrorist group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna during the 1960s and 1970s. After the end of the Francoist regime and the return to democracy, the need to accommodate these regions in terms of their distinct linguistic and cultural identities necessitated the creation of the system of autonomous communities throughout the country, a system of symmetric federalism that replaced the previously asymmetric systems that benefitted regions such as the Basque Country and Catalonia periodically throughout the centuries. Today, the two regions have had very different outcomes. While the Basque Country has, again, become incorporated under this system (despite calls for more autonomy), Catalonia has broken out into a decade-long struggle for outright independence that has regularly put it at odds with the overarching Spanish government.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Burton, Darren Gudridge, Maegan Leadership Through Personal Strengths
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During my time at the University of South Carolina, I have had the amazing opportunity to serve as a resident mentor (RM). Resident mentors are traditionally upperclassmen who live with incoming freshman residents to guide them through their Carolina experience. My most significant contribution as an RM has been creating a sense of community in students' lives and advising them on their academic, social, and personal concerns. Becoming involved with peer mentorship has allowed me to learn the true definition of what leadership is. Originally, I believed leaders to be assertive extroverts who live for competition. It was not until I enrolled in University 290 and worked as RM that I realized that a leader's personal characteristics have no exact answer. I discovered that leadership is about believing in who you already are and having the fundamental belief that you can make a positive difference in others' lives. My presentation will discuss the insights I have gained about using my own personal strengths to empower and lead others.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Hall, Cooper Wardyn, Amy Exploration of Patient Communication Preference Regarding Reclassified Genetic Test Results
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Genetic testing is becoming increasingly used to detect individuals who are predisposed to developing cancer. If genetic testing identifies a variant in an individual’s DNA, the testing laboratory uses available data to classify the variant as either disease-causing or benign. When limited data is available regarding a variant’s pathogenicity and the risk of cancer for an individual is not clear, the variant is classified as a “variant of uncertain significance” (VUS). If new data is discovered, the VUS may be reclassified. There is a gap in current literature regarding desired communication for a reclassified genetic test result. There are no standard guidelines for healthcare providers regarding communication of a reclassified VUS results. This study aimed to explore communication preferences of past Prisma Health patients with a VUS result on cancer genetic testing. A total of 34 participants responded to the anonymous online questionnaire. Participants reported telephone call by a genetic counselor as the most preferred communication for an upgraded VUS result and a letter in the mail as the most preferred communication for a downgraded VUS result. There was no significant difference in communication preferences for upgraded versus downgraded VUS results. A majority of participants reported mild concern regarding their VUS result. Overall, this study determined that patients want to be contacted regarding a reclassified VUS result, but there is no clear consensus on the most preferred method.

10:00-11:30 a.m.
Smith, Loren
Moreland, Hannah
Averch, Timothy Quality Improvement Initiative to Optimize Outpatient Triage Workflow and Reduce Burnout
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Our rapidly expanding urology practice increased to eight providers in under two-years’ time with a corresponding growth in patient volume. Triage personnel reported an untenable escalation in workload with mounting burnout representing an opportunity for process improvement. The SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timely) aim for this project was to reduce the frequency and duration of triage calls, increase the appropriateness of call content, and improve the well-being of the triage staff. Starting September 2020 using Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) quality improvement (QI) methodology, a multiprofessional team iteratively identified systems-level processes available for refinement, leading to optimized triage workflow. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained sequentially through five phases. Data were collected through a multidisciplinary approach including triage call logs, direct observation, and one-on-one collaboration sessions. Triage personnel were surveyed periodically using an anonymous, validated, repeatable instrument. After five PDSA cycles, triage noted a reduction in call volume by 403 calls (20.3% reduction) with a median call duration of 58 seconds (21.1% reduction), down from a baseline of 1,986 calls with median call duration 73.5 seconds. Restructuring and refinement of the clinical phone tree (PDSA 1-2) and standardized management of non-urgent calls to triage not warranting triage attention (PDSA 3) contributed to the improvement. Notably, five call categories deemed inappropriate for triage were eliminated after the application of PDSA process improvement. Further modifications based on collected survey responses aimed to create a culture of recognition. They included triage interior redesign (PDSA 4), patient paperwork reallocation outside of triage (PDSA 5), and a patient education handout covering a common triage call topic (current PDSA). The latter refinements increased job satisfaction (20%), workload manageability, and fostered greater congruence between job expectations and triage duties. Small changes to the structure of the work and communication environment resulted in measurable improvements in both call volume and employee satisfaction. Relatively few systems factors were responsible for a majority of triage concerns. Further interventions, including implementing a monthly QI meeting, optimizing use of the patient portal, and improving staffing resource allocation are needed to actualize further employee satisfaction.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Parise, Sarayu Twiss, Jeff
Buchanan, Courtney
Role of FXR1 and FMRP RNA binding proteins in axon growth
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Axons provide long-range neural connections needed to propagate action potentials to, from, and within the nervous system. When these connections are disrupted by injury, the neuron must again extend its axon to reinnervate the target site. Proteins synthesized within axons have been shown to support developmental and regenerative axon growth. mRNA encoding growth promoting proteins are actively transported into axons by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that gather mRNAs and shuttle them into axons as cargo via kinesin motors. Strict specificity and regulation of RBPs and their target mRNAs allows for both spatial and temporal regulation of axonal protein synthesis. FXR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) and FMRP (fragile x mental retardation protein) are RBPs found in the mature axons of central nervous system (CNS) neurons (Akins et al., 2012 & 2017). Our lab has used a targeted proteomics analysis to profile axonal RBPs. that levels of FXR1 increased significantly by 7 days and remained elevated for up to 28 days after sciatic nerve crush injury in the adult rat peripheral nervous system (PNS). This period of elevation corresponds to initiation of axon regrowth to reinnervation of target tissues. This extended increase raises the possibility that FXR1 contributes to nerve regeneration. FMRP is a structural homolog of and forms complexes with FXR1. Though FMRP been extensively studied in dendrites where it contributes to post-synaptic plasticity, FMRP also localizes to peripheral nerve axons and its function there remains undetermined. I hypothesize that these Fragile X family proteins play a role in axon regeneration. To test this possibility, I used RNA interference (RNAi) strategies to knock down FMRP and FXR1 in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons to test for potential effects on axonal outgrowth in culture as well as if the two proteins interact in PNS axons. We were able to confirm successful knockdown of FMRP and FXR1 using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and Western Blotting techniques. These studies are now being advanced to determine how loss of FXR1 and FMRP affects sensory axon growth, axon branching, and neuronal function.

1:00-2:30 p.m.
Ul Hassan, Noor Mustain, William Unitized reversible fuel cell for electrochemical energy storage and energy conversion
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A Unitized Reversible Fuel Cell (URFC) is a device capable of operating in both power production (fuel cell, FC) and energy storage (electrolysis cell, EC) modes. URFCs are considered a key enabler of intermittent renewable energy technologies, as they can store and convert chemical energy to electrical energy depending on supply and demand. One of the most attractive aspect of URFCs is the advantage of high energy density vs. existing battery systems. URFCs coupled with wind or solar power systems could potentially complete the cycle and maintain supply vs demand balance. In this combination, URFCs are highly attra