Establish guidelines for the course grade, clearly presented in writing, at the beginning of the semester. Students should understand the basics of what quality and quantity of work is necessary for each grade. Remember that first-year students may need more detailed explanations of grading practices than advanced students.
Remind students that there are certain standards of written English which you expect them to reflect in any written work. Students might argue that it isn't fair to penalize them for writing in classes other than English. Explain that they need to communicate their knowledge to you clearly and effectively and you expect them to employ acceptable written standards.
Use rubrics and provide copies to students. You will be more consistent and efficient when grading if you develop a set of assignment-specific criteria and designate their relative importance in relation to the overall grade. These grading standards, or rubrics, help students focus their efforts. They know what to do. Rubrics also emphasize that you grade in a manner that minimizes subjectivity and is thus, more fair. About rubrics:
- Design your rubric around the learning outcomes of the assignment. The weight of various components should reflect the learning outcomes.
- Decide and communicate the weight of writing conventions.
- Prepare model answers before you begin grading based on the rubric variables
Set a maximum time limit for grading each answer, section or paper. This way no response gets more consideration or scrutiny than another.
Comment on student work. Make your comments legible. Note errors but don't necessarily fix them. Instead respond with comments that encourage the student to think through the process of revision. Acknowledge strengths and offer positive feedback, referring to specific examples. If possible, mention improvement from previous work.
Provide grades and feedback as quickly as possible. Give students a time-frame when they submit work as to when it should be returned and how. Stick to the time-frame.
If a grade is challenged, offer to discuss the grade during office hours. Listen to the student's question or concern. Reread student work if necessary. Although it may not result in a changed grade, you might discover a way to ask a question more clearly in future classes. If you cannot resolve a grade challenge, do not allow yourself to get into an argument. Know how your department handles these things ahead of time.
- Association of American Colleges and Universities VALUE (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education) initiative is a nationwide project that examines direct evidence of student learning. 16 VALUE rubrics, organized by learning outcome.
- Grading and Performance Rubrics: Carnegie Mellon explains what rubrics are and provides examples
- Moskal, B. M. (2000). "Scoring Rubrics: What, When and How." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(3).
- Rubrics and Assessment Resources for cooperative learning, research reports, and other assessments, compiled by the University of Wisconsin, Stout
- Why should assessments, learning objectives, and instructional strategies be aligned? Carnegie Mellon’s resource on assessments to measure student learning and aligned to instruction so that they reinforce one another