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College of Information and Communications


Bibliography and Coding of Public Library Valuation Studies and Commentary

January 2013–June 2019
Selected updates March 2023
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Research Studies for Coding 

Appleton, L., Hall, H., Duff, A. S., & Raeside, R. (2018). UK public library roles and value: A focus group analysis. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 50, 275–283. doi: 

Arts Council England. (2014). Evidence review of the economic contribution of libraries. Retrieved from file/Evidence_review_economic_contribution_libraries_2014.pdf 

Arts Council England. (2013). Envisioning the library of the future: Phase 3: Online Survey. Retrieved from future#section-6 

Audunson, R. (2016). The library and quality of life. Scandinavian Public Library Quarterly, 49(1/2), 28-29. Retrieved from 

Beckett, E. K. (2014). Exploring the relationships between constructs of library value and local 1 
government public library funding: A study of New Jersey public libraries [Dissertation]. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey-New Brunswick. Retrieved from 

Berk & Associates. (2013). Santa Clara Public Library District 2013 return on investment report. Retrieved from 

Broad, G., Parr, A., & Turda, A. (2015, March). Building strong and vibrant communities: The value of Sault Ste. Marie’s Public Library. Retrieved from Library_Value-SROI.pdf 

California State Library. (2019). The value of California’s public libraries. Retrieved from 

Chen, T. T., & Ke, H. R. (2017). Public library as a place and breeding ground of social capital: A case of Singang Library. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 22(1), 45-58. 

Copenhagen Economics. (2015). The Economic Impact of Public Libraries. Retrieved from 

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport. (2015, December 16). Case study —
British Library's Business & IP Centre national network: The British Library's Business & IP Centre national network contributes to local economic growth. Retrieved from 

Fairfax County Public Library. (2019, January 2). ROI report: A business case for the Fairfax County Public Library’s value to the community. Retrieved from librarys-value-community 

Flaherty, M. G. (2013). Consumer health information provision in rural public libraries: A comparison of two library systems. Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, 83, 155–165. 

Fleeter, H. B. (2016). Return on investment analysis of Toledo Lucas County Public Library. Retrieved from affairs/publications/LucasLibReport.pdf 

Fujiwara, D., Lawton, R., & Mourato, S. (2015). The health and wellbeing benefits of public 2 
libraries: Full report. Arts Council England and SIMETRICA. Retrieved from file/The%20health%20and%20wellbeing%20benefits%20of%20public%20libraries.pdf 

Gómez-Hernández, J. A., Hernández-Pedreño, M., & Romero-Sánchez, E. (2017). Social and digital empowerment of vulnerable library users of the Murcia Regional Library, Spain. El profesional de la información, 26(1), 20-33. 

Gorichanaz, T., & Turner, T. (2017). All the Community’s a stage: The public library’s part in community information provision. Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, 87, 99–116. 

Halpin, E., Rankin, C., Chapman, E. L., & Walker, C. (2015). Measuring the value of public libraries in the digital age: What the power people need to know. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 47(1), 30-42. 

Hájek, P., & Stejskal, J. (2017). Library usage mining in the context of alternative costs: the case of the municipal library of Prague. Library Hi Tech, 35, 565–583. 

Hájek, P., & Stejskal, J. (2015). Modelling public library value using the contingent valuation method: The case of the Municipal Library of Prague. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 47(1), 43-55. 

Hamilton Public Library. (2017). Discover HPL: Measuring the impact of Hamilton Public Library. Retrieved from 16_Feb9ver_AODA.pdf 

Haas Center. (2013). Taxpayer return on investment in Florida public libraries. Retrieved from 

Howard Fleeter & Associates (2016, April). Return on investment of Ohio’s libraries & comparison with other states. Retrieved from content/uploads/documents/post-id_2060/2016/04/Ohio-Public-Libraries-ROI-Report.pdf 

Huysmans, F., & Oomes, M. (2013). Measuring the public library’s societal value: A methodological research program. IFLA journal, 39(2), 168–177. 

Wolfe, Ikeuchi, A., Tsuji, K., Yoshikane, F., & Ikeuchi, U. (2013). Double-bounded dichotomous choice CVM for public library services in Japan. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73, 205–208. 

James, S. (2013, September). Hutt City libraries social return on investment analysis. Retrieved from 

Jarrett, J. E. (2017). Texas public libraries: Economic benefits and return on
Retrieved from texas-public-libraries.pdf 

Johnson, C. A., & Griffis, M. R. (2014). The effect of public library use on the social capital of rural communities. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 46, 179-190. 

Kaluthanthri, P. C., & Edirisinghe, J. (2016). The economic value of the Colombo Public Library, Sri Lanka: contingent valuation approach. Pacific Rim Property Research Journal, 22, 115-126. 

Kawartha Lakes Public Library. (2015). Public Library Economic Impact Study [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from Kelleher, A. (2013). Not just a place to sleep: Homeless perspectives on libraries in central 

Michigan. Library Review, 62(1/2), 19-33.
Lal, J. (2013, July). A Return on Investment Study of Salt Lake County Library Services. 

Retrieved from 

Linhartová, V., & Stejskal, J. (2017). Public libraries services and their economic evaluation. In Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series D, Faculty of Economics & Administration, 25(41), 90–101. 

London Public Library. (2015, November). A perspective on the economic impact of London Public Library on the city of London. Retrieved from 20Public%20Library_final_long%20version_web_0.pdf 

Mainka, A., Hartmann, S., Orszullok, L., Peters, I., Stallmann, A., & Stock, W. G. (2013). Public libraries in the knowledge society: Core services of libraries in informational world cities. Libri, 63, 295-319.

Mandel, L. H., Spears, L. I., Guenther, D., & McClure, C. R. (2013, December). Costs of and benefits resulting from public library e-government service provision: Findings and future directions from an exploratory study. First Monday, 18(12). doi: 

Martin Prosperity Institute. (2013, December). So much more: The economic impact of the Toronto Public Library on the City of Toronto. Retrieved from df 

Martínez, R. T. (2013). The value of public libraries in society: Barcelona Province Municipal Libraries Network (MLN) experience. Department of Studies and Foresight Library Services Management Office. Retrieved from gles.pdf/39255278-b39e-4f98-893e-76869b63a4b4 

McCahill, D., Birdi, B., & Jones, R. B. (2018). Investigating the public response to local government decisions to reduce or remove public library services. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science. doi: 0961000618768028. 

Mehra, B., Bishop, B. W., & Partee, R. P., II. (2017b). How do public libraries assist small businesses in rural communities? An exploratory qualitative study in Tennessee. Libri, 67, 245–260. 

Meyer, J. (2018). Poverty and public library usage in Iowa. Public Library Quarterly, 37, 53-60. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2017.1312193 

McIntosh, C. R. (2013). Library return on investment: Defending the contingent valuation method for public benefits estimation. Library & Information Science Research, 35(2), 117–126. 

Miller, J. (2014). A comparative study of public libraries in Edinburgh and Copenhagen and their potential for social capital creation. Libri, 64(4), 316−326. 

Milton Public Library. (2014, September). The economic impact of the Milton Public Library on the town of Milton. Retrieved from

Morgan, A. U., Dupuis, R., D’Alonzo, B., Johnson, A., Graves, A., Brooks, K. L., . . . & Grande, D. (2016). Beyond books: Public libraries as partners for population health. Health Affairs, 35, 2030-2036. 

Morgan, A. U., Dupuis, R., Whiteman, E. D., D’Alonzo, B., & Cannuscio, C. C. (2017). “Our doors are open to everybody”: Public libraries as common ground for public health. Journal of Urban Health, 94(1), 1-3. 

Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce, The Research Center. (2016, April). Economic impact and contribution analysis: Nashville Public Library. Retrieved from impact-and-contribution_study.pdf 

Neto, A. B. F. (2018). Charity and public libraries: Does government funding crowd out donations? Journal of Cultural Economics, 42, 525-542. 

Neto, A. B. F., & Hall, J. (2017). Economies of Scale and Governance of Library Systems: Evidence from West Virginia (No. 17-13). Retrieved from 

Neuman, S. B., & Moland, N. (2019). Book deserts: The consequences of income segregation on children’s access to print. Urban Education, 54(1), 126-147. 

Newmarket Public Library. (2016). In Federation of Ontario Public Libraries, Recent Ontario public library economic impact studies. Retrieved from ontario-public-library-economic-impact-studies/ 

Noh, Y. (2017). Research on the development of economic value evaluation indices for public libraries. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology, 7(3), 87–111. 

Noh, Y. (2016). A study on the perception of librarians of the impact that libraries have on society. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology, 6(2), 109-147. Also reported in Noh, Y., Lee, K. H., & Choi, S. K. (2018). A study on comparing the perception between librarians and users about libraries’ value. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology, 8(2), 67-100. 

Obal, M. P. (2015). An economic valuation of Marikina City Library using revealed preference methods. Journal of Philippine Librarianship, 35, 1-18.

Oliphant, T. (2014) “I’m a library hugger!”: Public libraries as valued community assets. Public Library Quarterly, 33, 348-361. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2014.970431 

Ottawa Public Library. (2016, November). Check out the benefit: The economic benefits of the Ottawa Public Library. Retrieved from 

Pennecke, S. J. (2018, April 13). ODU study says Norfolk library system's ROI comparable to other cities. Inside Business: The Hampton Roads Business Journal. Retrieved from 3f43-11e8-ba7e-17c1a4518102.html 

Pichova, S., & Stejskal, J. (2015). Return-on-investment of public investments to systems which provide public services-a case study. Retrieved from Also reported in Pichova, S., & Stejskal, J. (2018). The perceived value of public services as a prerequisite for a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of public sector organizations using the Czech Library as an example. In A. Dias, B. Salmelin, D. Pereira, M. S. Dias (Eds.), Modeling Innovation Sustainability and Technologies (pp. 65–75). Springer, Cham. 

Pichova, S., & Stejskal, J. (2018). The perceived value of public services as a prerequisite for a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of public sector organizations using the Czech Library as an example. In A. Dias, B. Salmelin, D. Pereira, M. S. Dias (Eds.), Modeling Innovation Sustainability and Technologies (pp. 65–75). Springer, Cham. 

Pickering Public Library. (2014, November). The economic impact of the Pickering Public Library on the City of Pickering. Retrieved from 

Quick, S., Prior, G., Toombs, B., Taylor, L., & Currenti, R. (2013, March). Cross-European survey to measure users’ perceptions of the benefits of ICT in public libraries. Retrieved from Report%20-%20Cross-European%20Library%20Impact.pdf 

Roig, M. L., & Martínez, R. T. (2013). Return on Investment of Municipal Libraries Network of the Barcelona province (2007-2011). Retrieved from 193-1114-446d-a206-e16172550609 

Ruiu, M. L., & Ragnedda, M. (2016). Between digital inclusion and social equality: The role of public libraries in Newcastle upon Tyne. Library and Information Research, 40(123), 69- 87. 

San Francisco Public Library (2015, September). Reinvesting and renewing for the 21st century: A community and economic benefits study of San Francisco’s Branch Library improvement program. Retrieved from 

SGS Economics and Planning. (2018, May). Libraries work! The socio-economic value of public libraries to Victorians. Retrieved from 

Shepherd, J., Vardy, K., & Wilson, A. (2015). Quantifying patron time-use of a public library. Library Management, 36, 448–461. doi: 

Silk, K. (2014, June 28). Halton Hills Public Library creates over $18 million in total economic impact. Retrieved from creates-over-18-million-in-total-economic-impact/ 

Sin, S. C. J., & Vakkari, P. (2015). Perceived outcomes of public libraries in the US. Library & Information Science Research, 37, 209–219. 

Skarzynski, J., & Nassimbeni, M. (2016). Evaluating the impact of the public library book collection: a case study of two public libraries in Cape Town. South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science, 82(1), 26-35. 

Skelly, L.M. (2014). The Public Library’s Contribution to Economic Growth and Development: A path analysis [Dissertation]. Retrieved from's_contribution_to_economic_growth_and_development_a_path_analysis/download 

Skelly, L., Stilwell, C., & Underwood, P. G. (2015). Correlations between the economy and public library use. The Bottom Line, 28(1/2), 26-33. 

Skot-Hansen, D., Hvenegaard Rasmussen, C., & Jochumsen, H. (2013). The role of public libraries in culture-led urban regeneration. New Library World, 114(1/2), 7-19. 

Stejskal, J., & Hájek, P. (2015). Evaluating the economic value of a public service—the case of the Municipal Library of Prague. Public Money & Management, 35(2), 145–152. 

Stejskal, J., Hájek, P., & Rehak, T. (2016). The economic value of book loans–the case of the Municipal Library of Prague. Libri, 66, 303-311. 

Stratford Public Library. (2015, February). Under the umbrella—Stratford Public Library: SPL’s economic impact. Retrieved from content/uploads/2016/09/UUFebruary2015.pd 

Tessler, A. (2013, January). Economic valuation of the British Library. Retrieved from .pdf

The Research Center Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce. (2017, January). Economic impact and contribution analysis: Williamson County Public Library. Retrieved from

Vakkari, P., Aabø, S., Audunson, R., Huysmans, F., & Oomes, M. (2014). Perceived outcomes of public libraries in Finland, Norway and the Netherlands. Journal of Documentation, 70, 927-944. 

Vakkari, P., Aabø, S., Audunson, R., Huysmans, F., Kwon, N., Oomes, M., & Sin, S. C. J. (2016). Patterns of perceived public library outcomes in five countries. Journal of Documentation, 72, 342-361. 

Vakkari, P. (2014). Models explaining the perceived outcomes of public libraries. Journal of Documentation, 70, 640-657. 

Vancouver Island Regional Library. (2016, July). Assessing the economic impact of Vancouver Island Regional Library on our Member Communities. Retrieved from

Whitacre, B., & Rhinesmith, C. (2015). Public libraries and residential broadband
adoption: Do more computers lead to higher rates? Government Information Quarterly, 32, 164–171.

PEW Research Studies 

Horrigan, J. B. (2016, September 9). Libraries 2016. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Horrigan, J. B. (2015, September 15). Libraries at the crossroads: The public is interested
in new services and thinks libraries are important to communities. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Pew Research Center (2013, January 22). Library services in the digital age: Summary of findings. Retrieved from 

Raine, L. (2016, April 7). Libraries and learning. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from 

Zichur, K., Purcell, K., & Rainie, L. (2014, March 13). From distant admirers to library lovers— and beyond: A typology of public library engagement in America. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from Library-Typology-Report_031314.pdf

ALA, PLA, and OCLC Reports 

American Library Association. (2018). State of America’s libraries report 2018: Public libraries. Retrieved from 2018/public-libraries 

American Library Association. (2017). Libraries Transform year two report: September 1, 2016 to August 31, 2017. Retrieved from year-report-final-revised.pdf 

Project Outcome. (2018, June). Project Outcome: Insights for adopting the model. Retrieved from .pdf 

Project Outcome. (2017). Year in review: 2017 report. Retrieved from year-annual-report-final.pdf 

Project Outcome. (2016). Year in review: 2016 report. Retrieved from 

OCLC and American Library Association. 2018. From Awareness to Funding: Voter Perceptions and Support of Public Libraries in 2018. Dublin, OH: OCLC. 

Global Libraries Initiative Reports 

Al, U., Andrade Blanco, P., Chiranov, M., Cruz Silva, L. M., Devetakova, L. N., Dewata, Y., ... & López Naranjo, A. (2015). Global Libraries impact planning and assessment progress. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16, 109-131. 

Cottrill, J., Letelier, F., Blanco, P. A., García, H., Chiranov, M., Tkachuk, Y., ... & Krauls-Ward, I. (2015). From impact to advocacy: working together toward public library sustainability. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16, 159-176. 

Paley, J., Cottrill, J., Errecart, K., White, A., Schaden, C., Schrag, T., ... & Streatfield, D. (2015). The evolution of global libraries’ performance measurement and impact assessment systems. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16, 132-158. 

Streatfield, D., Andrade Blanco, P., Chiranov, M., Dryžaite, I., Kochanowicz, M., Liubyva, T., & Tkachuk, Y. (2015). Innovative impact planning and assessment through Global Libraries. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16, 177-192. 

Library Valuation Methodology Articles, Books 

Arns, J. W. (2013). Assessing the value of public library services: A review of the literature and meta-analysis (META). Retrieved from 

Ashley, B., & Niblett, V. (2014). Researching the economic contribution of public libraries. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 9(4). Retrieved from 

Becker, S. (2015, September 18). Outcomes, impacts, and indicators. Library Journal. Retrieved from indicators/ 

Calvert, P., & Goulding, A. (2015). Narratives and stories that capture the library’s worth: A qualitative approach to measuring value and impact in New Zealand’s libraries. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16, 276–288. 

Davis, D., & Plagman, E. (2015). Project Outcome: Helping libraries capture their community impact. Public Libraries, 54(4), 33-37.

Dhyrbye, L. H. (n.d.). Trick or treat: Using economic impact analysis in demonstrating value of public libraries. Retrieved from economic-impact-of-public-libraries---afslutning/Artikel2final.pdf 

Egbert, M. (n.d.). Program evaluation [Powerpoint Slides]. Meridian Library District. Retrieved from 

Griffis, M. R. & Johnson, C.A. (2014). Social capital and inclusion in rural public
libraries: A qualitative approach. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 46, 96–109. 

Hoffman, B. (n.d.). Outcome-based evaluation [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from recorded-presentation-slides.pdf 

Huber, J., & Potter, S. (2015). The purpose-based library. Chicago, IL: Neal-Schuman. Institute of Museum & Libraries Services. (n.d.). Outcome based evaluation basics. Retrieved 

Irwin, B., & St-Pierre, P. G. (2014). Creating a culture of meaningful evaluation in public 

libraries: Moving beyond quantitative metrics. SAGE Open, October-December, 1-15. International Standards Organization. (2014). ISO 16439: 2014: Information and documentation —Methods and procedures for assessing the impact of libraries. Geneva: ISO.
Lamont, M. (2017). Using economic data to demonstrate the value of the library. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries, 4(1), 69-75. 

Markless, S., & Streatfield, D. (2014, September 7). Recent developments in library evaluation, statistics and measurement – and why they are important. Retrieved from 

Matthews, J. R. (2017). The evaluation and measurement of library services. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. 

Matthews, J. R. (2016). Adding value to libraries, archives, and museums. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. 

Matthews, J. R. (2015). Assessing outcomes and value: It’s all a matter of perspective. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16, 211–233. 

Matthews, J. R. (2013). Valuing information, information services, and the library: Possibilities and realities. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 13(1), 91-112. 

Micka, T. L. (2013). Demonstrating the value of the public library: Economic valuation and the advocacy imperative. School of Information Student Research Journal, 3(1), 4-18. Retrieved from sredir=1&article=1127&context=slissrj 

Pinto, L. G. (2014). Library performance continuum and the imperative of meta-evaluation. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 15(3), 86-98. 

Pinto, L. G., & Ochôa, P. (2014). Information Society and Library Evaluation Transitions in Portugal: A Meta-evaluation Model and Frameworks (1970–2013). Liber Quarterly, 23), 214–236. 

Public Libraries Connect. (2019). The impact of libraries as creative spaces: Creative spaces impact framework. Retrieved from spaces/creative-spaces-impact-framework 

Pundsack, K. (2014, December17). Inputs, outputs, and outcomes—oh my! Public Libraries Online. Retrieved from outcomes-oh-my/ 

Ryan, P., & Cole, B. (2016). Public Libraries. In D. Koufogiannakis & A. Brettle (Eds.), Being evidence based in library and information practice (pp. 105-119). London: Facet Publishing. 

Scottish Library and Information Council. (2015). How good is our public library service?: A public library improvement model for Scotland. Retrieved from 

Stilwell, C. (2016). The public library as institutional capital: towards measures for addressing social inclusion and combating poverty. Information Development, 32(1), 44-59. 

Tenopir, C. (2013). Building evidence of the value and impact of library and information services: methods, metrics and ROI. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 8, 270-274. doi: 

Urquhart, C., & Tbaishat, D. (2016). Reflections on the value and impact of library and information services: Part 3: Towards an assessment culture. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 17(1), 29-44 doi: 

Urquhart, C., & Turner, J. (2016). Reflections on the value and impact of library and information services: Part 2: Impact assessment. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 17(1), 5-28. doi: 

Urquhart, C. (2015). Reflections on the value and impact of library and information services: Part 1: Value identification and value creation. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16(1), 86-102. doi: 

Commentary on New/Current Directions for Public Library Valuation: 

Arts Council England. (2013a). Envisioning the library of the future: Phase 3: Understanding what people value about libraries. Retrieved from resilience/envisioning-library-future#section-6 

Arts Council England. (2013b). Envisioning the library of the future: Phases 1 & 2 full report. Retrieved from future#section-6 

Coalition for Networked Information. (2013, August 24). The transformation of the public library—Access to digital information in a networked world: Public libraries in the information age. Retrieved from library 

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport. (2017, March 28). Guidance—Libraries shaping the future: good practice toolkit. Retrieved from toolkit/libraries-shaping-the-future-good-practice-toolkit 

Depriest, M. J. (2016). Removing barriers to access: Eliminating fines and fees on children’s materials. Colorado State Library. Retrieved from 

Du, Y. (2016). Small libraries, big impact: How to better serve your community in the digital age. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. 

Farkas, M. G. (2013). Building and sustaining a culture of assessment: Best practices for change leadership. Library Faculty Publications and Presentations [originally published in Reference Services Review, 41(1), 13‐31. doi]. Retrieved from 

Field, N., & Tran, R. (2018). Reinventing the public value of libraries. Public Library Quarterly, 37, 113-126. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2017.1422174 

Garmer, A. K. (2014, October). Rising to the challenge: Re-envisioning public libraries. Aspen Institute Dialogue on Public Libraries. Retrieved from 

Goldman, M. (2018). Strategies for sustainable funding: A metadata review of the independent library district model. Public Library Quarterly, 37, 139-149. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2018.1456889 

Gustina, M. (2018, April 18). Critical optimism: Reimagining rural communities through libraries. In the Library with the Lead Pipe. Retrieved from 

Hildreth, S., & Sullivan, M. (2015). Rising to the challenge: Re-Envisioning public libraries. Journal of Library Administration, 55, 647-657. doi: 10.1080/01930826.2015.1085247 

IDEO. (2015). Design thinking for libraries: A toolkit for patron-centered design. Retrieved from 

IDEO. (2015b). Design thinking for libraries activities workbook: A toolkit for patron-centered design. Retrieved from 

IDEO. (2015c). Design thinking in a day: An at-a-glance guide for advancing your library. Retrieved from 

Irwin, B., & Silk, K. (2019). Changing stakeholder expectations of library value. Public Library Quarterly, 38, ___. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2019.1571398 

Jaeger, P. T., Gorham, U., Bertot, J. C., & Sarin, L. C. (2013). Democracy, neutrality, and value demonstration in the age of austerity. The Library Quarterly, 83, 368-382. 

Janes, J. (Ed.). (2013). Library 2020: Today’s leading visionaries describe tomorrow’s library. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 

Kajberg, L. (2018) Re-visiting Paul Wasserman’s The New Librarianship: A Challenge for 15 
Gilpin, G, Karger, E. & Nen, K.A. The Returns to Public Library Investment (REVISED July 2021). Working Paper, No. 2021-06, April 2021 
Change. Public Library Quarterly, 37, 375-386. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2018.1511963 

Knight Foundation. (2017, March). Developing clarity: Innovation in library systems. Retrieved from https://kf-site- ation_Report_final.pdf 

Lankes, R. D. (2016). The new librarianship field guide. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 

Libraries Taskforce. (2016). Libraries deliver: Ambition for public libraries in England 2016- 2021. (London: CILIP). Retrieved from data/file/579207/Libraries_Deliver_- _Ambition_for_Public_Libraries_in_England_2016_to_2021__accessible_version_.pdf 

Margolis, M. (2014). The library story: A strategic storytelling toolkit for public libraries. Get Storied. Retrieved from content/uploads/2014/12/PA_StorytellingTOOLKIT.pdf 

Marx, A. W. (2017, Dec. 18). The case against library fines—According to the head of The New York Public Library. Retrieved from fines-according-to-the-head-of-the-new-york-public-library/ 

Matthews, J. R. (2019). The fragile future of the public library: A disaster or an opportunity. Public Library Quarterly, 38, ___. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2019.1565797 

Matthews, J. R. (2018). Evolution—But at what speed? Public Library Quarterly, 37, 355. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2018.1541127 

Matthews, J. R. (2018). Management frameworks and the broader perspective. Public Library Quarterly, 37, 263-278. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2017.1399764 

Matthews, J. R. (2018). The challenges of goodness and value. Public Library Quarterly, 37, 229-232. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2018.1507194 

Matthews, J. R. (2018). Today’s future is not the same as tomorrow’s future. Public Library Quarterly, 37, 111-112. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2018.1462074 

McDonald, C. G. (2014). Putting the user first: 30 strategies for transforming library services. Chicago, IL : Association of College and Research Libraries.

Netherlands Institute for Public Libraries. (2014, January). The library of the future: Hub for knowledge, contact and culture. The Hague. Retrieved from 

Palfrey, J. G. (2015). BiblioTech: Why libraries matter more than ever in the age of Google. New York, NY: Basic Books. 

Real, B., & Rose, R. N. (2018). Rural public libraries in America: Continuing and
impending challenges. In B. Real (Ed.), Rural and small public libraries: Challenges and opportunities, Advances in Librarianship, 43, 37–59. UK: Emerald Publishing Limited. 

Schmidt, A., & Etches, A. (2014). Useful, usable, desirable: Applying user experience design to your library. Chicago, IL: ALA Editions. 

Scottish Library and Information Council, &Carnegie Trust. (2015). Ambition and opportunity: A strategy for public libraries in Scotland, 2015-2020. Retrieved from library-strategy.pdf 

Smith, M. (2019). Top ten challenges facing public libraries. Public Library Quarterly. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2019.1608617 

Smith, S. A. (2014). The future of small rural public libraries in America: A report
prepared for the Board of the Langlois Public Library. Public Library Quarterly, 33, 83– 85. doi: 10.1080/01616846.2013.848138 

Starker, R. (2017). Transforming libraries: A toolkit for innovators, makers, and seekers. Irvine, CA: EdTech Team Press. 

Swan, D. W., Grimes, J., & Owens, T. (2013, September). The state of small and rural libraries in the United States. Research Brief No. 5. Washington, DC: Institute of Museum and Library Services. Retrieved from 

Urban Libraries Council. (2016). Leadership brief: Building connected communities. Retrieved from Communities.pdf 
Wilansky, L. S. (2017, July 21). Five lessons for libraries looking to innovate in the 21st century. Retrieved from innovate-in-the-21st-century 

Public Libraries and Social Capital 

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